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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911307/a-high-cholesterol-diet-increases-27-hydroxycholesterol-and-modifies-estrogen-receptor-expression-and-neurodegeneration-in-rabbit-hippocampus
#1
Sylwia W Brooks, Ava C Dykes, Bernard G Schreurs
Hypercholesterolemia has been implicated in numerous health problems from cardiovascular disease to neurodegeneration. High serum cholesterol levels in midlife have been associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) later in life which suggests that the pathways leading to AD pathology might be activated decades before the symptoms of the disease are detected. Cholesterol-fed animals, particularly cholesterol-fed rabbits, exhibit brain pathology similar to the changes found in brains of AD patients...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910862/methylphenidate-enhances-early-stage-sensory-processing-and-rodent-performance-of-a-visual-signal-detection-task
#2
Rachel L Navarra, Brian D Clark, Andrew T Gargiulo, Barry D Waterhouse
Methylphenidate (MPH) is used clinically to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and off-label as a performance enhancing agent in healthy individuals. MPH enhances catecholamine transmission via blockade of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) reuptake transporters. However, it is not clear how this action impacts neural circuits performing cognitive and sensorimotor functions driving performance enhancement. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) is the primary thalamic relay for visual information from the retina to the cortex and is densely innervated by NE-containing fibers from the locus coeruleus (LC), a pathway known to modulate state-dependent sensory processing...
December 2, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910773/giant-oyster-mushroom-pleurotus-giganteus-agaricomycetes-enhances-adipocyte-differentiation-and-glucose-uptake-via-activation-of-ppar%C3%AE-and-glucose-transporters-1-and-4-in-3t3-l1-cells
#3
Puvaneswari Paravamsivam, Chua Kek Heng, Sri Nurestri Abdul Malek, Vikineswary Sabaratnam, Ravishankar Ram M, Umah Rani Kuppusamy
The edible mushroom Pleurotus giganteus was tested for its effect on adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake activity in 3T3-L1 cells. The basidiocarps of P. giganteus were soaked in methanol to obtain a crude methanol extract and then fractionated to obtain an ethyl acetate extract. In this study, cell proliferation was measured using an MTT assay, lipid accumulation using an Oil Red O assay, and glucose uptake using a fluorescence glucose uptake assay. Gene expression was measured via real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis with TaqMan primer...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910608/x-ray-transport-and-radiation-response-assessment-xtrra-experiments-at-the-national-ignition-facility
#4
K B Fournier, C G Brown, M F Yeoman, J H Fisher, S W Seiler, D Hinshelwood, S Compton, F R Holdener, G E Kemp, C D Newlander, R P Gilliam, N Froula, M Lilly, J F Davis, Maj A Lerch, B E Blue
Our team has developed an experimental platform to evaluate the x-ray-generated stress and impulse in materials. Experimental activities include x-ray source development, design of the sample mounting hardware and sensors interfaced to the National Ignition Facility's diagnostics insertion system, and system integration into the facility. This paper focuses on the X-ray Transport and Radiation Response Assessment (XTRRA) test cassettes built for these experiments. The test cassette is designed to position six samples at three predetermined distances from the source, each known to within ±1% accuracy...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910575/measurement-of-the-internal-magnetic-fluctuation-by-the-transport-of-runaways-on-j-text
#5
Z Y Chen, D W Huang, R H Tong, W Yan, Y N Wei, T K Ma, Z H Jiang, X Q Zhang, Z P Chen, Z J Yang, G Zhuang
The measurement of internal magnetic fluctuation is important for the study of transport in tokamak plasmas. The runaway electron transport induced by the sawtooth crash can be used to obtain the internal magnetic fluctuation. Inversed sawtooth-like activities on hard x-ray (HXR) fluxes following sawtooth activities were observed after the application of electrode biasing on J-TEXT tokamak. The runaway diffusion coefficient Dr is deduced to be about 30 m(2)/s according to the time delay of HXR flux peaks to the sawtooth crashes...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910573/polycapillary-lenses-for-soft-x-ray-transmission-in-iter-model-comparison-with-experiments-and-potential-application
#6
D Mazon, C Liegeard, A Jardin, R Barnsley, M Walsh, M O'Mullane, A Sirinelli, F Dorchies
Measuring Soft X-Ray (SXR) radiation [0.1 keV; 15 keV] in tokamaks is a standard way of extracting valuable information on the particle transport and magnetohydrodynamic activity. Generally, the analysis is performed with detectors positioned close to the plasma for a direct line of sight. A burning plasma, like the ITER deuterium-tritium phase, is too harsh an environment to permit the use of such detectors in close vicinity of the machine. We have thus investigated in this article the possibility of using polycapillary lenses in ITER to transport the SXR information several meters away from the plasma in the complex port-plug geometry...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910358/a-recoverable-gas-cell-diagnostic-for-the-national-ignition-facility
#7
A Ratkiewicz, L Berzak Hopkins, D L Bleuel, L A Bernstein, K van Bibber, W S Cassata, B L Goldblum, S Siem, C A Velsko, M Wiedeking, C B Yeamans
The high-fluence neutron spectrum produced by the National Ignition Facility (NIF) provides an opportunity to measure the activation of materials by fast-spectrum neutrons. A new large-volume gas-cell diagnostic has been designed and qualified to measure the activation of gaseous substances at the NIF. This in-chamber diagnostic is recoverable, reusable and has been successfully fielded. Data from the qualification of the diagnostic have been used to benchmark an Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code simulation describing the downscattered neutron spectrum seen by the gas cell...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909897/nha2-is-expressed-in-distal-nephron-and-regulated-by-dietary-sodium
#8
Kalyan C Kondapalli, R Todd Alexander, Jennifer L Pluznick, Rajini Rao
Increased renal reabsorption of sodium is a significant risk factor in hypertension. An established clinical marker for essential hypertension is elevated sodium lithium countertransport (SLC) activity. NHA2 is a newly identified Na(+)(Li(+))/H(+) antiporter with potential genetic links to hypertension, which has been shown to mediate SLC activity and H(+)-coupled Na(+)(Li(+)) efflux in kidney-derived MDCK cells. To evaluate a putative role in sodium homeostasis, we determined the effect of dietary salt on NHA2...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909743/r59949-a-diacylglycerol-kinase-inhibitor-inhibits-inducible-nitric-oxide-production-through-decreasing-transplasmalemmal-l-arginine-uptake-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#9
Tomoko Shimomura, Tomoyuki Nakano, Kaoru Goto, Ichiro Wakabayashi
Although diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is known to be expressed in vascular smooth muscle cell, its functional significance remains to be clarified. We hypothesized that DGK is involved in the pathway of cytokine-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular smooth muscle cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of R59949, a diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor, on inducible nitric oxide production in vascular smooth muscle cell. Cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) were used to elucidate the effects of R59949 on basal and interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced NO production...
December 1, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909741/the-role-of-epigenetic-modifiers-in-extended-cultures-of-functional-hepatocyte-like-cells-derived-from-human-neonatal-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
M Cipriano, J C Correia, S P Camões, N G Oliveira, P Cruz, H Cruz, M Castro, J L Ruas, J M Santos, J P Miranda
The development of predictive in vitro stem cell-derived hepatic models for toxicological drug screening is an increasingly important topic. Herein, umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hnMSCs) underwent hepatic differentiation using an optimized three-step core protocol of 24 days that mimicked liver embryogenesis with further exposure to epigenetic markers, namely the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA), the cytidine analogue 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909574/characterization-of-5-2-18-f-fluoroethoxy-l-tryptophan-for-pet-imaging-of-the-pancreas
#11
Ahmed Abbas, Christine Beamish, Rebecca McGirr, John Demarco, Neil Cockburn, Dawid Krokowski, Ting-Yim Lee, Michael Kovacs, Maria Hatzoglou, Savita Dhanvantari
Purpose: In diabetes, pancreatic beta cell mass declines significantly prior to onset of fasting hyperglycemia. This decline may be due to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and the system L amino acid transporter LAT1 may be a biomarker of this process. In this study, we used 5-(2- (18)F-fluoroethoxy)-L-tryptophan ( (18)F-L-FEHTP) to target LAT1 as a potential biomarker of beta cell function in diabetes. Procedures: Uptake of (18)F-L-FEHTP was determined in wild-type C57BL/6 mice by ex vivo biodistribution...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909264/global-ablation-of-the-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-increases-glycolysis-in-cortical-neurons-subjected-to-energetic-stressors
#12
Matthew Nichols, Pia A Elustondo, Jordan Warford, Aruloli Thirumaran, Evgeny V Pavlov, George S Robertson
The effects of global mitochondrial calcium (Ca(2+)) uniporter (MCU) deficiency on hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury, neuronal Ca(2+) handling, bioenergetics and hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) were examined. Forebrain mitochondria isolated from global MCU nulls displayed markedly reduced Ca(2+) uptake and Ca(2+)-induced opening of the membrane permeability transition pore. Despite evidence that these effects should be neuroprotective, global MCU nulls and wild-type (WT) mice suffered comparable HI brain damage...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909096/excitatory-hindbrain-forebrain-communication-is-required-for-cisplatin-induced-anorexia-and-weight-loss
#13
Amber L Alhadeff, Ruby A Holland, Huiyuan Zheng, Linda Rinaman, Harvey J Grill, Bart C De Jonghe
: Cisplatin chemotherapy is commonly used to treat cancer despite severe energy balance side effects. In rats, cisplatin activates nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) projections to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN), and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) projections from the lPBN to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We previously demonstrated that CeA glutamate receptor signaling mediates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss. Here, we use neuroanatomical tracing, immunofluorescence and confocal imaging to demonstrate that virtually all NTS→lPBN and lPBN→CeA CGRP projections co-express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), providing evidence that excitatory projections mediate cisplatin-induced energy balance dysregulation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909058/secreted-glioblastoma-nanovesicles-contain-intracellular-signaling-proteins-and-active-ras-incorporated-in-a-farnesylation-dependent-manner
#14
Natalie Luhtala, Aaron Aslanian, John R Yates, Tony Hunter
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are malignant brain tumors with a median survival of less than 18 months. Redundancy of signaling pathways represented within GBMs contributes to their therapeutic resistance. Exosomes are extracellular nanovesicles released from cells and present in human biofluids that represent a possible biomarker of tumor signaling state that could aid in personalized treatment. Herein, we demonstrate that mouse GBM cell-derived extracellular nanovesicles resembling exosomes from an H-RasV12 myr-Akt mouse model for GBM are enriched for intracellular signaling cascade proteins (GO: 0007242) and Ras protein signal transduction (GO: 0007265), and contain active Ras...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908977/physostomous-channel-catfish-ictalurus-punctatus-modify-swimming-mode-and-buoyancy-based-on-flow-conditions
#15
Makoto A Yoshida, Daisuke Yamamoto, Katsufumi Sato
The employment of gliding in aquatic animals as a means of conserving energy has been theoretically predicted and discussed for decades. Several studies have shown that some species glide, whereas others do not. Freshwater fish species that widely inhabit both lentic and lotic environments are thought to be able to adapt to fluctuating flow conditions in terms of locomotion. In adapting to the different functional demands of lentic and lotic environments on fish energetics, physostomous (open swim bladder) fish may optimise their locomotion and activity by controlling their net buoyancy; few buoyancy studies have however been conducted on physostomous fish in the wild...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908775/regulation-of-general-amino-acid-permeases-gap1p-gata-transcription-factors-gln3p-and-gat1p-on-2-phenylethanol-biosynthesis-via-ehrlich-pathway
#16
Xianrui Chen, Zhaoyue Wang, Xuena Guo, Sha Liu, Xiuping He
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, when L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) is used as the sole nitrogen source, 2-phenylethanol (PE) is mainly synthesized via the Ehrlich pathway. General amino acid permease Gap1p is response of aromatic amino acids transportation, and GATA transcription factors Gln3p and Gat1p regulate the transcription of permease gene and catabolic enzyme genes for nitrogen sources and aromatic amino acids utilization. In this study, it was demonstrated that over-expressing GLN3 gene from industrial yeast strain MT2 or S...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908630/non-linear-dose-response-of-aluminium-hydroxide-adjuvant-particles-selective-low-dose-neurotoxicity
#17
Guillemette Crépeaux, Housam Eidi, Marie-Odile David, Yasmine Baba-Amer, Eleni Tzavara, Bruno Giros, François-Jérôme Authier, Christopher Exley, Christopher A Shaw, Josette Cadusseau, Romain K Gherardi
Aluminium (Al) oxyhydroxide (Alhydrogel(®)), the main adjuvant licensed for human and animal vaccines, consists of primary nanoparticles that spontaneously agglomerate. Concerns about its safety emerged following recognition of its unexpectedly long-lasting biopersistence within immune cells in some individuals, and reports of chronic fatigue syndrome, cognitive dysfunction, myalgia, dysautonomia and autoimmune/inflammatory features temporally linked to multiple Al-containing vaccine administrations. Mouse experiments have documented its capture and slow transportation by monocyte-lineage cells from the injected muscle to lymphoid organs and eventually the brain...
November 28, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908266/is-metformin-a-perfect-drug-updates-in-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics
#18
Magdalena Markowicz-Piasecka, Kristiina Maria Huttunen, Łukasz Mateusiak, Elżbieta Mikiciuk-Olasik, Joanna Sikora
Metformin, a synthetic biguanide, is currently one of the most frequently recommended medications for type 2 diabetes treatment around the world. In this review, we present the latest discoveries in the pharmacokinetics of metformin, especially the role of transporters (e.g. Organic Cation Transporters OCTs, Multidrug and Toxin Extrusion transporters MATE) in oral absorption, distribution, elimination and biochemical effects of metformin in humans. We also review the associations between genetic variations of metformin transporters, their pharmacokinetics and drug efficacy or drug responses...
December 1, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908230/dna-import-into-mitochondria
#19
REVIEW
Yu M Konstantinov, A Dietrich, F Weber-Lotfi, N Ibrahim, E S Klimenko, V I Tarasenko, T A Bolotova, M V Koulintchenko
In recent decades, it has become evident that the condition for normal functioning of mitochondria in higher eukaryotes is the presence of membrane transport systems of macromolecules (proteins and nucleic acids). Natural competence of the mitochondria in plants, animals, and yeasts to actively uptake DNA may be directly related to horizontal gene transfer into these organelles occurring at much higher rate compared to the nuclear and chloroplast genomes. However, in contrast with import of proteins and tRNAs, little is known about the biological role and molecular mechanism underlying import of DNA into eukaryotic mitochondria...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907972/-tenofovir-alafenamide-fumarate-a-new-generation-of-tenofovir
#20
Svatava Snopková, Kateřina Havlíčková, Petr Husa
Antiretroviral therapy as a life-long treatment has to meet the criteria of maximum efficiency while maintaining the highest possible level of safety and tolerance. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is an antiretroviral drug with an excellent effect of virological suppression. However, some patients can over time develop clinically significant nephrotoxicity or bone loss. Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF) is a novel prodrug of tenofovir (TFV) that is more stable in human plasma and more efficiently penetrates into target cells than TFV...
September 2016: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
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