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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227297/neuropsychiatric-effects-of-epilepsy-in-developmental-disorders
#1
Jay Salpekar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The overlap of neuropsychiatric illness and developmental disability continues to be prominently recognized in clinical practice and in the academic literature. Theoretical and practical considerations may represent a frontier for understanding brain and behavior relationships. The purpose of this review is to explore this common relationship and report on recent literature that helps advance the larger fields of psychiatry and neurology. RECENT FINDINGS: Overlap between developmental disability, epilepsy, and neuropsychiatric illness may be more common than originally thought...
December 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223329/the-impact-of-psychosis-on-brain-anatomy-in-bipolar-disorder-a-structural-mri-study
#2
A Carlo Altamura, Eleonora Maggioni, Taj Dhanoa, Valentina Ciappolino, Riccardo A Paoli, Laura Cremaschi, Cecilia Prunas, Giulia Orsenigo, Elisabetta Caletti, Claudia M Cinnante, Fabio M Triulzi, Bernardo Dell'Osso, Lakshmi Yatham, Paolo Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a major psychiatric illness characterized by heterogeneous symptoms including psychotic features. Up until now, neuroimaging studies investigating cerebral morphology in patients with BD have underestimated the potential impact of psychosis on brain anatomy in BD patients. In this regard, psychotic and non-psychotic BD may represent biologically different subtypes of the disorder, being possibly associated with specific cerebral features. METHODS: In the present study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3T was used to identify the neuroanatomical correlates of psychosis in an International sample of BD patients...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222686/eeg-source-imaging-indices-of-cognitive-control-show-associations-with-dopamine-system-genes
#3
G McLoughlin, J Palmer, S Makeig, N Bigdely-Shamlo, T Banaschewski, M Laucht, D Brandeis
Cognitive or executive control is a critical mental ability, an important marker of mental illness, and among the most heritable of neurocognitive traits. Two candidate genes, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and DRD4, which both have a roles in the regulation of cortical dopamine, have been consistently associated with cognitive control. Here, we predicted that individuals with the COMT Met/Met allele would show improved response execution and inhibition as indexed by event-related potentials in a Go/NoGo task, while individuals with the DRD4 7-repeat allele would show impaired brain activity...
December 8, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222290/chronic-organ-failure-in-adult-sickle-cell-disease
#4
REVIEW
Elliott Vichinsky
Sickle cell disease is now a chronic adult illness characterized by progressive multiorgan failure, particularly involving the brain and kidney. The etiology is multifactorial; it includes hemolysis and nitric oxide deficiency. As patients age, most experience neurologic insult. Twenty-five percent of older adults have had a clinical stroke and at least half of the population have had a silent infarct, cortical atrophy, and neurocognitive impairment. Periodic screening with neuroimaging and neurocognitive testing is recommended...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221321/living-related-lung-transplantation
#5
REVIEW
Hiroshi Date
Living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT) was developed to deal with the severe shortage of brain dead door for patients who would not survive the long waiting period. In standard LDLLT, right and left lower lobes removed from two healthy donors are implanted into a recipient after right and left pneumonectomies using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The number of LDLLT has decreased in the USA due to the recent change in allocation system for cadaveric donor lungs. For the past several years, most of the reports on LDLLT have been from Japan, where the average waiting time for a cadaveric lung is exceeding 800 days...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220695/altered-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-early-course-schizophrenia
#6
Aastha Sharma, Arvind Kumar, Sadhana Singh, Triptish Bhatia, R P Beniwal, Subash Khushu, Konasale M Prasad, Smita N Deshpande
Impaired connectivity is proposed to underlie pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Existing studies on functional connectivity show inconsistent results. We examined functional connectivity in a clinically homogenous sample of 34 early course schizophrenia patients compared with/to 19 healthy controls using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). Mean duration of illness for schizophrenia patients was 4 ± 1.78 years. Following a comprehensive clinical assessment, rsfMRI data were acquired using a 3...
November 22, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220360/substitutions-of-prp-n-terminal-histidine-residues-modulate-scrapie-disease-pathogenesis-and-incubation-time-in-transgenic-mice
#7
Sabina Eigenbrod, Petra Frick, Uwe Bertsch, Gerda Mitteregger-Kretzschmar, Janina Mielke, Marko Maringer, Niklas Piening, Alexander Hepp, Nathalie Daude, Otto Windl, Johannes Levin, Armin Giese, Vignesh Sakthivelu, Jörg Tatzelt, Hans Kretzschmar, David Westaway
Prion diseases have been linked to impaired copper homeostasis and copper induced-oxidative damage to the brain. Divalent metal ions, such as Cu2+ and Zn2+, bind to cellular prion protein (PrPC) at octapeptide repeat (OR) and non-OR sites within the N-terminal half of the protein but information on the impact of such binding on conversion to the misfolded isoform often derives from studies using either OR and non-OR peptides or bacterially-expressed recombinant PrP. Here we created new transgenic mouse lines expressing PrP with disrupted copper binding sites within all four histidine-containing OR's (sites 1-4, H60G, H68G, H76G, H84G, "TetraH>G" allele) or at site 5 (composed of residues His-95 and His-110; "H95G" allele) and monitored the formation of misfolded PrP in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217682/overexpression-of-the-histone-dimethyltransferase-g9a-in-nucleus-accumbens-shell-increases-cocaine-self-administration-stress-induced-reinstatement-and-anxiety
#8
Ethan M Anderson, Erin B Larson, Daniel Guzman, Anne Marie Wissman, Rachael L Neve, Eric J Nestler, David W Self
Repeated exposure to cocaine induces lasting epigenetic changes in neurons that promote the development and persistence of addiction. One epigenetic alteration involves reductions in levels of the histone dimethyltransferase, G9a, in nucleus accumbens (NAc) after chronic cocaine administration. This reduction in G9a may enhance cocaine reward since overexpressing G9a in the NAc decreases cocaine-conditioned place preference. Thus, we hypothesized that HSV-mediated G9a overexpression in the NAc shell (NAcSh) would attenuate cocaine self-administration and cocaine-seeking behavior...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215081/experimental-zika-virus-inoculation-in-a-new-world-monkey-model-reproduces-key-features-of-the-human-infection
#9
Charles Y Chiu, Claudia Sánchez-San Martín, Jerome Bouquet, Tony Li, Shigeo Yagi, Manasi Tamhankar, Vida L Hodara, Laura M Parodi, Sneha Somasekar, Guixia Yu, Luis D Giavedoni, Suzette Tardif, Jean Patterson
A monkey model of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is urgently needed to better understand transmission and pathogenesis, given its proven association with fetal brain defects in pregnant women and acute neurological illness. Here we experimentally infected 4 male marmosets with ZIKV (prototype 1947 African strain) and monitored them clinically with sampling of various body fluids and tissues for nearly 3 months. We show that the course of acute infection with ZIKV in these New World monkeys resembles the human illness in many respects, including (1) lack of apparent clinical symptoms in most cases, (2) persistence of the virus in body fluids such as semen and saliva for longer periods of time than in serum, and (3) generation of neutralizing antibodies as well as an antiviral immunological host response...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208849/possessions-including-poltergeist-are-you-there-madness
#10
Olivier Walusinski
Beliefs involving the devil and possession figured in the nosography of mental illness that alienists gradually established during the 19th century. The description of this form of cenesthetic hallucination resulted in "the possessed" being viewed as patients, which protected them from the trials and punishments they so frequently faced in earlier centuries. According to psychologists, this illusion of mental duality is linked to impairment of introspective capacities. Current brain imaging suggests inappropriate activity of the default mode network, which interferes with attentional systems during the hallucinatory episode...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208422/support-vector-machine-based-classification-of-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-schizophrenia-patients-and-healthy-controls-using-structural-mri
#11
Yuan Xiao, Zhihan Yan, Youjin Zhao, Bo Tao, Huaiqiang Sun, Fei Li, Li Yao, Wenjing Zhang, Shah Chandan, Jieke Liu, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Su Lui
Although regional brain deficits have been demonstrated in schizophrenia patients by structural MRI studies, one important question that remains largely unanswered is whether the complex and subtle deficits revealed by MRI could be used as objective biomarkers to discriminate patients from healthy controls individually. To address this question, a total of 326 right-handed participants were recruited, including 163 drug-naïve first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and 163 demographically matched healthy controls...
December 2, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207548/the-role-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-in-developmental-psychopathology-a-systematic-review-on-early-psychosis-autism-and-adhd
#12
REVIEW
Carlo Agostoni, Maria Nobile, Valentina Ciappolino, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Alessandra Tesei, Stefano Turolo, Alessandro Crippa, Alessandra Mazzocchi, Carlo A Altamura, Paolo Brambilla
In this systematic review, we will consider and debate studies that have explored the effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in three major, and somehow related, developmental psychiatric disorders: Autism, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity disorder and Psychosis. The impact of ω-3 PUFAs on clinical symptoms and, if possible, brain trajectory in children and adolescents suffering from these illnesses will be reviewed and discussed, considering the biological plausibility of the effects of omega-3 fatty acids, together with their potential perspectives in the field...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205022/changing-world-changing-old-age
#13
Harriet Finne-Soveri
Every fifth Finn has turned 65. Most of them live an active life that does not differ from that of the working-age population. Long-term illnesses and the resulting disability are accumulating to the late senescence. The need for help from other people and the resulting financial pressures on municipalities are targeted to the elderly having a memory disorder as one of their diseases. Is normal old age thus disappearing, and will the group of those having lost their brain health and requiring care be the only thing that is left from old age?...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204199/clinicopathological-study-of-pediatric-posterior-fossa-tumors
#14
Kadali Satya Vara Prasad, D Ravi, Vijay Pallikonda, Bhavana Venkata Satya Raman
Context: Brain tumor is one of the most devastating forms of human illness, especially when occurring in the posterior fossa and involving the brainstem. Tumors in the posterior fossa are considered some of the most critical brain lesions. This is primarily due to the limited space within the posterior fossa, as well as the potential involvement of the vital brainstem nuclei. Aims: The aim of this study is to analyze the incidence, clinical features, surgical outcome, complications, and prognosis in a series of 37 pediatric patients with posterior fossa tumors who underwent surgery between September 2012 and January 2015 from the Department of Neurosurgery, King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam (both prospective and retrospective study)...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203442/n-3-pufa-diet-enrichment-prevents-amyloid-beta-induced-depressive-like-phenotype
#15
M G Morgese, S Schiavone, E Mhillaj, M Bove, P Tucci, L Trabace
Among neuropsychiatric diseases, depression is one of the most prevalent. Many pathologies have been indicated as comorbid with depression and in particular, neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's diseases (AD). In this regard, several evidences endorse a strong relationship between depression and AD, so much that this mental illness has been proposed either as a risk factor for AD or as a prodromic AD phase. Furthermore, amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide, the main constituent of amyloid plaques commonly considered the principal hallmark of AD brains, has been shown to be increased, in its soluble form, in depressed patients...
December 1, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203057/febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-fires-with-super-refractory-status-epilepticus-revealing-autoimmune-encephalitis-due-to-gabaar-antibodies
#16
D Caputo, R Iorio, F Vigevano, L Fusco
BACKGROUND: Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) has been described as an epileptic encephalopathy of unknown etiology affecting previously healthy children following febrile illness. Despite large investigations on autoimmune pathogenesis no membrane antibodies has been associated since now. CASE STUDY: We report a 13 years-old girl with negative history for neurological or autoimmune disease that developed at the sixth day of high fever a super-refractory status epilepticus...
November 24, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202656/clinical-and-cognitive-significance-of-auditory-sensory-processing-deficits-in-schizophrenia
#17
Holly K Hamilton, Terrance J Williams, Joseph Ventura, Leland J Jasperse, Emily M Owens, Gregory A Miller, Kenneth L Subotnik, Keith H Nuechterlein, Cindy M Yee
OBJECTIVE: Although patients with schizophrenia exhibit impaired suppression of the P50 event-related brain potential in response to the second of two identical auditory stimuli during a paired-stimulus paradigm, uncertainty remains over whether this deficit in inhibitory gating of auditory sensory processes has relevance for patients' clinical symptoms or cognitive performance. The authors examined associations between P50 suppression deficits and several core features of schizophrenia to address this gap...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202258/the-spice-iii-study-protocol-and-analysis-plan-a-randomised-trial-of-early-goaldirected-sedation-compared-with-standard-care-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#18
Yahya Shehabi, Andrew B Forbes, Yaseen Arabi, Frances Bass, Rinaldo Bellomo, Suhaini Kadiman, Belinda D Howe, Colin McArthur, Michael C Reade, Ian Seppelt, Jukka Takala, Steve Webb, Matthew P Wise
BACKGROUND: Sedation strategy in critically ill patients who are mechanically ventilated is influenced by patient-related factors, choice of sedative agent and the intensity or depth of sedation prescribed. The impact of sedation strategy on outcome, in particular when delivered early after initiation of mechanical ventilation, is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To present the protocol and analysis plan of a large randomised clinical trial investigating the effect of a sedation strategy, in critically ill patients who are mechanically ventilated, based on a protocol targeting light sedation using dexmedetomidine as the primary sedative, termed "early goal-directed sedation", compared with usual practice...
December 2017: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201642/the-effect-of-duration-of-illness-and-antipsychotics-on-subcortical-volumes-in-schizophrenia-analysis-of-778-subjects
#19
Naoki Hashimoto, Yoichi M Ito, Naohiro Okada, Hidenaga Yamamori, Yuka Yasuda, Michiko Fujimoto, Noriko Kudo, Ariyoshi Takemura, Shuraku Son, Hisashi Narita, Maeri Yamamoto, Khin Khin Tha, Asuka Katsuki, Kazutaka Ohi, Fumio Yamashita, Shinsuke Koike, Tsutomu Takahashi, Kiyotaka Nemoto, Masaki Fukunaga, Toshiaki Onitsuka, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Hidenori Yamasue, Michio Suzuki, Kiyoto Kasai, Ichiro Kusumi, Ryota Hashimoto
Background: The effect of duration of illness and antipsychotic medication on the volumes of subcortical structures in schizophrenia is inconsistent among previous reports. We implemented a large sample analysis utilizing clinical data from 11 institutions in a previous meta-analysis. Methods: Imaging and clinical data of 778 schizophrenia subjects were taken from a prospective meta-analysis conducted by the COCORO consortium in Japan. The effect of duration of illness and daily dose and type of antipsychotics were assessed using the linear mixed effect model where the volumes of subcortical structures computed by FreeSurfer were used as a dependent variable and age, sex, duration of illness, daily dose of antipsychotics and intracranial volume were used as independent variables, and the type of protocol was incorporated as a random effect for intercept...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201010/microglia-and-brain-plasticity-in-acute-psychosis-and-schizophrenia-illness-course-a-meta-review
#20
REVIEW
Livia J De Picker, Manuel Morrens, Steven A Chance, Delphine Boche
Objective: Schizophrenia poses a tremendous health, social, and economic burden upon patients and society, indicating current treatment options remain inadequate. Recent findings from several lines of evidence have pointed to the importance of immune system involvement in not only premorbid neurodevelopmental but also subsequent symptom generation and aging processes of brain change in schizophrenia. In this meta-review, we use the summarized evidence from recent quantitative systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses of several subspecialties to critically evaluate the hypothesis that immune-related processes shape the symptomatic presentation and illness course of schizophrenia, both directly and indirectly through altered neuroplasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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