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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089757/disorazoles-block-group-a-streptococcal-invasion-into-epithelial-cells-via-interference-with-the-host-factor-ezrin
#1
Katharina Rox, Manfred Rohde, Gursharan Singh Chhatwal, Rolf Müller
Bacterial pathogens use invasion into human cells as a strategy to escape not only the host's immune response, but also anti-bacterial treatment. This often leads to persistence and enables reinitiation of the infection process at a later time point. Here, we show that a family of myxobacterial metabolites, disorazoles, block invasion of group A Streptococcus (GAS) into human epithelial cells. Mechanistically, disorazoles target ezrin, a host protein involved in linking microfilaments to the membrane, and affect invasion most likely by interfering with dynamic phosphorylation of ezrin...
January 5, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089399/a-mass-balance-model-to-estimate-the-rate-of-composting-methane-oxidation-and-anaerobic-digestion-in-soil-covers-and-shallow-waste-layers
#2
Reza Rafiee, Lizanne Obersky, Sihuang Xie, William P Clarke
Although CH4 oxidation in landfill soil covers is widely studied, the extent of composting and CH4 oxidation in underlying waste layers has been speculated but not measured. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a mass balance model to estimate the simultaneous rates of anaerobic digestion (rAD), CH4 oxidation (rOX) and composting (rCOM) in environments where O2 penetration is variable and zones of aerobic and anaerobic activity are intermingled. The modelled domain could include, as an example, a soil cover and the underlying shallow waste to a nominated depth...
January 12, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035495/molecular-cloning-phylogenetic-analysis-and-expression-patterns-of-lateral-suppressor-like-and-regulator-of-axillary-meristem-formation-like-genes-in-sunflower-helianthus-annuus-l
#3
Marco Fambrini, Mariangela Salvini, Claudio Pugliesi
The wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants develop a highly branched form with numerous small flowering heads. The origin of a no branched sunflower, producing a single large head, has been a key event in the domestication process of this species. The interaction between hormonal factors and several genes organizes the initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems (AMs). From sunflower, we have isolated two genes putatively involved in this process, LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (LS)-LIKE (Ha-LSL) and REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEM FORMATION (ROX)-LIKE (Ha-ROXL), encoding for a GRAS and a bHLH transcription factor (TF), respectively...
December 29, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007166/comparative-cytotoxicity-of-fourteen-trivalent-and-pentavalent-arsenic-species-determined-using-real-time-cell-sensing
#4
Birget Moe, Hanyong Peng, Xiufen Lu, Baowei Chen, Lydia W L Chen, Stephan Gabos, Xing-Fang Li, X Chris Le
The occurrence of a large number of diverse arsenic species in the environment and in biological systems makes it important to compare their relative toxicity. The toxicity of arsenic species has been examined in various cell lines using different assays, making comparison difficult. We report real-time cell sensing of two human cell lines to examine the cytotoxicity of fourteen arsenic species: arsenite (As(III)), monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) originating from the oxide and iodide forms, dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)), dimethylarsinic glutathione (DMAG(III)), phenylarsine oxide (PAO(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), monomethyltrithioarsonate (MMTTA(V)), dimethylmonothioarsinate (DMMTA(V)), dimethyldithioarsinate (DMDTA(V)), 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone, Rox), and 4-aminobenzenearsenic acid (p-arsanilic acid, p-ASA)...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006942/propofol-induced-mitochondrial-and-contractile-dysfunction-of-the-rat-ventricular-myocardium
#5
M Grundmanová, D Jarkovská, A Süß, Z Tůma, M Marková, Z Grundman, A El-Kadi, M Čedíková, M Štengl, J Kuncová
Propofol is a short-acting hypnotic agent used in human medicine for sedation and general anesthesia. Its administration can be associated with serious cardiovascular side-effects that include decrease in arterial blood pressure and cardiac output. The aim of the present study was to evaluate propofol effects on mitochondrial respiration, myocardial contractility and electrophysiology in the same samples isolated from the heart ventricles of adult rats. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption was measured in permeabilized samples dissected from free walls of both ventricles using high-resolution respirometry...
December 22, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003251/effect-of-arteriovenous-anastomosis-on-blood-pressure-reduction-in-patients-with-isolated-systolic-hypertension-compared-with-combined-hypertension
#6
Christian Ott, Melvin D Lobo, Paul A Sobotka, Felix Mahfoud, Alice Stanton, John Cockcroft, Neil Sulke, Eamon Dolan, Markus van der Giet, Joachim Hoyer, Stephen S Furniss, John P Foran, Adam Witkowski, Andrzej Januszewicz, Danny Schoors, Konstantinos Tsioufis, Benno J Rensing, Manish Saxena, Benjamin Scott, G André Ng, Stephan Achenbach, Roland E Schmieder
BACKGROUND: Options for interventional therapy to lower blood pressure (BP) in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension include renal denervation and the creation of an arteriovenous anastomosis using the ROX coupler. It has been shown that BP response after renal denervation is greater in patients with combined hypertension (CH) than in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH). We analyzed the effect of ROX coupler implantation in patients with CH as compared with ISH...
December 21, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997018/biomedical-optics-centers-forty-years-of-multidisciplinary-clinical-translation-for-improving-human-health
#7
Bruce J Tromberg, R Rox Anderson, Reginald Birngruber, Ralf Brinkmann, Michael W Berns, John A Parrish, Gabriela Apiou-Sbirlea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995349/the-essential-drosophila-clamp-protein-differentially-regulates-non-coding-rox-rnas-in-male-and-females
#8
Jennifer A Urban, Caroline A Doherty, William T Jordan, Jacob E Bliss, Jessica Feng, Marcela M Soruco, Leila E Rieder, Maria A Tsiarli, Erica N Larschan
Heterogametic species require chromosome-wide gene regulation to compensate for differences in sex chromosome gene dosage. In Drosophila melanogaster, transcriptional output from the single male X-chromosome is equalized to that of XX females by recruitment of the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex, which increases transcript levels of active genes 2-fold. The MSL complex contains several protein components and two non-coding RNA on the X ( roX) RNAs that are transcriptionally activated by the MSL complex. We previously discovered that targeting of the MSL complex to the X-chromosome is dependent on the chromatin-linked adapter for MSL proteins (CLAMP) zinc finger protein...
December 19, 2016: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916881/optimization-of-cyanine-dye-stability-and-analysis-of-fret-interaction-on-dna-microarrays
#9
Marcel von der Haar, Christopher Heuer, Martin Pähler, Kathrin von der Haar, Patrick Lindner, Thomas Scheper, Frank Stahl
The application of DNA microarrays for high throughput analysis of genetic regulation is often limited by the fluorophores used as markers. The implementation of multi-scan techniques is limited by the fluorophores' susceptibility to photobleaching when exposed to the scanner laser light. This paper presents combined mechanical and chemical strategies which enhance the photostability of cyanine 3 and cyanine 5 as part of solid state DNA microarrays. These strategies are based on scanning the microarrays while the hybridized DNA is still in an aqueous solution with the presence of a reductive/oxidative system (ROXS)...
November 30, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861257/pulmonary-phototherapy-to-treat-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-in-rats
#10
Luca Zazzeron, Chen Liu, Walfre Franco, Akito Nakagawa, William A Farinelli, Donald B Bloch, R Rox Anderson, Warren M Zapol
BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a common cause of poison-related mortality. CO binds to hemoglobin in the blood to form carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), impairing oxygen delivery to peripheral tissues. Current treatment of CO poisoned patients involves oxygen administration to rapidly remove CO and restore oxygen delivery. Light dissociates CO from COHb with high efficiency. Exposure of murine lungs to visible laser-generated light improved the CO elimination rate in vivo. The aims of this study were to apply pulmonary phototherapy to a larger animal model of CO poisoning, to test novel approaches to light delivery, and to examine the effect of chemiluminescence-generated light on the CO elimination rate...
November 16, 2016: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835937/fractional-laser-assisted-topical-delivery-leads-to-enhanced-accelerated-and-deeper-cutaneous-5-fluorouracil-uptake
#11
Emily Wenande, Uffe H Olesen, Mette M B Nielsen, Christian Janfelt, Steen Honoré Hansen, R Rox Anderson, Merete Haedersdal
BACKGROUND: Topical 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) exhibits suboptimal efficacy for non-melanoma skin cancer, attributed to insufficient intracutaneous penetration. This study investigates the impact of ablative fractional laser (AFXL) at different laser-channel depths on cutaneous 5-FU pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. METHODS: In vitro porcine skin underwent AFXL-exposure using a fractional 10,600 nm CO2-laser, generating microscopic ablation zones (MAZ) reaching the dermoepidermal junction (MAZ-ED), superficial-(MAZ-DS), or mid-dermis(MAZ-DM)...
November 28, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814537/phytotoxicity-and-uptake-of-roxarsone-by-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-seedlings
#12
Qing-Long Fu, Lee Blaney, Dong-Mei Zhou
Roxarsone (ROX), the primary aromatic arsenical additive (AAA) used in animal feeding operations, is of increasing concern to environmental and human health due to land application of ROX-laden animal manure. Few studies have investigated the phytotoxicity, uptake mechanisms, and speciation of AAA in crop plants. In this study, wheat seedlings were employed to address these issues under hydroponic conditions. Compared to inorganic arsenic, ROX was less toxic to wheat root elongation. Wheat roots were more sensitive to ROX stress than shoots...
December 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790904/accumulation-and-transport-of-roxarsone-arsenobetaine-and-inorganic-arsenic-using-the-human-immortalized-caco-2-cell-line
#13
Qingqing Liu, Elaine M Leslie, X Chris Le
Roxarsone (Rox), an organoarsenic compound, served as a feed additive in the poultry industry for more than 60 years. Residual amounts of Rox present in chicken meat could give rise to potential human exposure to Rox. However, studies on the bioavailability of Rox in humans are scarce. We report here the accumulation and transepithelial transport of Rox using the human colon-derived adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2) model. The cellular accumulation and transepithelial passage of Rox in Caco-2 cells were evaluated and compared to those of arsenobetaine (AsB), arsenite (As(III)), and arsenate (As(V))...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772542/training-the-next-generation-of-innovators%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-dermatology
#14
Shuai Xu, James Allred, Brandon Kirsch, Adam Raff, R Rox Anderson, William Ju
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746809/nitrogen-fertilizer-management-for-enhancing-crop-productivity-and-nitrogen-use-efficiency-in-a-rice-oilseed-rape-rotation-system-in-china
#15
Muhammad Yousaf, Xiaokun Li, Zhi Zhang, Tao Ren, Rihuan Cong, Syed Tahir Ata-Ul-Karim, Shah Fahad, Adnan N Shah, Jianwei Lu
The use of efficient rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application is important with regard to increasing crop productivity and maintaining environmental sustainability. Rice-oilseed rape rotations are a mainstay of the economy and food security of China. Therefore, a field experiment was carried out during 2011-2013 in Honghu to identify the most appropriate N application rates for enhancing crop productivity and N use efficiency for rice (Oryza sativa L.)-oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) rotations. Six N fertilizer treatments (RO1, RO2, RO3, RO4, RO5, and RO6) were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695270/bioactivity-of-diterpens-from-the-ethyl-acetate-extract-of-kingiodendron-pinnatum-rox-hams
#16
Komal Kumar Javarappa, Attemode Girijanna Devi Prasad, A J Mahadesh Prasad, Chetana Mane
BACKGROUND: Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. is an endangered medicinal plant used in gonorrhoe, catarrhal conditions of genito-urinary and respiratory tracts. The scientific and pharmacological formulation of K. pinnatum has not been established so far though it is being traditionally used by tribes of the region. OBJECTIVE: P hytochemical screening and identification of the bioactive compounds from the ethyl acetate extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508800/-op-lb-02-04-central-iliac-arteriovenous-anastomosis-for-uncontrolled-hypertension-12-month-follow-up-results-of-the-rox-control-htn-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
M Lobo, M Saxena, P A Sobotka, C Ott, E Dolan, J Foran, S S Furniss, J Cockcroft, M Van Der Giet, J Hoyer, A Januszewicz, G A Ng, B Rensing, B Scott, D Schoors, A Stanton, N Sulke, C Tsioufis, A Witkowski, R E Schmieder
OBJECTIVE: Creation of a central iliac arteriovenous (AV) anastomosis using a novel nitinol coupler device results in an immediate, significant reduction of blood pressure (BP). We present efficacy and safety findings at 12 months post coupler insertion, extending the initial 6 month primary endpoint report (Lancet 2015). DESIGN AND METHOD: This open-label, multicentre, prospective, randomised trial, enrolled patients with a baseline office systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140 mmHg, average daytime ambulatory SBP > 135 mmHg, and ambulatory diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > 85 mmHg...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444945/discovery-of-nigri-nox-and-panto-pox-site-specific-recombinase-systems-facilitates-advanced-genome-engineering
#18
Madina Karimova, Victoria Splith, Janet Karpinski, M Teresa Pisabarro, Frank Buchholz
Precise genome engineering is instrumental for biomedical research and holds great promise for future therapeutic applications. Site-specific recombinases (SSRs) are valuable tools for genome engineering due to their exceptional ability to mediate precise excision, integration and inversion of genomic DNA in living systems. The ever-increasing complexity of genome manipulations and the desire to understand the DNA-binding specificity of these enzymes are driving efforts to identify novel SSR systems with unique properties...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388214/the-contribution-of-vascular-and-extra-vascular-water-pathways-to-drought-induced-decline-of-leaf-hydraulic-conductance
#19
Patrizia Trifiló, Fabio Raimondo, Tadeja Savi, Maria A Lo Gullo, Andrea Nardini
Drought stress can impair leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf), but the relative contribution of changes in the efficiency of the vein xylem water pathway and in the mesophyll route outside the xylem in driving the decline of Kleaf is still debated. We report direct measurements of dehydration-induced changes in the hydraulic resistance (R=1/K) of whole leaf (Rleaf), as well as of the leaf xylem (Rx) and extra-vascular pathways (Rox) in four Angiosperm species. Rleaf, Rx, and Rox were measured using the vacuum chamber method (VCM)...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27369379/combination-probes-with-intercalating-anchors-and-proximal-fluorophores-for-dna-and-rna-detection
#20
Jieqiong Qiu, Adam Wilson, Afaf H El-Sagheer, Tom Brown
A new class of modified oligonucleotides (combination probes) has been designed and synthesised for use in genetic analysis and RNA detection. Their chemical structure combines an intercalating anchor with a reporter fluorophore on the same thymine nucleobase. The intercalator (thiazole orange or benzothiazole orange) provides an anchor, which upon hybridisation of the probe to its target becomes fluorescent and simultaneously stabilizes the duplex. The anchor is able to communicate via FRET to a proximal reporter dye (e...
September 30, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
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