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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102829/absorbed-dose-evaluation-of-auger-electron-emitting-radionuclides-impact-of-input-decay-spectra-on-dose-point-kernels-and-s-values
#1
Nadia Falzone, Boon Lee, José Fernández-Varea, Christiana Kartsonaki, Andrew Stuchbery, Tibor Kibedi, Katherine Vallis
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of decay data provided by the newly developed stochastic atomic relaxation model <i>BrIccEmis</i> on dose point kernels (DPKs- radial dose distribution around a unit point source) and <i>S</i>-values (absorbed dose per unit cumulated activity) of 14 Auger electron (AE) emitting radionuclides, namely <sup>67</sup>Ga, <sup>80m</sup>Br, <sup>89</sup>Zr, <sup>90</sup>Nb, <sup>99m</sup>Tc, <sup>111</sup>In, <sup>117m</sup>Sn, <sup>119</sup>Sb, <sup>123</sup>I, <sup>124</sup>I, <sup>125</sup>I, <sup>135</sup>La, <sup>195m</sup>Pt and <sup>201</sup>Tl...
January 19, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102779/long-term-dust-aerosol-production-from-natural-sources-in-iceland
#2
Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Olafur Arnalds, Haraldur Olafsson
: Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland is volcanic sandy deserts. Not only do natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze"), but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean >1000 km at times...
February 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102715/capsaicin-pretreatment-enhanced-the-bioavailability-of-fexofenadine-in-rats-by-p-glycoprotein-modulation-in-vitro-in-situ-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#3
Satish Kumar Bedada, Ramgopal Appani, Praveen Kumar Boga
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Capsaicin is the main pungent principle present in chilli peppers has been found to possess P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibition activity in vitro, which may have the potential to modulate bioavailability of P-gp substrates. Therefore, purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of capsaicin on intestinal absorption and bioavailability of fexofenadine, a P-gp substrate in rats. METHODS: The mechanistic evaluation was determined by non-everted sac and intestinal perfusion studies to explore the intestinal absorption of fexofenadine...
January 19, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102676/novel-antitumor-platinum-ii-conjugates-containing-the-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-agent-diclofenac-synthesis-and-dual-mechanisms-of-antiproliferative-effects
#4
Francesco Paolo Intini, Juraj Zajac, Vojtech Novohradsky, Teresa Saltarella, Concetta Pacifico, Viktor Brabec, Giovanni Natile, Jana Kasparkova
One concept how to improve anticancer effects of conventional metallodrugs consists in conjugation of these compounds with other biologically (antitumor) active agents, acting by a different mechanism. Here, we present synthesis, biological effects, and mechanisms of action of new Pt(II) derivatives containing one or two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory diclofenac (DCF) ligands also known for their antitumor effects. The antiproliferative properties of these metallic conjugates show that these compounds are potent and cancer cell selective cytotoxic agents exhibiting activity in cisplatin resistant and the COX-2 positive tumor cell lines...
January 19, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102581/molecular-mechanisms-and-ecological-function-of-far-red-light-signalling
#5
REVIEW
David J Sheerin, Andreas Hiltbrunner
Land plants possess the ability to sense and respond to far-red light (700-760 nm), which serves as an important environmental cue. Due to the nature of far-red light, it is not absorbed by chlorophyll and thus is enriched in canopy shade, and will also penetrate deeper into soil than other visible wavelengths. Far-red light responses include regulation of seed germination, suppression of hypocotyl growth, induction of flowering, and accumulation of anthocyanins, which depend on one member of the phytochrome photoreceptor family, phytochrome A (phyA)...
January 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102542/silicon-promotes-cytokinin-biosynthesis-and-delays-senescence-in-arabidopsis-and-sorghum
#6
Oshry Markovich, Evyatar Steiner, Štěpán Kouřil, Petr Tarkowski, Asaph Aharoni, Rivka Elbaum
Silicate minerals are dominant soil components. Thus, plant roots are constantly exposed to silicic acid. High silicon intake, enabled by root silicon transporters, correlates with increased tolerance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the underlying protection mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that silicon interacts with the plant hormones, and specifically, that silicic acid intake increases cytokinin biosynthesis. The reaction of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and Arabidopsis plants, modified to absorb high versus low amounts of silicon, to dark-induced senescence was monitored, by quantifying expression levels of genes along the senescence pathway and measuring tissue cytokinin levels...
January 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102507/-44-sc-psma-617-for-radiotheragnostics-in-tandem-with-177-lu-psma-617-preclinical-investigations-in-comparison-with-68-ga-psma-11-and-68-ga-psma-617
#7
Christoph A Umbricht, Martina Benešová, Raffaella M Schmid, Andreas Türler, Roger Schibli, Nicholas P van der Meulen, Cristina Müller
BACKGROUND: The targeting of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is of particular interest for radiotheragnostic purposes of prostate cancer. Radiolabeled PSMA-617, a 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-functionalized PSMA ligand, revealed favorable kinetics with high tumor uptake, enabling its successful application for PET imaging ((68)Ga) and radionuclide therapy ((177)Lu) in the clinics. In this study, PSMA-617 was labeled with cyclotron-produced (44)Sc (T 1/2 = 4...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102408/bottom-up-synthesis-of-nitrogen-doped-porous-carbon-scaffolds-for-lithium-and-sodium-storage
#8
Hongling Lu, Renpeng Chen, Yi Hu, Xiaoqi Wang, Yanrong Wang, Lianbo Ma, Guoyin Zhu, Tao Chen, Zuoxiu Tie, Zhong Jin, Jie Liu
Here we report an effective bottom-up solution-phase process for the preparation of nitrogen-doped porous carbon scaffolds (NPCSs), which can be employed as high-performance anode materials for both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). The as-obtained NPCSs show favorable features for electrochemical energy storage such as high specific surface area, appropriate pore size distribution (3.9 nm in average), large pore volume (1.36 cm(3) g(-1)), nanosheet-like morphology, a certain degree of graphitization, enlarged interlayer distance (0...
January 19, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102314/improved-solar-driven-photocatalytic-performance-of-highly-crystalline-hydrogenated-tio2-nanofibers-with-core-shell-structure
#9
Ming-Chung Wu, Ching-Hsiang Chen, Wei-Kang Huang, Kai-Chi Hsiao, Ting-Han Lin, Shun-Hsiang Chan, Po-Yeh Wu, Chun-Fu Lu, Yin-Hsuan Chang, Tz-Feng Lin, Kai-Hsiang Hsu, Jen-Fu Hsu, Kun-Mu Lee, Jing-Jong Shyue, Krisztián Kordás, Wei-Fang Su
Hydrogenated titanium dioxide has attracted intensive research interests in pollutant removal applications due to its high photocatalytic activity. Herein, we demonstrate hydrogenated TiO2 nanofibers (H:TiO2 NFs) with a core-shell structure prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis and subsequent heat treatment in hydrogen flow. H:TiO2 NFs has excellent solar light absorption and photogenerated charge formation behavior as confirmed by optical absorbance, photo-Kelvin force probe microscopy and photoinduced charge carrier dynamics analyses...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102304/local-melatonin-application-induces-cold-tolerance-in-distant-organs-of-citrullus-lanatus-l-via-long-distance-transport
#10
Hao Li, Jingjing Chang, Junxian Zheng, Yuchuan Dong, Qiyan Liu, Xiaozhen Yang, Chunhua Wei, Yong Zhang, Jianxiang Ma, Xian Zhang
Melatonin is a ubiquitous chemical substance that regulates plant growth and responses to stress. Several recent studies show that exogenous melatonin confers cold tolerance to plants; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we report that melatonin application at optimal dose, either on the leaves or the roots, not only induced cold stress tolerance in the site of application, but also systemically induced cold tolerance in untreated distant parts. Foliar or rhizospheric treatment with melatonin increased the melatonin levels in untreated roots or leaves, respectively, under both normal and cold stress conditions, whereas rhizospheric melatonin treatment increased the melatonin exudation rates from the xylem...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102028/the-involvement-of-msmk-in-pathogenesis-of-the-streptococcus-suis-serotype-2
#11
Mei-Fang Tan, Wan-Quan Liu, Chun-Yan Zhang, Ting Gao, Lin-Lin Zheng, De-Xin Qiu, Lu Li, Rui Zhou
Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an important swine and human pathogen that causes global economic and public health problems. Virulent S. suis strains successfully maintain high bacterial concentrations in host blood and rapidly adapt to challenging environments within hosts. Successful survival in hosts is a major factor influencing the pathogenesis of SS2. We have previously identified that SS2 colonization in mouse brain is possibly affected by the ATPase, MsmK of carbohydrate ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters because of carbohydrate utilization...
January 19, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101985/time-dependent-density-functional-theory-study-on-direction-dependent-electron-and-hole-transfer-processes-in-molecular-systems
#12
Pouya Partovi-Azar, Payam Kaghazchi
We report on real-time time-dependent density functional theory calculations on direction-dependent electron and hole transfer processes in molecular systems. As a model system, we focus on α-sulfur. It is shown that time scale of the electron transfer process from a negatively charged S8 molecule to a neighboring neutral monomer is comparable to that of a strong infrared-active molecular vibrations of the dimer with one negatively charged monomer. This results in a strong coupling between the electrons and the nuclei motion which eventually leads to S8 ring opening before the electron transfer process is completed...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101967/host-related-factors-explaining-interindividual-variability-of-carotenoid-bioavailability-and-tissue-concentrations-in-humans
#13
Torsten Bohn, Charles Desmarchelier, Lars O Dragsted, Charlotte S Nielsen, Wilhelm Stahl, Ralph Rühl, Jaap Keijer, Patrick Borel
Carotenoid dietary intake and their endogenous levels have been associated with a decreased risk of several chronic diseases. There are indications that carotenoid bioavailability depends, in addition to the food matrix, on host factors. These include diseases (e.g. colitis), life-style habits (e.g. smoking), gender and age, as well as genetic variations including single nucleotide polymorphisms that govern carotenoid metabolism. These are expected to explain interindividual differences that contribute to carotenoid uptake, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and therefore possibly also their association with disease risk...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101766/crossing-the-blood-brain-barrier-recent-advances-in-drug-delivery-to-the-brain
#14
Mayur M Patel, Bhoomika M Patel
CNS disorders are on the rise despite advancements in our understanding of their pathophysiological mechanisms. A major hurdle to the treatment of these disorders is the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which serves as an arduous janitor to protect the brain. Many drugs are being discovered for CNS disorders, which, however fail to enter the market because of their inability to cross the BBB. This is a pronounced challenge for the pharmaceutical fraternity. Hence, in addition to the discovery of novel entities and drug candidates, scientists are also developing new formulations of existing drugs for brain targeting...
January 18, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101749/twenty-seven-years-of-cerebral-pyruvate-recycling
#15
Sebastián Cerdán
Cerebral pyruvate recycling is a metabolic pathway deriving carbon skeletons and reducing equivalents from mitochondrial oxaloacetate and malate, to the synthesis of mitochondrial and cytosolic pyruvate, lactate and alanine. The pathway allows both, to provide the tricarboxylic acid cycle with pyruvate molecules produced from alternative substrates to glucose and, to generate reducing equivalents necessary for the operation of NADPH requiring processes. At the cellular level, pyruvate recycling involves the activity of malic enzyme, or the combined activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate kinase, as well as of those transporters of the inner mitochondrial membrane exchanging the corresponding intermediates...
January 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101642/late-sodium-current-and-intracellular-ionic-homeostasis-in-acute-ischemia
#16
Carlotta Ronchi, Eleonora Torre, Riccardo Rizzetto, Joyce Bernardi, Marcella Rocchetti, Antonio Zaza
Blockade of the late Na(+) current (I NaL) protects from ischemia/reperfusion damage; nevertheless, information on changes in I NaL during acute ischemia and their effect on intracellular milieu is missing. I NaL, cytosolic Na(+) and Ca(2+) activities (Nacyt, Cacyt) were measured in isolated rat ventricular myocytes during 7 min of simulated ischemia (ISC); in all the conditions tested, effects consistently exerted by ranolazine (RAN) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) were interpreted as due to I NaL blockade. The results indicate that I NaL was enhanced during ISC in spite of changes in action potential (AP) contour; I NaL significantly contributed to Nacyt rise, but only marginally to Cacyt rise...
March 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101613/estimation-of-anaerobic-debromination-rate-constants-of-pbde-pathways-using-an-anaerobic-dehalogenation-model
#17
Filiz Karakas, Ipek Imamoglu
This study aims to estimate anaerobic debromination rate constants (km) of PBDE pathways using previously reported laboratory soil data. km values of pathways are estimated by modifying a previously developed model as Anaerobic Dehalogenation Model. Debromination activities published in the literature in terms of bromine substitutions as well as specific microorganisms and their combinations are used for identification of pathways. The range of estimated km values is between 0.0003 and 0.0241 d(-1). The median and maximum of km values are found to be comparable to the few available biologically confirmed rate constants published in the literature...
January 19, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101591/functions-of-cancer-derived-extracellular-vesicles-in-immunosuppression
#18
REVIEW
Liliana Czernek, Markus Düchler
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, constitute an important element of intercellular communication by carrying a variety of molecules from producer to target cells. The transport of mRNA and miRNA can directly modulate gene expression in the target cells. The miRNA content in exosomes is characteristic for the cell from which the vesicles were derived enabling the usage of exosomes as biomarkers for the diagnosis various diseases, including cancer. Cancer-derived exosomes support the survival and progression of tumors in many ways and also contribute to the neutralization of the anti-cancer immune response...
January 18, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101372/lessons-i-have-learned-from-my-patients-everyday-life-with-primary-orthostatic-tremor
#19
Marie Vidailhet, Emmanuel Roze, Lucie Maugest, Cécile Gallea
BACKGROUND: Primary orthostatic tremor is a rare disorder that is still under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed. Motor symptoms are fairly characteristics but the real impact on the patient's every day life and quality of life is under-estimated. The "how my patients taught me" format describes the impact on the patients' every day life with their own words, which is rarely done. CASE PRESENTATION: A 46 year old lady was diagnosed primary orthostatic tremor (POT) based on the cardinal symptoms: feelings of instability, leg tremor and fear of falling in the standing position, improvement with walking and disappearance while sitting, frequency of Tremor in the 13-18Hz range, normal neurological examination...
2017: Journal of Clinical Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101198/elevated-expression-of-nrf2-mediates-multidrug-resistance-in-cd133-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-stem-cells
#20
Bao-Cai Lu, Jing Li, Wen-Fa Yu, Guo-Zheng Zhang, Hui-Min Wang, Hui-Min Ma
Enhanced expression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter protein ABC sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2) in cancer stem cells (CSCs) plays a major role in chemotherapeutic drug efflux, which results in therapy failure and tumor relapse. In addition to downregulating apoptosis in CSCs, it has been reported that the transcriptional upregulation of the redox sensing factor Nrf2 is involved in the upregulation of ABCG2 expression and consequent chemoresistance. The current study investigated the presence of cancer stem-like side population (SP) cells from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) samples, and evaluated the Nrf2 expression profile and multidrug resistance properties of HNSCC stem cells...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
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