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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926549/predicting-mortality-in-patients-with-tuberculous-destroyed-lung-receiving-mechanical-ventilation
#1
Won Young Kim, Mi Hyun Kim, Eun Jung Jo, Jung Seop Eom, Jeongha Mok, Ki Uk Kim, Hye Kyung Park, Min Ki Lee, Kwangha Lee
BACKGROUND: Patients with acute respiratory failure secondary to tuberculous destroyed lung (TDL) have a poor prognosis. The aim of the present retrospective study was to develop a mortality prediction model for TDL patients who require mechanical ventilation. METHODS: Data from consecutive TDL patients who had received mechanical ventilation at a single university-affiliated tertiary care hospital in Korea were reviewed. Binary logistic regression was used to identify factors predicting intensive care unit (ICU) mortality...
June 19, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924994/sex-specific-features-of-microglia-from-adult-mice
#2
Alessandro Villa, Paolo Gelosa, Laura Castiglioni, Mauro Cimino, Nicoletta Rizzi, Giovanna Pepe, Federica Lolli, Elena Marcello, Luigi Sironi, Elisabetta Vegeto, Adriana Maggi
Sex has a role in the incidence and outcome of neurological illnesses, also influencing the response to treatments. Neuroinflammation is involved in the onset and progression of several neurological diseases, and the fact that estrogens have anti-inflammatory activity suggests that these hormones may be a determinant in the sex-dependent manifestation of brain pathologies. We describe significant differences in the transcriptome of adult male and female microglia, possibly originating from perinatal exposure to sex steroids...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923808/beyond-epilepsy-how-can-quantitative-electroencephalography-improve-conventional-electroencephalography-findings-a-systematic-review-of-comparative-eeg-studies
#3
Cassio Henrique Taques Martins, Catarina De Marchi Assunção
It is a fundamental element in both research and clinical applications of electroencephalography to know the frequency composition of brain electrical activity. The quantitative analysis of brain electrical activity uses computer resources to evaluate the electroencephalography and allows quantification of the data. The contribution of the quantitative perspective is unique, since conventional electroencephalography based on the visual examination of the tracing is not as objective. A systematic review was performed on the MEDLINE database in October 2017...
2018: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923617/cd93-regulates-cns-inflammation-in-two-mouse-models-of-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#4
Mark R Griffiths, Marina Botto, B Paul Morgan, J W Neal, P Gasque
Microglia and non-professional immune cells (endothelial cells, neurons) participate in the recognition and removal of pathogens and tissue-debris in the injured CNS through major pro-inflammatory processes. However, the mechanisms involved in regulating these responses remain ill-characterised. We herein show that CD93 also known as complement C1qRp/AA4 stem cell marker has an important role in the regulation of inflammatory processes. The role of CD93 was evaluated in two models of neuroinflammation. We used the MOG-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model and the antibody-dependent EAE (ADEAE) which were induced in wild type and CD93 knockout mice...
June 20, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922188/psychosis-as-an-evolutionary-adaptive-mechanism-to-changing-environments
#5
Floortje E Scheepers, Jos de Mul, Frits Boer, Witte J Hoogendijk
Background: From an evolutionary perspective it is remarkable that psychotic disorders, mostly occurring during fertile age and decreasing fecundity, maintain in the human population. Aim: To argue the hypothesis that psychotic symptoms may not be viewed as an illness but as an adaptation phenomenon, which can become out of control due to different underlying brain vulnerabilities and external stressors, leading to social exclusion. Methods: A literature study and analysis. Results: Until now, biomedical research has not unravelld the definitive etiology of psychotic disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921743/arachnoid-cyst-causing-depression-and-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-a-case-report
#6
M Shettar, R Karkal, R Misra, A Kakunje, V V Mohan Chandran, R D Mendonsa
Arachnoid cysts are benign space-occupying brain lesions that contain cerebrospinal fluid. Most cases are congenital in origin, caused by failed fusion of the arachnoid membrane early in fetal development. Cases are often incidentally detected on neuroimaging; however, rarely patients present with neuropsychiatric manifestations when cysts expand and cause a midline shift, compression of nearby brain tissue or cerebrospinal fluid compartments or both. We report a case of a 56-year-old woman with no past history or family history of psychiatric illness who developed acute-onset right-sided weakness, depressive symptoms, and other neuropsychiatric deficits...
June 2018: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915770/frontal-meningioma-with-psychiatric-symptoms
#7
Suria Hussin, Siti Suhaila Mohd Yusoff, Faridah Mohd Zin, Ab Rahman Izaini Ghani
Frontal meningioma is often asymptomatic and patient may present with psychiatric symptoms. We report a case of 45- year-old female patient with no premorbid medical illness presented with 6 months history of depressive symptoms and changes in personality. Her worsening cognitive impairment brought her to psychiatry clinic and led to further investigation with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) Brain. The result showed well defined markedly enhancing lesion in the frontal region measuring 5.5 cm X5...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915651/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-pres-after-bevacizumab-therapy-for-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#8
Mohsin Hamid, Ali Ghani, Ida Micaily, Usman Sarwar, Bilal Lashari, Faizan Malik
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an increasingly recognizable neuro-clinical syndrome. Clinical and neurological manifestations of PRES include hypertension, headache, encephalopathy, seizures, and symmetrical white matter changes on brain MRI. Most common precipitants of PRES are acute medical illness, hypertensive crisis, eclampsia, immunosuppressive therapy, and chemotherapy. Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that halts angiogenesis by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor...
2018: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915214/ventral-striatal-dysfunction-in-cocaine-dependence-difference-mapping-for-subregional-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#9
Sheng Zhang, Chiang-Shan R Li
Research of dopaminergic deficits has focused on the ventral striatum (VS) with many studies elucidating altered resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) in individuals with cocaine dependence (CD). The VS comprises functional subregions and delineation of subregional changes in rsFC requires careful consideration of the differences between addicted and healthy populations. In the current study, we parcellated the VS using whole-brain rsFC differences between CD and non-drug-using controls (HC). Voxels with similar rsFC changes formed functional clusters...
June 18, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913529/a-pilot-study-evaluating-cerebral-vasculitis-in-kawasaki-s-disease
#10
Jung Sook Yeom, Young Hye Cho, Chung Mo Koo, Jin Su Jun, Ji Sook Park, Eun Sil Park, Ji-Hyun Seo, Jae-Young Lim, Hyang-Ok Woo, Hee-Shang Youn
Cerebral vasculitis is thought to be a possible underlying mechanism of severe neurological complications of Kawasaki's disease (KD), such as cerebral infarct or aneurysm rupture. To evaluate the intracranial inflammatory response in patients with acute-stage KD, we measured the levels of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) and pentraxin-3 (PTX3) in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with KD ( n  = 7) and compared the levels to those of the age- and sex-matched febrile control patients (bacterial meningitis [ n  = 5], enteroviral meningitis [ n  = 10], nonspecific viral illness without central nervous system involvement [ n  = 10])...
June 18, 2018: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912812/multicenter-review-of-current-practices-associated-with-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-in-pediatric-patients-after-trauma
#11
Amee M Bigelow, Katherine T Flynn-O'Brien, Pippa M Simpson, Mahua Dasgupta, Sheila J Hanson
OBJECTIVES: Frequency of venous thromboembolism in pediatric trauma patients admitted to PICUs is not insignificant, ranging up to 6%. Risk factors have been identified in this population. However, there is little consensus of actual venous thromboembolism prophylaxis practice. We examined factors associated with venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in PICUs. DESIGN: A retrospective study evaluating associations with mechanical venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, pharmacologic venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, or dual therapy (DUAL) prophylaxis compared with no venous thromboembolism prophylaxis...
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912426/experimental-infection-of-syrian-hamsters-with-aerosolized-nipah-virus
#12
Olivier Escaffre, Terence Hill, Tetsuro Ikegami, Terry L Juelich, Jennifer K Smith, Lihong Zhang, David E Perez, Colm Atkins, Arnold Park, William S Lawrence, Satheesh K Sivasubramani, Jennifer E Peel, Johnny W Peterson, Benhur Lee, Alexander N Freiberg
Background: Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus (genus henipavirus) that can cause severe respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans. Transmission occurs through consumption of NiV-contaminated foods, and contact with NiV-infected animals or human body fluids. However, it is unclear whether aerosols derived from aforesaid sources or others also contribute to transmission, and current knowledge on NiV-induced pathogenicity after small particle aerosol exposure is still limited. Methods: infectivity, pathogenicity and real-time dissemination of aerosolized NiV in Syrian hamsters was evaluated using NiV-Malaysia (NiV-M) and/or its recombinant expressing firefly luciferase (rNiV-Fluc NP)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910709/a-complex-relationship-between-suicide-dementia-and-amyloid-a-narrative-review
#13
Ismael Conejero, Sophie Navucet, Jacques Keller, Emilie Olié, Philippe Courtet, Audrey Gabelle
Background: Suicide rates are high among older adults and many conditions have been related to suicide in this population: chronic illnesses, physical disabilities, cancer, social isolation, mental disorders and neurocognitive disorders. Objectives: Among neurocognitive disorders, analysis of the relationships between dementia and suicidal behaviors led to conflicting results and some questions are still without answer. Particularly, it is not known whether (i) Alzheimer's disease (AD) increases the risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts (SA) or the frequency of death by suicide; (ii) the presence of suicidal ideation or SA in people older than 65 years of age is an early dementia sign; and (iii) amyloid load in frontal areas facilitates SA by modifying the decision-making pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910027/nutritional-status-affects-cortical-folding-lessons-learned-from-anorexia-nervosa
#14
Fabio Bernardoni, Joseph A King, Daniel Geisler, Julian Birkenstock, Friederike I Tam, Kerstin Weidner, Veit Roessner, Tonya White, Stefan Ehrlich
BACKGROUND: Cortical folding is thought to remain relatively invariant after birth. Therefore, differences seen in psychiatric disorders have been proposed as early biomarkers or used as intermediate phenotypes in imaging genetics studies. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with drastic and rapid structural brain alterations and thus may be an ideal model disorder to study environmental influences on cortical folding. METHODS: To date, the only two studies in AN applied different methods (local gyrification index and mean curvature) and found seemingly discordant results...
May 23, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908972/bidirectional-relationships-between-sleep-and-amyloid-beta-in-the-hippocampus
#15
Julien Dufort-Gervais, Valérie Mongrain, Jonathan Brouillette
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive hippocampal-dependent explicit memory deficits that begin at the onset of the illness. An early hallmark of AD is the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aß) proteins in brain structures involved in encoding and consolidation of memory, like the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Aß neurotoxicity is known to induce synaptic dysfunctions and neuronal death leading to cognitive decline. Another recurrent event observed in AD is sleep disturbances...
June 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908254/the-neurotoxin-diethyl-dithiophosphate-impairs-glutamate-transport-in-cultured-bergmann-glia-cells
#16
Tatiana N Olivares-Bañuelos, Isabel Martínez-Hernández, Luisa C Hernández-Kelly, Donají Chi-Castañeda, Libia Vega, Arturo Ortega
Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate Central Nervous System, is involved in almost every aspect of brain physiology, and its signaling properties are severely affected in most neurodegenerative diseases. This neurotransmitter has to be efficiently removed from the synaptic cleft in order to prevent an over-stimulation of glutamate receptors that leads to neuronal death. Specific sodium-dependent membrane transporters, highly enriched in glial cells, elicit the clearance of glutamate...
June 13, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907493/reduced-higher-dimensional-resting-state-fmri-dynamism-in-clinical-high-risk-individuals-for-schizophrenia-identified-by-meta-state-analysis
#17
Eva Mennigen, Robyn L Miller, Barnaly Rashid, Susanna L Fryer, Rachel L Loewy, Barbara K Stuart, Daniel H Mathalon, Vince D Calhoun
New techniques to investigate functional network connectivity in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data have recently emerged. One novel approach, called meta-state analysis, goes beyond the mere cross-correlation of time courses of distinct brain areas and explores temporal dynamism in more detail, allowing for connectivity states to overlap in time and capturing global dynamic behavior. Previous studies have shown that patients with chronic schizophrenia exhibit reduced neural dynamism compared to healthy controls, but it is not known whether these alterations extend to earlier phases of the illness...
June 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907266/mri-features-of-clinical-outcome-in-bipolar-disorder-a-selected-review
#18
REVIEW
N Dusi, V De Carlo, G Delvecchio, M Bellani, J C Soares, P Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe and disabling mental illness, which is characterized by selective gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) brain alterations, as observed by several imaging studies. However, the clinical course of the disease is uncertain and can vary across BD patients, with some having a benign course and others a severe disability. In this perspective, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can help identifying biological markers of worse prognosis. METHODS: The present selected review aimed at summarizing structural MRI (sMRI) studies exploring the correlation between brain morphology and features of clinical outcome, which could include treatment response, cognitive impairment and global functioning...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906634/whole-head-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-using-a-least-norm-direct-dipole-inversion-method
#19
Hongfu Sun, Yuhan Ma, M Ethan MacDonald, G Bruce Pike
A new dipole field inversion method for whole head quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is proposed. Instead of performing background field removal and local field inversion sequentially, the proposed method performs dipole field inversion directly on the total field map in a single step. To aid this under-determined and ill-posed inversion process and obtain robust QSM images, Tikhonov regularization is implemented to seek the local susceptibility solution with the least-norm (LN) using the L-curve criterion...
June 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899806/why-is-working-memory-performance-unstable-a-review-of-21-factors
#20
REVIEW
Rachael N Blasiman, Christopher A Was
In this paper, we systematically reviewed twenty-one factors that have been shown to either vary with or influence performance on working memory (WM) tasks. Specifically, we review previous work on the influence of intelligence, gender, age, personality, mental illnesses/medical conditions, dieting, craving, stress/anxiety, emotion/motivation, stereotype threat, temperature, mindfulness training, practice, bilingualism, musical training, altitude/hypoxia, sleep, exercise, diet, psychoactive substances, and brain stimulation on WM performance...
March 2018: Europe's Journal of Psychology
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