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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035302/oligoarticular-hemarthroses-and-osteomyelitis-complicating-pasteurella-meningitis-in-an-infant
#1
Charles Nathan Nessle, Allison K Black, Justin Farge, Victoria A Statler
A 5-month-old previously healthy female presented with a one-week history of fever and increased fussiness. Her presentation revealed an ill-appearing infant with an exam and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies concerning bacterial meningitis; CSF cultures grew Pasteurella multocida. Additionally, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated cervical osteomyelitis. Despite multiple days of antibiotic therapy, she remained febrile with continued pain; MRI showed oligoarticular effusions, and aspiration of these joints yielded bloody aspirates...
October 16, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035174/in-male-rats-the-ability-of-central-insulin-to-suppress-glucose-production-is-impaired-by-olanzapine-whereas-glucose-uptake-is-left-intact
#2
Chantel Kowalchuk, Celine Teo, Virginia Wilson, Araba Chintoh, Loretta Lam, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Adria Giacca, Gary J Remington, Margaret K Hahn
BACKGROUND: Insulin receptors are widely expressed in the brain and may represent a crossroad between metabolic and cognitive disorders. Although antipsychotics, such as olanzapine, are the cornerstone treatment for schizophrenia, they are associated with high rates of type 2 diabetes and lack efficacy for illness-related cognitive deficits. Historically, this risk of diabetes was attributed to the weight gain propensity of antipsychotics, but recent work suggests antipsychotics can have weight-independent diabetogenic effects involving unknown brain-mediated mechanisms...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034144/exercise-treatments-for-psychosis-a-review
#3
Vijay A Mittal, Teresa Vargas, K Juston Osborne, Derek Dean, Tina Gupta, Ivanka Ristanovic, Christine I Hooker, Stewart A Shankman
Schizophrenia is a devastating mental illness that has profound effects on a person's health and quality of life. Exercise represents a promising new treatment option that may supplement current psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for psychosis. A large body of work suggests that exercise can improve cardio-metabolic and health behavior and facilitate neurogenesis in areas of the brain that are notably impacted by psychosis. Recent efforts to incorporate exercise as either stand-alone or adjunctive treatment for individuals with schizophrenia range from yoga and light stretching to moderately intense walking, bike riding, or team sports...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032021/clinical-characteristics-and-survival-outcomes-of-terminally-ill-patients-undergoing-withdrawal-of-mechanical-ventilation
#4
Yu-Shin Hung, Shu-Hui Lee, Chia-Yen Hung, Chao-Hui Wang, Chen-Yi Kao, Hung-Ming Wang, Wen-Chi Chou
BACKGROUND: Withdrawal of mechanical ventilation is an important, but rarely explored issue in Asia during end-of-life care. This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and survival outcomes of terminally ill patients undergoing withdrawal of mechanical ventilation in Taiwan. METHODS: One-hundred-thirty-five terminally ill patients who had mechanical ventilation withdrawn between 2013 and 2016, from a medical center in Taiwan, were enrolled. Patients' clinical characteristics and survival outcomes after withdrawal of mechanical ventilation were analyzed...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032009/potential-for-stem-cell-treatment-in-manganism
#5
Thatiane C de Moura, Szeifoul Afadlal, Alan S Hazell
Development of manganism (also known as manganese neurotoxicity) is a major complication of manganese exposure in which neurological dysfunction is linked to accumulation of the metal in brain. Due to neuronal cell death in basal ganglia structures, particularly the globus pallidus, functional recovery is limited. Bearing a resemblance to Parkinson's disease, effective treatment for manganism is currently limited. However, the rapidly developing field of stem cell research offers new hope for the treatment of illnesses in which neurodegeneration is a major feature...
October 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031549/assessment-of-social-behavior-directed-toward-sick-partners-and-its-relation-to-central-cytokine-expression-in-rats
#6
Eduardo Kenji Hamasato, Dennis Lovelock, João Palermo-Neto, Terrence Deak
Acute illness not only reduces the expression of social behavior by sick rodents, but can also lead to avoidance responses when detected by healthy, would-be social partners. When healthy animals interact with a sick partner, an intriguing question arises: does exposure to a sick conspecific elicit an anticipatory immune response that would facilitate defense against future infection? To address this question, healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (N=64) were given a brief social interaction (30min) with a partner that was either sick (250μg/kg injection with lipopolysaccharide [LPS] 3h prior to test) or healthy (sterile saline injection)...
October 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031461/sleep-sport-and-the-brain
#7
Shona L Halson, Laura E Juliff
The recognition that sleep is one of the foundations of athlete performance is increasing both in the elite athlete arena as well as applied performance research. Sleep, as identified through sleep deprivation and sleep extension investigations, has a role in performance, illness, injury, metabolism, cognition, memory, learning, and mood. Elite athletes have been identified as having poorer quality and quantity of sleep in comparison to the general population. This is likely the result on training times, competition stress/anxiety, muscle soreness, caffeine use, and travel...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031411/in%C3%A2-vivo-brain-glycine-and-glutamate-concentrations-in-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis-measured-by-echo-time-averaged-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-at-4t
#8
Sang-Young Kim, Marc J Kaufman, Bruce M Cohen, J Eric Jensen, Joseph T Coyle, Fei Du, Dost Öngür
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of abnormal glutamateric neurotransmission and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders. The purpose of this study was to quantify in vivo glutamate (Glu) and glycine (Gly) levels in patients with first-episode psychosis as well as age-matched healthy control subjects with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). METHODS: The subjects were 46 patients with first-episode psychosis (20 with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 26 with bipolar disorder) and 50 age-matched healthy control subjects...
September 7, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030856/mitochondrial-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa-synthase-deficiency-unique-presenting-laboratory-values-and-a-review-of-biochemical-and-clinical-features
#9
Erin Conboy, Filippo Vairo, Matthew Schultz, Katherine Agre, Ross Ridsdale, David Deyle, Devin Oglesbee, Dimitar Gavrilov, Eric W Klee, Brendan Lanpher
We report an 8-month-old infant with decreased consciousness after a febrile episode and reduced oral intake. He was profoundly acidotic but his lactate was normal. Serum triglycerides were markedly elevated and HDL cholesterol was very low. The urine organic acid analysis during the acute episode revealed a complex pattern of relative hypoketotic dicarboxylic aciduria, suggestive of a potential fatty acid oxidation disorder. MRI showed extensive brain abnormalities concerning for a primary energy deficiency...
October 14, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030053/function-and-dysfunction-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-regeneration-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Lei Peng, Michael A Bonaguidi
The hippocampus is the only known brain region where physiological neurogenesis continues into adulthood across mammalian species and in humans. However, disease and injury can change the level of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which plays an important role in regulating cognitive and emotional abilities. Alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis can mediate treatment of mental illness or affect the brain's capacity for repair and regeneration. In the present review, we evaluate how adult neurogenesis contributes to the repair and regeneration of hippocampal circuitry in the face of diseases and injuries...
October 10, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029710/systemic-thrombolysis-for-pulmonary-embolism-who-and-how
#11
Victor F Tapson, Oren Friedman
Anticoagulation has been shown to improve mortality in acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Initiation of anticoagulation should be considered when PE is strongly suspected and the bleeding risk is perceived to be low, even if acute PE has not yet been proven. Low-risk patients with acute PE are simply continued on anticoagulation. Severely ill patients with high-risk (massive) PE require aggressive therapy, and if the bleeding risk is acceptable, systemic thrombolysis should be considered. However, despite clear evidence that parenteral thrombolytic therapy leads to more rapid clot resolution than anticoagulation alone, the risk of major bleeding including intracranial bleeding is significantly higher when systemic thrombolytic therapy is administered...
September 2017: Techniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027701/cellular-and-molecular-characterization-of-idh1-mutated-diffuse-low-grade-gliomas-reveals-tumor-heterogeneity-and-absence-of-egfr-pdgfr%C3%AE-activation
#12
S Azar, N Leventoux, C Ripoll, V Rigau, C Gozé, F Lorcy, L Bauchet, H Duffau, P O Guichet, B Rothhut, J P Hugnot
Diffuse low grade gliomas (DLGG, grade II gliomas) are slowly-growing brain tumors that often progress into high grade gliomas. Most tumors have a missense mutation for IDH1 combined with 1p19q codeletion in oligodendrogliomas or ATRX/TP53 mutations in astrocytomas. The phenotype of tumoral cells, their environment and the pathways activated in these tumors are still ill-defined and are mainly based on genomics and transcriptomics analysis. Here we used freshly-resected tumors to accurately characterize the tumoral cell population and their environment...
October 13, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026864/gastroparesis-as-the-sole-presenting-feature-of-neuromyelitis-optica
#13
Ahmed Salahudeen, Tejal Mistry
A 33-year-old African-American woman recently diagnosed with severe idiopathic gastroparesis was readmitted for hypoxic respiratory failure secondary to aspiration pneumonia. A fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallow study revealed severe pharyngeal dysphagia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed an ill-defined lesion in the posterior aspect of the medulla concerning for a demyelinating process. Serum neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G returned positive. Neuromyelitis optica treatment resulted in the patient's clinical improvement...
2017: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026292/the-effects-of-holistic-health-group-interventions-on-improving-the-cognitive-ability-of-persons-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Kim-Wan Young, Petrus Ng, Timothy Kwok, Daphne Cheng
PURPOSE: Persons with mild cognitive impairment (PwMCI) are at a higher risk of developing dementia than those without cognitive impairment. This research study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a holistic health group intervention, which is based on the holistic brain health approach as well as an Eastern approach to health care, on improving the cognitive ability of Chinese PwMCI. RESEARCH METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), 38 Chinese PwMCI were randomly assigned to either a 10-session holistic health intervention group or the control group...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025849/the-association-between-adverse-childhood-experiences-and-traumatic-brain-injury-concussion-in-adulthood-a-scoping-review-protocol
#15
Zechen Ma, Mark T Bayley, Laure Perrier, Priya Dhir, Lana Dépatie, Paul Comper, Lesley Ruttan, Sarah Ep Munce
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is a significant risk factor for physical and mental illnesses later in life. Concussion or traumatic brain injury is a challenging condition where preinjury factors may interact to affect recovery. The association between ACEs and traumatic brain injury/concussion is not well mapped in any previous reviews of the literature. Using a scoping review methodology, the research question that will be addressed is: what is known from the existing literature about the association between ACEs and traumatic brain injury/concussion in adults? METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The methodological frameworks outlined by Arksey and O'Malley and Levac et al will be used...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025779/scorpion-bite-induced-ischaemic-stroke
#16
Rakesh Reddy C, Nandakishore Bompelli, Vikram Khardenavis, Anirudda Deshpande
We report a 54-year-old woman with scorpion bite. After 3 hours of admission, the patient developed sudden onset tachycardia with hypotension. Cardiac evaluation showed raised creatine kinase MB isoenzyme was elevated; ECG and two-dimensional echocardiography findings were suggestive of myocarditis. Subsequently, she developed transient ventricular tachycardia before developing abrupt onset, right hemiplegia, global aphasia and progressive worsening of sensorium 12 hours after the bite. MRI of brain revealed massive left middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarct...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024974/functional-recovery-in-major-depressive-disorder-providing-early-optimal-treatment-for-the-individual-patient
#17
Oloruntoba J Oluboka, Martin A Katzman, Jeffrey Habert, Diane McIntosh, Glenda M MacQueen, Roumen V Milev, Roger S McIntyre, Pierre Blier
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is an often chronic and recurring illness. Left untreated, MDD may result in progressive alterations in brain morphometry and circuit function. Recent findings, however, suggest that pharmacotherapy may halt and possibly reverse those effects. These findings, together with evidence that a delay in treatment is associated with poorer clinical outcomes, underscore the urgency of rapidly treating depression to full recovery. Early optimized treatment, using measurement-based care and customizing treatment to the individual patient, may afford the best possible outcomes for each patient...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023818/commentary-on-montag-et%C3%A2-al-2017-the-importance-of-cbpr-in-fasd-prevention-with-american-indian-communities
#18
Jessica D Hanson, Tess L Weber
Prenatal alcohol consumption is a public health concern due to potential lifelong physical and cognitive effects in offspring, often presenting in the form of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or other fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD is the continuum of lifelong outcomes in those born prenatally exposed to alcohol and includes a diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is diagnosed through facial abnormalities, growth retardation, and delayed brain growth (Hoyme et al., 2016), as well as secondary disabilities such as conduct disorders, mental illness, and psychosocial functioning...
October 10, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022873/adolescent-thc-exposure-in-female-rats-leads-to-cognitive-deficits-through-a-mechanism-involving-chromatin-modifications-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#19
Pamela Prini, Franceso Rusconi, Erica Zamberletti, Marina Gabaglio, Federica Penna, Mauro Fasano, Elena Battaglioli, Daniela Parolaro, Tiziana Rubino
BACKGROUND: Increasing cannabis consumption among adolescents, studies that link its early use with mental illnesses, and the political debate on cannabis legalization together call for an urgent need to study molecular underpinnings of adolescent brain vulnerability. The emerging role of epigenetic mechanisms in psychiatric diseases led us to hypothesize that epigenetic alterations could play a role in causes and subsequent development of the depressive/psychotic-like phenotype induced by adolescent, but not adult, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure in female rats...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022655/anosognosia-is-an-independent-predictor-of-conversion-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-alzheimer-s-disease-and-is-associated-with-reduced-brain-metabolism
#20
Philip Gerretsen, Jun Ku Chung, Parita Shah, Eric Plitman, Yusuke Iwata, Fernando Caravaggio, Shinichiro Nakajima, Bruce G Pollock, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
OBJECTIVE: Anosognosia, or impaired illness awareness, is a common feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and less so of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Importantly, anosognosia negatively influences clinical outcomes for patients and their caregivers and may predict the conversion from MCI to AD. This study aimed to examine (1) the relationship between brain glucose metabolism as measured by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and anosognosia in patients with MCI and AD and (2) the predictive utility of anosognosia in patients with MCI for later conversion to AD, even when controlling for other factors, including gender, education, apolipoprotein E ε4 carrier status, dementia severity, and cognitive dysfunction...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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