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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731869/individual-and-population-level-impacts-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-maternal-characteristics-on-subsequent-offending-behavior
#1
Handan Wand, Melanie Simpson, Eva Malacova, Peter W Schofield, David B Preen, Robyn Tate, Tony Butler
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the individual- and population-level impact of a combination of factors, including traumatic brain injury (TBI) and certain maternal characteristics, on subsequent criminal conviction. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective record linkage study involving a cohort of 30 599 individuals born between 1980 and 1985, with ratio of 1 (with TBI): 3 (no TBI), matched by sex and the year of birth. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Cox proportional hazard regression models and population attributable risk percentages (PAR%) were used to assess the contribution of TBI and other risk factors on subsequent criminal convictions...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731544/localized-mrs-reliability-of-in-vivo-glutamate-at-3%C3%A2-t-in-shortened-scan-times-a-feasibility-study
#2
J Eric Jensen, Randy P Auerbach, Angela Pisoni, Diego A Pizzagalli
Glutamate is the prime excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain and has been implicated in a wide range of psychiatric conditions. To improve the applicability and clinical reach of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), research is needed to develop shortened, yet reliable, MRS scanning procedures for standard 1.5-3-T clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, particularly with young or vulnerable populations unable to tolerate longer protocols. To this end, we evaluated the test-retest reliability of a shortened J-resolved MRS sequence in healthy adolescents (n = 22) aged 12-14 years...
July 21, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727115/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-as-a-key-regulator-of-neural-function-and-the-stress-response-implications-for-human-and-animal-health
#3
N C Wiley, T G Dinan, R P Ross, C Stanton, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The brain-gut-microbiota axis comprises an extensive communication network between the brain, the gut, and the microbiota residing there. Development of a diverse gut microbiota is vital for multiple features of behavior and physiology, as well as many fundamental aspects of brain structure and function. Appropriate early-life assembly of the gut microbiota is also believed to play a role in subsequent emotional and cognitive development. If the composition, diversity, or assembly of the gut microbiota is impaired, this impairment can have a negative impact on host health and lead to disorders such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and even potentially neuropsychiatric illnesses, including anxiety and depression...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720860/altered-hippocampal-volume-and-functional-connectivity-in-males-with-internet-gaming-disorder-comparing-to-those-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#4
Eun Jin Yoon, Jung-Seok Choi, Heejung Kim, Bo Kyung Sohn, Hee Yeon Jung, Jun-Young Lee, Dai-Jin Kim, Sun-Won Park, Yu Kyeong Kim
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction and shares clinical, neuropsychological, and personality characteristics with alcohol use disorder (AUD), but IGD dose not entail brain exposure to toxic agents, which renders it different from AUD. To achieve a clear understanding of the neurobiological features of IGD, we aimed to identify morphological and functional changes in IGD and compare them with those in AUD. Individuals with IGD showed larger volume in the hippocampus/amygdala and precuneus than healthy controls (HCs)...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719839/the-prognostic-value-of-brain-natriuretic-peptide-bnp-in-non-cardiac-patients-with-sepsis-ultra-long-follow-up
#5
Johad Khoury, Majd Arow, Adi Elias, Badira F Makhoul, Gidon Berger, Marielle Kaplan, Tanya Mashiach, Reem Ismael-Badarneh, Doron Aronson, Zaher S Azzam
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis is a multifactorial syndrome with increasing incidence of morbidity and mortality. Identification of outcome predictors is therefore essential. Recently, elevated brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels have been observed in patients with septic shock. Little information is available concerning BNP levels in patients with critical illness, especially with sepsis. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the role of BNP as a biomarker for long-term mortality in patients with sepsis...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717094/limbic-encephalitis-associated-with-human-herpesvirus-7-hhv-7-in-an-immunocompetent-adult-the-first-reported-case-in-japan
#6
Yoko Aburakawa, Takayuki Katayama, Tsukasa Saito, Jun Sawada, Tatsuo Suzutani, Hitoshi Aizawa, Naoyuki Hasebe
A 35-year-old male who had not previously suffered any major illnesses was admitted to our hospital because of general fatigue, fever, headache, vomiting, consciousness disturbance, and seizures. A neurological examination showed that he was in a semi-comatose state and exhibited neck stiffness. Brain magnetic resonance imaging detected high-intensity areas in the bilateral hippocampi and periventricular white matter. A cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed mononuclear pleocytosis, an elevated protein level, and positivity for human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) DNA...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716593/the-critical-care-literature-2016
#7
REVIEW
Michael E Winters, Joseph P Martinez, Haney Mallemat, William J Brady
An emergency physician (EP) is often the first health care provider to evaluate, resuscitate, and manage a critically ill patient. Between 2001 and 2009, the annual hours of critical care delivered in emergency departments (EDs) across the United States increased >200%! (Herring et al., 2013). This trend has persisted since then. In addition to seeing more critically ill patients, EPs are often tasked with providing critical care long beyond the initial resuscitation period. In fact, >33% of critically ill patients who are brought to an ED remain there for >6h (Herring et al...
July 13, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716445/feeding-systems-and-the-gut-microbiome-gut-brain-interactions-with-relevance-to-psychiatric-conditions
#8
REVIEW
Brittany L Mason
BACKGROUND: Physical and mental health is dependent on the environment, and feeding is a prime example of this environmental exchange. While the hypothalamus controls both feeding behavior and the stress response, the integration of the neural control centers and the peripheral gut allows for disruption in the gastrointestinal systems and dysfunctional communication to the brain. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to familiarize clinicians with the physiology controlling feeding behavior and its implications for psychiatric conditions, such as anorexia nervosa and depression...
June 8, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716235/psychosis-in-parkinson-s-disease-from-the-soft-signs-to-the-hard-science
#9
REVIEW
Abhishek Lenka, Priyantha Herath, Rita Christopher, Pramod Kumar Pal
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may develop a wide spectrum of non-motor symptoms during the course of illness. Psychosis is one such commonly observed non-motor symptoms of PD. Although several studies based on neuroimaging, genetics, retinal imaging, and neuropsychological evaluations have explored the pathogenesis of psychosis in PD; exact neural correlates are yet to be understood. Identification of factors related to psychosis in PD is important, as psychosis has been reported to be associated with higher rates of mortality, caregiver distress, and nursing home placements...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714580/differential-failure-to-deactivate-the-default-mode-network-in-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression
#10
Elena Rodríguez-Cano, Silvia Alonso-Lana, Salvador Sarró, Paloma Fernández-Corcuera, José M Goikolea, Eduard Vieta, Teresa Maristany, Raymond Salvador, Peter J McKenna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet
OBJECTIVES: Neuroimaging studies have revealed evidence of brain functional abnormalities in bipolar depressive disorder (BDD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, few studies to date have compared these two mood disorders directly. METHODS: Matched groups of 26 BDD type I patients, 26 MDD patients and 26 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the n-back working memory task. A whole-brain ANOVA was used to compare the three groups and clusters of significant difference were examined further using region-of-interest (ROI) analysis...
July 17, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714434/altered-interoceptive-activation-before-during-and-after-aversive-breathing-load-in-women-remitted-from-anorexia-nervosa
#11
L A Berner, A N Simmons, C E Wierenga, A Bischoff-Grethe, M P Paulus, U F Bailer, A V Ely, W H Kaye
BACKGROUND: The neural mechanisms of anorexia nervosa (AN), a severe and chronic psychiatric illness, are still poorly understood. Altered body state processing, or interoception, has been documented in AN, and disturbances in aversive interoception may contribute to distorted body perception, extreme dietary restriction, and anxiety. As prior data implicate a potential mismatch between interoceptive expectation and experience in AN, we examined whether AN is associated with altered brain activation before, during, and after an unpleasant interoceptive state change...
July 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713691/cognitive-correlates-of-neuroimaging-abnormalities-in-the-onset-of-schizophrenia-a-case-report
#12
Silvia Grassi, Giulia Orsenigo, Marta Serati, Elisabetta Caletti, Alfredo Carlo Altamura, Massimiliano Buoli
Increasing evidence shows that cognitive impairment and brain abnormalities can appear early in the first episodes of schizophrenia, but it is currently debated how brain changes can correlate with clinical presentation of schizophrenic patients. Of note, this report describes the case of a young schizophrenic male presenting parietal magnetic resonance/positron emission tomography abnormalities and cognitive impairment, documented by specific neuropsychological tests. In our knowledge only few studies have investigated if neuropsychological abnormalities could be concomitant with both structural and functional neuroimaging...
June 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711724/neurotrophic-and-inflammatory-markers-in-bipolar-disorder-a-prospective-study
#13
Seline van den Ameele, Violette Coppens, Jeroen Schuermans, Peter De Boer, Maarten Timmers, Erik Fransen, Bernard Sabbe, Manuel Morrens
Altered neurotrophic signaling is thought to impair neuroplasticity in bipolar disorder (BD). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is proposed as a neurotrophic marker in BD. However, the current evidence for its use in monitoring disease activity and illness progression is conflicting and an exploration of additional neurotrophic markers is needed. This prospective case-control study investigated mood-specific changes in potential neurotrophic markers and their association to inflammatory activity. Patients with BD were included during an acute mood episode, either depressive (n=35) or (hypo)manic (n=32)...
July 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710363/neural-correlates-of-altered-feedback-learning-in-women-recovered-from-anorexia-nervosa
#14
Franziska Ritschel, Daniel Geisler, Joseph A King, Fabio Bernardoni, Maria Seidel, Ilka Boehm, Richard Vettermann, Ronald Biemann, Veit Roessner, Michael N Smolka, Stefan Ehrlich
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with exaggerated self-control and altered reward-based decision making, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Consistent with the notion of excessive cognitive control, we recently found increased dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activation in acutely ill patients (acAN) on lose-shift trials in a probabilistic reversal learning (PRL) task. However, undernutrition may modulate brain function. In attempt to disentangle trait from state factors, the current fMRI study investigated cognitive control in recovered patients (recAN)...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710215/a-study-protocol-for-an-observational-cohort-investigating-cognitive-outcomes-and-wellness-in-survivors-of-critical-illness-the-cogwell-study
#15
M Elizabeth Wilcox, Andrew S Lim, Mary P McAndrews, Richard A Wennberg, Ruxandra L Pinto, Sandra E Black, Karolina D Walczak, Jan O Friedrich, Michael S Taglione, Gordon D Rubenfeld
INTRODUCTION: Up to 9 out of 10 intensive care unit (ICU) survivors will suffer some degree of cognitive impairment at hospital discharge and approximately half will have decrements that persist for years. The mechanisms for this newly acquired brain injury are poorly understood. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of sleep abnormalities and their association with cognitive impairment, examine a well-known genetic risk factor for dementia (Apolipoprotein E ε4) that may allow for genetic risk stratification of ICU survivors at greatest risk of cognitive impairment and determine if electroencephalography (EEG) is an independent predictor of long-term cognitive impairment and possibly a candidate intermediate end point for future clinical trials...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703319/brain-carnitine-deficiency-causes-nonsyndromic-autism-with-an-extreme-male-bias-a-hypothesis
#16
REVIEW
Arthur L Beaudet
Could 10-20% of autism be prevented? We hypothesize that nonsyndromic or "essential" autism involves extreme male bias in infants who are genetically normal, but they develop deficiency of carnitine and perhaps other nutrients in the brain causing autism that may be amenable to early reversal and prevention. That brain carnitine deficiency might cause autism is suggested by reports of severe carnitine deficiency in autism and by evidence that TMLHE deficiency - a defect in carnitine biosynthesis - is a risk factor for autism...
July 13, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701849/blunt-trauma-neck-with-complete-tracheal-transection-a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenge-to-the-trauma-team
#17
K N J Prakash Raju, D Anandhi, R Surendar, Ashwith Shetty, Vinay R Pandit
Survival following trachea-esophageal transection is uncommon. Establishing a secure airway has the highest priority in trauma management. Airway management is a unique and a defining element to the specialty of emergency medicine. There is no doubt regarding the significance of establishing a patent airway in the critically ill patient in the emergency department. Cannot intubate and cannot ventilate situation is a nightmare to all emergency physicians. The most important take-home message from this case report is that every Emergency physician should have the ability to predict "difficult airway" and recognize "failed airway" very early and be skilled in performing rescue techniques when routine oral-tracheal intubation fails...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701481/place-and-grid-cells-in-a-loop-implications-for-memory-function-and-spatial-coding
#18
César Rennó-Costa, Adriano B L Tort
Place cells in the hippocampus and grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex have different codes for space. However, how one code relates to the other is ill understood. Based on the anatomy of the entorhinal-hippocampal circuitry, we constructed a model of place and grid cells organized in a loop to investigate their mutual influence in the establishment of their codes for space. Using computer simulations, we first replicated experiments in rats that measured place and grid cell activity in different environments, and then assessed which features of the model account for different phenomena observed in neurophysiological data, such as pattern completion and pattern separation, global and rate remapping of place cells and realignment of grid cells...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701052/-they-accused-me-of-strangling-her-epilepsy-and-violence-debate-in-croatia-at-the-end-of-the-nineteenth-and-the-beginning-of-the-twentieth-centuries
#19
Martin Kuhar, Stella Fatović-Ferenčić
Nineteenth-century psychiatry shifted its focus to the brain as the seat of mental disorders. With a new understanding of mental disorders arose the need to consult forensic psychiatrists in cases of criminal acts committed by persons with mental illness. This article focuses on three murders committed by 'epileptics' at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries in Croatia. An analysis of these cases will help to situate forensic psychiatry at the turn of the century within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and reveal the authority that forensic experts wielded in the courts...
July 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700674/effects-of-taurine-on-resting-state-fmri-activity-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#20
Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Tsai-Ching Hsu, Li-Jeng Chen, Hong-Chun Chou, Jun-Cheng Weng, Bor-Show Tzang
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a global behavior illness among children and adults. To investigate the effects of taurine on resting-state fMRI activity in ADHD, a spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) animal model was adopted. Significantly decreased serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was detected in rats of Wistar Kyoto (WKY) high-taurine group and significantly decreased interleukin (IL)-1β and CRP were detected in rats of SHR low-taurine and high-taurine groups. Moreover, significantly higher horizontal locomotion was detected in rats of WKY low-taurine and SHR low-taurine groups than in those of controls...
2017: PloS One
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