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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684537/genetic-imaging-study-with-tc-99m-trodat-1-spect-in-adolescents-with-adhd-using-oros-methylphenidate
#1
Aynur Pekcanlar Akay, Gamze Çapa Kaya, Samet Kose, Çiğdem Eresen Yazıcıoğlu, Handan Özek Erkuran, Sevay Alşen Güney, Kaya Oğuz, Duygu Keskin, Burak Baykara, Neslihan İnal Emiroğlu, Mine Şencan Eren, Sefa Kızıldağ, Türkan Ertay, Dua Özsoylu, Süha Miral, Hatice Durak, Ali Saffet Gönül, Luis Augusto Rohde
AIM: To examine theeffects on the brain of 2-month treatment withamethylphenidate extended-release formulation (OROS-MPH) using [Tc-99m ] TRODAT-1SPECT in a sample of treatment-naïve adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In addition, to assess whether risk alleles (homozygosity for 10-repeat allele at the DAT1 gene were associated with alterations in striatal DAT availability. METHODS: Twenty adolescents with ADHD underwent brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans with [Tc-99m ] TRODAT-1 at baseline and two months after starting OROS-MPH treatment with dosages up to 1 mg/kg/day...
April 20, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677618/altered-serum-levels-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-and-chronic-medicated-schizophrenia
#2
Fei Ye, Qiongqiong Zhan, Wenhuan Xiao, Xiaowei Tang, Jin Li, Hui Dong, Weiwei Sha, Xiaobin Zhang
There is much evidence of a relationship between alterations in the brain's regional cellular energy metabolism and blood flow in schizophrenic. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric illnesses. So, we compared serum VEGF levels in drug-naïve first-episode psychotic (FEP) and chronically medicated schizophrenic to examine if a correlation existed between VEGF and psychopathological symptoms. The serum VEGF levels were assessed in 46 FEP patients, 47 chronic medicated patients and 50 healthy controls...
April 11, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673868/corrigendum-to-acute-and-repeated-exposure-to-social-stress-reduces-gut-microbiota-diversity-in-syrian-hamsters-behav-brain-res-345-2018-39-48
#3
Katherine A Partrick, Benoit Chassaing, Linda Q Beach, Katharine E McCann, Andrew T Gewirtz, Kim L Huhman
Social stress can promote a variety of neuropsychiatric illnesses, many of which have a high co-morbidity with gastrointestinal disorders. Recent data indicate that gastrointestinal microbiota can affect their host's brain and behavior. Syrian hamsters are ideal subjects for social stress research because they are territorial, aggressive, and rapidly form dominant/subordinate relationships. The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to social stress in hamsters alters gut microbiota in dominants and subordinates after an agonistic encounter and if pre-stress gut microbiota composition is correlated with the outcome of such a conflict...
April 16, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673476/personalized-neuroscience-common-and-individual-specific-features-in-functional-brain-networks
#4
Theodore D Satterthwaite, Cedric H Xia, Danielle S Bassett
Despite the translational promise of non-invasive neuroimaging, its practical application to individuals has remained largely elusive. In this issue of Neuron, Gratton et al. (2018) present data from nine highly sampled adult humans and demonstrate that functional brain networks are in large part composed of individual-specific features that are stable over time. Such data represent a critical prerequisite for the development of new diagnostics and personalized interventions for neuropsychiatric illnesses.
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672741/multimodal-brain-changes-in-first-episode-mania-a-voxel-based-morphometry-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-connectivity-study
#5
José M Goikolea, Danai Dima, Ramón Landín-Romero, Imma Torres, Giuseppe DelVecchio, Marc Valentí, Benedikt L Amann, Caterina Mar Bonnín, Peter J McKenna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Sophia Frangou, Eduard Vieta
Background: Brain structural and functional changes in bipolar disorder (BD) are well-established findings, but it is uncertain whether these changes are already present in first episode mania (FEM). Methods: We compared 31 FEM subjects, with 31 healthy individuals matched for age, sex, and premorbid IQ. Whole-brain voxel-wise morphometry, functional magnetic resonance imaging during the n-back task, and a functional connectivity analysis were performed. Results: There were no volumetric differences between the 2 groups...
April 17, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670824/characterization-of-brain-anatomical-patterns-by-comparing-region-intensity-distributions-applications-to-the-description-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Diana L Giraldo, Juan D García-Arteaga, Simón Cárdenas-Robledo, Eduardo Romero
Purpose: This work presents an automatic characterization of the Alzheimer's disease describing the illness as a multidirectional departure from a baseline defining the control state, being these directions determined by a distance between functional-equivalent anatomical regions. Methods: After a brain parcellation, a region is described by its histogram of gray levels, and the Earth mover's distance establishes how close or far these regions are. The medoid of the control group is set as the reference and any brain is characterized by its set of distances to this medoid...
April 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669557/discovery-biology-of-neuropsychiatric-syndromes-dbns-a-center-for-integrating-clinical-medicine-and-basic-science
#7
Biju Viswanath, Naren P Rao, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Palanimuthu T Sivakumar, Arun Kandasamy, Muralidharan Kesavan, Urvakhsh Meherwan Mehta, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, John P John, Odity Mukherjee, Meera Purushottam, Ramakrishnan Kannan, Bhupesh Mehta, Thennarasu Kandavel, B Binukumar, Jitender Saini, Deepak Jayarajan, A Shyamsundar, Sydney Moirangthem, K G Vijay Kumar, Jagadisha Thirthalli, Prabha S Chandra, Bangalore N Gangadhar, Pratima Murthy, Mitradas M Panicker, Upinder S Bhalla, Sumantra Chattarji, Vivek Benegal, Mathew Varghese, Janardhan Y C Reddy, Padinjat Raghu, Mahendra Rao, Sanjeev Jain
BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence that there are shared genetic, environmental and developmental risk factors in psychiatry, that cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries. With this background, the Discovery biology of neuropsychiatric syndromes (DBNS) proposes to recruit patients from five different syndromes (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, Alzheimer's dementia and substance use disorders), identify those with multiple affected relatives, and invite these families to participate in this study...
April 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668471/evaluation-of-the-role-of-abcb1gene-polymorphic-variants-on-psychiatric-disorders-predisposition-in-macedonian-population
#8
Zorica Naumovska, Aleksandra K Nestorovska, Zoran Sterjev, Ana Filipce, Aleksandra Grozdanova, Aleksandar Dimovski, Ljubica Suturkova, Vladimir Serafimoski
The psychiatric and other CNS disorders are characterized with unregulated neuro-inflammatory processes and chronic microglia cell activation resulting with detrimental effect. ABCB1gene polymorphismsC1236T, G2677T/Aand C3435T are associated with P-glycoprotein expression and function andare linked with predisposition to psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. The relationship between mood disorders and glucocorticoids has been confirmed and ABCB1 SNPs influence the glucocorticoids access to the brain...
December 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666740/treatment-of-acute-psychosis-with-second-generation-antipsychotics-in-a-patient-with-left-temporal-lobe-lesion
#9
Richard Shehane, Steve Miller, Luke Suber, Miranda Chakos
We present a case of rapid onset severe psychosis followed by suicide attempt in a United States Navy sailor. Investigation revealed a left temporal lobe brain mass suspicious for low-grade glioma. After hospitalization and medical management with olanzapine and lurasidone the patient's psychosis improved. The purpose of this paper is to add to the existing case reports that suggest a relationship between temporal lobe lesions and psychiatric illness, specifically psychosis. In addition, this case adds insight into the effectiveness of medical therapy for brain tumor patients that are not immediate candidates for neurosurgical intervention...
2018: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665736/fear-avoidance-and-clinical-outcomes-from-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Noah D Silverberg, William Panenka, Grant L Iverson
Characterizing psychological factors that contribute to persistent symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) can inform early intervention. To determine whether fear avoidance, a known risk factor for chronic disability after musculoskeletal injury, is associated with worse clinical outcomes from MTBI, adults were recruited from four outpatient MTBI clinics and assessed at their first clinic visit (M=2.7, SD=1.5 weeks post-injury) and again 4-5 months later. Of 273 patients screened, 102 completed the initial assessment and 87 returned for the outcome assessment...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663995/-risk-factors-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-critical-ill-patients
#11
Jianyu Fu, Hongying Bi, Yunsong Xia, Hui Fang, Xu Liu, Yan Tang, Difen Wang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical features of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients, and to explore the correlation between the routine detection index and the new-onset AF and to find out risk factors for new AF in critically ill patients. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted. The patients with AF admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of the Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University from March 2016 to June 2017 were enrolled. The patients were divided into new-onset AF group and past-existed AF group according to their past history of AF (including persistent AF, paroxysmal AF or permanent AF)...
April 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663874/n-acetyl-cysteine-and-vitamin-d-supplementation-in-treatment-resistant-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-patients-a-general-review
#12
Flavia di Michele, Alberto Siracusano, Talamo Alessandra, Cinzia Niolu
OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling mental illness for which pharmacological and psychosocial interventions are all too often inadequate. This demonstrates the need for more targeted therapeutics. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have implicated dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of OCD. Moreover there are studies suggesting that neuroimmune abnormalities may play an important role in the pathogenesis of OCD. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a safe and readily available agent that would modify the synaptic release of glutamate in subcortical brain regions via modulation of the cysteine-glutamate antiporter...
April 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663591/research-progress-on-the-role-of-melatonin-and-its-receptors-in-animal-reproduction-a-comprehensive-review
#13
REVIEW
H S Talpur, I B Chandio, R D Brohi, T Worku, Z Rehman, D Bhattarai, F Ullah, L JiaJia, L Yang
Melatonin and its receptors play a crucial role in the regulation of the animal reproductive process, primarily in follicular development. However, the role that melatonin performs in regulating hormones related with reproduction remains unclear. Melatonin and its receptors are present both in female and male animals' organs, such as ovaries, heart, brain and liver. Melatonin regulates ovarian actions and is a key mediator of reproductive actions. Melatonin has numerous effects on animal reproduction, such as protection of gametes and embryos, response to clock genes, immune-neuroendocrine, reconciliation of seasonal variations in immune function, and silence or blockage of genes...
April 16, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662434/review-of-the-neural-oscillations-underlying-meditation
#14
REVIEW
Darrin J Lee, Edwin Kulubya, Philippe Goldin, Amir Goodarzi, Fady Girgis
Objective: Meditation is one type of mental training that has been shown to produce many cognitive benefits. Meditation practice is associated with improvement in concentration and reduction of stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, different forms of meditation training are now being used as interventions for a variety of psychological and somatic illnesses. These benefits are thought to occur as a result of neurophysiologic changes. The most commonly studied specific meditation practices are focused attention (FA), open-monitoring (OM), as well as transcendental meditation (TM), and loving-kindness (LK) meditation...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661290/factors-affecting-the-caloric-and-protein-intake-over-time-in-critically-ill-trauma-patients
#15
Tobias Haltmeier, Kenji Inaba, Beat Schnüriger, Stefano Siboni, Elizabeth Benjamin, Lydia Lam, Damon Clark, Demetrios Demetriades
BACKGROUND: Major trauma leads to increased nutritional requirements. However, little is known about the actual amount of calories and protein administered and the factors affecting the intake over time in critically ill trauma patients. METHODS: Prospective study including 100 trauma patients admitted to the Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Medical Center intensive care unit between March 2014 and October 2014. Inclusion criteria were age > 16 y, surgery at admission, and no oral nutrition...
June 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660957/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-educational-interventions-for-children-and-adolescents-with-acquired-brain-injury
#16
Mark A Linden, Ann E Glang, Audrey McKinlay
BACKGROUND: Children with brain injuries face significant challenges in their recovery. One of the greatest is transitioning from hospital/home to school where they face issues such as reintegration, lack of understanding and catching up with missed work. Many children struggle with their altered circumstances and require additional supports to meet the academic demands of systems which are ill equipped to teach them. OBJECTIVE: To summarise the best available evidence for the use of educational interventions to improve academic attainment in childhood survivors of acquired brain injury (ABI)...
April 7, 2018: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657307/non-coding-rna-as-novel-players-in-the-pathophysiology-of-schizophrenia
#17
REVIEW
Andrew Gibbons, Madhara Udawela, Brian Dean
Schizophrenia is associated with diverse changes in the brain's transcriptome and proteome. Underlying these changes is the complex dysregulation of gene expression and protein production that varies both spatially across brain regions and temporally with the progression of the illness. The growing body of literature showing changes in non-coding RNA in individuals with schizophrenia offers new insights into the mechanisms causing this dysregulation. A large number of studies have reported that the expression of microRNA (miRNA) is altered in the brains of individuals with schizophrenia...
April 12, 2018: Non-Coding RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656909/corpus-callosum-shape-and-morphology-in-youth-across-the-psychosis-spectrum
#18
D M Prendergast, K H Karlsgodt, C L Fales, B A Ardekani, P R Szeszko
The corpus callosum is the largest white matter tract in the human brain connecting and coordinating homologous regions of the right and left hemispheres and has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of psychosis. We investigated corpus callosum morphology in a large community cohort of 917 individuals (aged 8-21), including 267 endorsing subsyndromal or threshold psychotic symptoms (207 on the psychosis spectrum and 60 with limited psychosis based on previously published criteria) and 650 non-psychotic volunteers...
April 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656774/connecting-the-dots-in-mental-illness-the-synapse-as-the-intersection-of-brain-function-and-disease
#19
EDITORIAL
Nael Nadif Kasri, Jess Nithianantharajah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651138/gene-expression-links-functional-networks-across-cortex-and-striatum
#20
Kevin M Anderson, Fenna M Krienen, Eun Young Choi, Jenna M Reinen, B T Thomas Yeo, Avram J Holmes
The human brain is comprised of a complex web of functional networks that link anatomically distinct regions. However, the biological mechanisms supporting network organization remain elusive, particularly across cortical and subcortical territories with vastly divergent cellular and molecular properties. Here, using human and primate brain transcriptional atlases, we demonstrate that spatial patterns of gene expression show strong correspondence with limbic and somato/motor cortico-striatal functional networks...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
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