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Muhammad Yousaf, Xiaokun Li, Zhi Zhang, Tao Ren, Rihuan Cong, Syed Tahir Ata-Ul-Karim, Shah Fahad, Adnan N Shah, Jianwei Lu
The use of efficient rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application is important with regard to increasing crop productivity and maintaining environmental sustainability. Rice-oilseed rape rotations are a mainstay of the economy and food security of China. Therefore, a field experiment was carried out during 2011-2013 in Honghu to identify the most appropriate N application rates for enhancing crop productivity and N use efficiency for rice (Oryza sativa L.)-oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) rotations. Six N fertilizer treatments (RO1, RO2, RO3, RO4, RO5, and RO6) were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Komal Kumar Javarappa, Attemode Girijanna Devi Prasad, A J Mahadesh Prasad, Chetana Mane
BACKGROUND: Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. is an endangered medicinal plant used in gonorrhoe, catarrhal conditions of genito-urinary and respiratory tracts. The scientific and pharmacological formulation of K. pinnatum has not been established so far though it is being traditionally used by tribes of the region. OBJECTIVE: P hytochemical screening and identification of the bioactive compounds from the ethyl acetate extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
M Lobo, M Saxena, P A Sobotka, C Ott, E Dolan, J Foran, S S Furniss, J Cockcroft, M Van Der Giet, J Hoyer, A Januszewicz, G A Ng, B Rensing, B Scott, D Schoors, A Stanton, N Sulke, C Tsioufis, A Witkowski, R E Schmieder
OBJECTIVE: Creation of a central iliac arteriovenous (AV) anastomosis using a novel nitinol coupler device results in an immediate, significant reduction of blood pressure (BP). We present efficacy and safety findings at 12 months post coupler insertion, extending the initial 6 month primary endpoint report (Lancet 2015). DESIGN AND METHOD: This open-label, multicentre, prospective, randomised trial, enrolled patients with a baseline office systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140 mmHg, average daytime ambulatory SBP > 135 mmHg, and ambulatory diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > 85 mmHg...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Madina Karimova, Victoria Splith, Janet Karpinski, M Teresa Pisabarro, Frank Buchholz
Precise genome engineering is instrumental for biomedical research and holds great promise for future therapeutic applications. Site-specific recombinases (SSRs) are valuable tools for genome engineering due to their exceptional ability to mediate precise excision, integration and inversion of genomic DNA in living systems. The ever-increasing complexity of genome manipulations and the desire to understand the DNA-binding specificity of these enzymes are driving efforts to identify novel SSR systems with unique properties...
2016: Scientific Reports
Patrizia Trifiló, Fabio Raimondo, Tadeja Savi, Maria A Lo Gullo, Andrea Nardini
Drought stress can impair leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf), but the relative contribution of changes in the efficiency of the vein xylem water pathway and in the mesophyll route outside the xylem in driving the decline of Kleaf is still debated. We report direct measurements of dehydration-induced changes in the hydraulic resistance (R=1/K) of whole leaf (Rleaf), as well as of the leaf xylem (Rx) and extra-vascular pathways (Rox) in four Angiosperm species. Rleaf, Rx, and Rox were measured using the vacuum chamber method (VCM)...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jieqiong Qiu, Adam Wilson, Afaf H El-Sagheer, Tom Brown
A new class of modified oligonucleotides (combination probes) has been designed and synthesised for use in genetic analysis and RNA detection. Their chemical structure combines an intercalating anchor with a reporter fluorophore on the same thymine nucleobase. The intercalator (thiazole orange or benzothiazole orange) provides an anchor, which upon hybridisation of the probe to its target becomes fluorescent and simultaneously stabilizes the duplex. The anchor is able to communicate via FRET to a proximal reporter dye (e...
September 30, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Jian Chen, Barry P Rosen
Microbes play a critical role in the global arsenic biogeocycle. Most studies have focused on redox cycling of inorganic arsenic in bacteria and archaea. The parallel cycles of organoarsenical biotransformations are less well characterized. Here we describe organoarsenical biotransformations in the environmental microbe Shewanella putrefaciens. Under aerobic growth conditions, S. putrefaciens reduced the herbicide MSMA (methylarsenate or MAs(V)) to methylarsenite (MAs(III)). Even though it does not contain an arsI gene, which encodes the ArsI C-As lyase, S...
August 2, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Nicholas W Plummer, Jacqueline de Marchena, Patricia Jensen
Engrailed 1 (En1) is a homeobox-containing transcription factor expressed during development in diverse tissues, including the embryonic midbrain and anterior hindbrain. To facilitate investigation of genetic and developmental heterogeneity among cells with a history of En1 expression, we have generated En1(Dre) , a knock-in allele expressing Dre recombinase. En1(Dre) can be used with existing Cre and Flp recombinase lines for genetic intersectional labeling, fate mapping, and functional manipulation of subpopulations of cells characterized by transient expression of En1...
August 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Joshua Tam, Ying Wang, Linh N Vuong, Jeremy M Fisher, William A Farinelli, R Rox Anderson
In addition to providing a physical barrier, skin also serves a diverse range of physiological functions through different specialized resident cell types/structures, including melanocytes (pigmentation and protection against ultraviolet radiation), Langerhans cells (adaptive immunity), fibroblasts (maintaining extracellular matrix, paracrine regulation of keratinocytes), sweat glands (thermoregulation) and hair follicles (hair growth, sensation and a stem cell reservoir). Restoration of these functional elements has been a long-standing challenge in efforts to engineer skin tissue, while autologous skin grafting is limited by the scarcity of donor site skin and morbidity caused by skin harvesting...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Qing-Long Fu, Jian-Zhou He, Lee Blaney, Dong-Mei Zhou
Elevated roxarsone (ROX) concentrations in soils, caused by land application of ROX-bearing poultry litter, mandate investigation of ROX sorption onto soils. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of ROX sorption onto five soils were carried out to explore the relationship between sorption parameters and soil properties, and to reveal the effects of coexisting humic acid (HA), P(V), As(V), and As(III) on ROX transport. Experimental results indicated that ROX sorption reached equilibrium within 24 h, with pseudo-second order rate constants of 5...
September 2016: Chemosphere
Lixian Yao, Lianxi Huang, Zhaohuan He, Changmin Zhou, Weisheng Lu, Cuihua Bai
Roxarsone (ROX), a widely used feed additive, occurs as itself and its metabolites in animal manure. Rice is prone to accumulate As than other staple food. Four diets with 0, 40, 80 and 120mgROXkg(-1) were fed in chickens, and four chicken manures (CMs) were collected to fertilize rice plants in a soil culture experiment. Linear regression analysis shows that the slopes of As species including 4-hydroxy-phenylarsonic acid, As(V), As(III), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in CM versus dietary ROX were 0...
October 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jin-Biao Lin, Shoujun Yuan, Wei Wang, Zhen-Hu Hu, Han-Qing Yu
Roxarsone (ROX) and arsanilic acid (ASA) have been extensively used as organoarsenic animal feed additives. Organic arsenic compounds and their degradation products, arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)), exist in the effluent from anaerobic reactors treating animal manure contaminated by ROX or ASA with ammonium (NH4(+)-N) and phosphate (PO4(3-)-P) together. Therefore, arsenic species in the effluent might be involved in the struvite formation process. In this study, the involvement of organic arsenic compounds and their degradation products As(V) and As(III) in the struvite crystallization was investigated...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
M E Aucamp, C Csongradi, M Gerber, J Du Plessis
A novel HPLC method with UV detection for the identification and quantification of roxithromycin (ROX) during in vitro skin penetration studies has been developed and validated. The method proved to be simple and rapid with isocratic elution (flow rate: 1.0 mL/min) of ROX, using a C18 column and UV detection at 205 nm. The mobile phase consisted of 0.06 M potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate buffer (pH adjusted to 7.4 with sodium hydroxide) and acetonitrile in a 50:50 (v/v) ratio. This method showed linearity across the concentration range of 5 - 1000 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0...
April 2016: Die Pharmazie
Betty Yu, Soo-Young Kang, Ariya Akthakul, Nithin Ramadurai, Morgan Pilkenton, Alpesh Patel, Amir Nashat, Daniel G Anderson, Fernanda H Sakamoto, Barbara A Gilchrest, R Rox Anderson, Robert Langer
We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation...
August 2016: Nature Materials
JingJing Zhang, Zengmei Li, Shancang Zhao, Yi Lu
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a common toxin found in many foods. While AFB1 sensors have been reported, few studies have shown amplified detection with tunable dynamic ranges. We herein report a simple and highly sensitive amplified aptamer-based fluorescent sensor for AFB1, which relies on the ability of nano-graphene oxide (GO) to protect aptamers from nuclease cleavage for amplified detection and on the nanometer size effect of GO to tune the dynamic range and sensitivity. The assay was performed by simply mixing the carboxyl-X-rhodamine (ROX)-labeled AFB1 aptamer, the GO, the nuclease, and the AFB1 samples...
June 20, 2016: Analyst
Qiong Guo, Zhi-Jian Shi, Jia-Li Xu, Chen-Chen Yang, Mei Huang, Man-Ling Shi, Ren-Cun Jin
To facilitate the application of partial nitritation (PN) - anaerobic ammonium oxidation process in nitrogen removal from livestock wastewater, the inhibition of roxithromycin (ROX) and Cu(II) on the PN sludge was examined using a respirometric method. The results showed that the IC50 of ROX and Cu(II) on PN sludge were 346 and 74.3mgL(-1), respectively. The relative specific respiration rate (SRR) of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) decreased from 87.4% to 17.7% with the ROX concentration increased from 0 to 500mgL(-1)...
August 2016: Bioresource Technology
Qing-Long Fu, Jian-Zhou He, Lee Blaney, Dong-Mei Zhou
The fate and transport of roxarsone (ROX), a widely used organoarsenic feed additive, in soil is significantly influenced by the ubiquitous presence of soil-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM). In this study, fluorescence quenching titration and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) were employed to study ROX binding to DOM. Binding mechanisms were revealed by fluorescence lifetime measurement and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Humic- and protein-like fluorophores were identified in the excitation-emission matrix and synchronous fluorescence spectra of DOM...
July 2016: Chemosphere
Molly Wanner, Fernanda H Sakamoto, Mathew M Avram, Henry H Chan, Murad Alam, Zeina Tannous, R Rox Anderson
Clinical endpoints are immediate or early tissue reactions that occur during laser treatment. They can guide the laser surgeon in delivering safe and effective laser treatment. Some endpoints act as warning signs of injury to the skin; others can indicate a therapeutic response. The first article in this series reviewed undesirable and warning endpoints, and this article focuses on desirable and therapeutic endpoints and their underlying mechanisms in laser surgery. We will also review treatments without clinical endpoints...
May 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Molly Wanner, Fernanda H Sakamoto, Mathew M Avram, R Rox Anderson
Lasers are versatile, commonly used treatment tools in dermatology. While it is tempting to follow manufacturer's guidelines or other "recipes" for laser treatment, this approach alone can be a recipe for disaster. Specific and immediate skin responses or endpoints exist and are clinically useful because they correlate with underlying mechanisms that are either desirable (ie, therapeutic), undesirable (ie, warning signs of injury or side effects), or incidental. The observation of clinical endpoints is a safe and reliable guide for appropriate treatment...
May 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Ying Wang, Enoch Gutierrez-Herrera, Antonio Ortega-Martinez, Richard Rox Anderson, Walfre Franco
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Molecules native to tissue that fluoresce upon light excitation can serve as reporters of cellular activity and protein structure. In skin, the fluorescence ascribed to tryptophan is a marker of cellular proliferation, whereas the fluorescence ascribed to cross-links of collagen is a structural marker. In this work, we introduce and demonstrate a simple but robust optical method to image the functional process of epithelialization and the exposed dermal collagen in wound healing of human skin in an organ culture model...
September 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
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