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Gut microbiota and brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548992/gut-microbiota-and-host-defense-in-critical-illness
#1
Max C Jacobs, Bastiaan W Haak, Floor Hugenholtz, W Joost Wiersinga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review aims to discuss emerging evidence in the field of microbiome-dependent roles in host defense during critical illness with a focus on lung, kidney, and brain inflammation. RECENT FINDINGS: The gut microbiota of critical ill patients is characterized by lower diversity, lower abundances of key commensal genera, and in some cases overgrowth by one bacterial genera, a state otherwise known as dysbiosis. Increasing evidence suggests that microbiota-derived components can reach the circulatory system from the gut and modulate immune homeostasis...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548940/microbiota-gut-brain-axis-and-the-central-nervous-system
#2
REVIEW
Xiqun Zhu, Yong Han, Jing Du, Renzhong Liu, Ketao Jin, Wei Yi
The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated with various CNS diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546539/microbiota-modulation-counteracts-alzheimer-s-disease-progression-influencing-neuronal-proteolysis-and-gut-hormones-plasma-levels
#3
Laura Bonfili, Valentina Cecarini, Sara Berardi, Silvia Scarpona, Jan S Suchodolski, Cinzia Nasuti, Dennis Fiorini, Maria Chiara Boarelli, Giacomo Rossi, Anna Maria Eleuteri
Gut microbiota has a proven role in regulating multiple neuro-chemical pathways through the highly interconnected gut-brain axis. Oral bacteriotherapy thus has potential in the treatment of central nervous system-related pathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Current AD treatments aim to prevent onset, delay progression and ameliorate symptoms. In this work, 3xTg-AD mice in the early stage of AD were treated with SLAB51 probiotic formulation, thereby affecting the composition of gut microbiota and its metabolites...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535372/a-brain-region-specific-neural-pathway-regulating-germinal-matrix-angiogenesis
#4
Shang Ma, Devi Santhosh, Peeyush Kumar T, Zhen Huang
Intimate communication between neural and vascular cells is critical for normal brain development and function. Germinal matrix (GM), a key primordium for the brain reward circuitry, is unique among brain regions for its distinct pace of angiogenesis and selective vulnerability to hemorrhage during development. A major neonatal condition, GM hemorrhage can lead to cerebral palsy, hydrocephalus, and mental retardation. Here we identify a brain-region-specific neural progenitor-based signaling pathway dedicated to regulating GM vessel development...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533660/genes-emotions-and-gut-microbiota-the-next-frontier-for-the-gastroenterologist
#5
REVIEW
Arturo Panduro, Ingrid Rivera-Iñiguez, Maricruz Sepulveda-Villegas, Sonia Roman
Most medical specialties including the field of gastroenterology are mainly aimed at treating diseases rather than preventing them. Genomic medicine studies the health/disease process based on the interaction of the human genes with the environment. The gastrointestinal (GI) system is an ideal model to analyze the interaction between our genes, emotions and the gut microbiota. Based on the current knowledge, this mini-review aims to provide an integrated synopsis of this interaction to achieve a better understanding of the GI disorders related to bad eating habits and stress-related disease...
May 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526435/the-bidirectional-gut-brain-microbiota-axis-as-a-potential-nexus-between-traumatic-brain-injury-inflammation-and-disease
#6
Mark H Sundman, Nan-Kuei Chen, Vignesh Subbian, Ying-Hui Chou
As head injuries and their sequelae have become an increasingly salient matter of public health, experts in the field have made great progress elucidating the biological processes occurring within the brain at the moment of injury and throughout the recovery thereafter. Given the extraordinary rate at which our collective knowledge of neurotrauma has grown, new insights may be revealed by examining the existing literature across disciplines with a new perspective. This article will aim to expand the scope of this rapidly evolving field of research beyond the confines of the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512033/bifidobacterium-cect-7765-modulates-early-stress-induced-immune-neuroendocrine-and-behavioral-alterations-in-mice
#7
A Moya-Pérez, A Perez-Villalba, A Benítez-Páez, I Campillo, Y Sanz
Emerging evidence suggests that there is a window of opportunity within the early developmental period, when microbiota-based interventions could play a major role in modulating the gut-brain axis and, thereby, in preventing mood disorders. This study aims at evaluating the effects and mode of action of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 in a murine model of chronic stress induced by maternal separation (MS). C57Bl/6J male breast-fed pups were divided into four groups, which were subjected or not to MS and supplemented with placebo or B...
May 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506921/decrease-of-blood-anti-%C3%AE-1-3-galactose-abs-levels-in-multiple-sclerosis-ms-and-clinically-isolated-syndrome-cis-patients
#8
L Le Berre, J Rousse, P-A Gourraud, B-M Imbert-Marcille, A Salama, G Evanno, G Semana, A Nicot, E Dugast, P Guérif, C Adjaoud, T Freour, S Brouard, F Agbalika, R Marignier, D Brassat, D-A Laplaud, E Drouet, V Van Pesch, J-P Soulillou
The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains elusive. Among the possible causes, the increase of anti-Neu5Gc antibodies during EBV primo-infection of Infectious mononucleosis (IMN) may damage the integrity of the blood-brain barrier facilitating the transfer of EBV-infected B cells and anti-EBV T cell clones in the brain. We investigated the change in titers of anti-Neu5Gc and anti-α1,3 Galactose antibodies in 49 IMN, in 76 MS, and 73 clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) patients, as well as age/gender-matched healthy individuals...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506555/gut-microbiota-in-parkinson-disease-in-a-northern-german-cohort
#9
Franziska Hopfner, Axel Künstner, Stefanie H Müller, Sven Künzel, Kirsten E Zeuner, Nils G Margraf, Günther Deuschl, John F Baines, Gregor Kuhlenbäumer
Pathologic and epidemiologic studies suggest that Parkinson disease (PD) may in some cases start in the enteric nervous system and spread via the vagal nerve to the brainstem. Mounting evidence suggests that the gut microbiome plays an important role in the communication between gut and brain and that alteration of the gut microbiome is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, including Parkinson disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether Parkinson disease is associated with qualitative or quantitative changes in the gut microbiome...
May 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503135/the-gut-microbiota-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Qinrui Li, Ying Han, Angel Belle C Dy, Randi J Hagerman
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are a common comorbidity in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Many studies have shown alterations in the composition of the fecal flora and metabolic products of the gut microbiome in patients with ASD. The gut microbiota influences brain development and behaviors through the neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, an abnormal gut microbiota is associated with several diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ASD and mood disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496408/the-impact-of-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-on-diabetic-cognition-impairment
#11
REVIEW
Youhua Xu, Hua Zhou, Quan Zhu
Progressive cognitive dysfunction is a central characteristic of diabetic encephalopathy (DE). With an aging population, the incidence of DE is rising and it has become a major threat that seriously affects public health. Studies within this decade have indicated the important role of risk factors such as oxidative stress and inflammation on the development of cognitive impairment. With the recognition of the two-way communication between gut and brain, recent investigation suggests that "microbiota-gut-brain axis" also plays a pivotal role in modulating both cognition function and endocrine stability...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492284/inhibition-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-1-and-activation-of-receptor-2-protect-against-colonic-injury-and-promote-epithelium-repair
#12
Bo Li, Carol Lee, Tali Filler, Alison Hock, Richard You Wu, Qi Li, Shigang Chen, Yuhki Koike, Wan Ip, Lijun Chi, Elke Zani-Ruttenstock, Pekka Määttänen, Tanja Gonska, Paul Delgado-Olguin, Augusto Zani, Philip M Sherman, Agostino Pierro
Maternal separation (MS) in neonates can lead to intestinal injury. MS in neonatal mice disrupts mucosal morphology, induces colonic inflammation and increases trans-cellular permeability. Several studies indicate that intestinal epithelial stem cells are capable of initiating gut repair in a variety of injury models but have not been reported in MS. The pathophysiology of MS-induced gut injury and subsequent repair remains unclear, but communication between the brain and gut contribute to MS-induced colonic injury...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482009/the-microbiota-the-gut-and-the-brain-in-eating-and-alcohol-use-disorders-a-m%C3%A3-nage-%C3%A3-trois
#13
Jamie E Temko, Sofia Bouhlal, Mehdi Farokhnia, Mary R Lee, John F Cryan, Lorenzo Leggio
Aims: Accumulating evidence for the influence of the gut microbiota on the bidirectional communication along the gut-brain axis suggests a role of the gut microbiota in eating disorders (EDs) and alcohol and substance use disorders. The potential influence of altered gut microbiota (dysbiosis) on behaviors associated with such disorders may have implications for developing therapeutic interventions. Methods: A systematic review of preclinical and clinical studies evaluating the gut microbiota, EDs and alcohol and substance use disorders was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science databases with the objective being to examine the role of the gut microbiota in behavioral correlates of these disorders...
May 8, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467926/a-specific-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-of-type-2-diabetic-mice-induces-glp-1-resistance-through-an-enteric-no-dependent-and-gut-brain-axis-mechanism
#14
Estelle Grasset, Anthony Puel, Julie Charpentier, Xavier Collet, Jeffrey E Christensen, François Tercé, Rémy Burcelin
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapies control glycemia in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. However, in some patients the treatment must be discontinued, defining a state of GLP-1 resistance. In animal models we identified a specific set of ileum bacteria impairing the GLP-1-activated gut-brain axis for the control of insulin secretion and gastric emptying. Using prediction algorithms, we identified bacterial pathways related to amino acid metabolism and transport system modules associated to GLP-1 resistance...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466983/review-of-mechanisms-of-deoxynivalenol-induced-anorexia-the-role-of-gut-microbiota
#15
REVIEW
Zhao Peng, Liangkai Chen, Jie Xiao, Xiaoqi Zhou, Andreas K Nüssler, Liegang Liu, Jinping Liu, Wei Yang
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most important mycotoxins in cereal-based foods or other food productions, produced by Fusarium species. Because of the high occurrence of DON in food combined with vast consumption of cereals and grain worldwide, the DON-contaminated food is a very harmful factor for human and animal health. DON has been reported to induce anorexia at lower or chronic doses in animal models. However, further researches for DON-induced anorexia are limited. Previous publications demonstrated a close link between Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, two kinds of gut microbiota, with weight loss and the effect of low administration of DON on neurotransmitters in the frontal cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, hippocampus and pons/medulla...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450222/probiotic-treatment-protects-against-the-pro-depressant-like-effect-of-high-fat-diet-in-flinders-sensitive-line-rats
#16
Anders Abildgaard, Betina Elfving, Marianne Hokland, Sten Lund, Gregers Wegener
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly associated with dysmetabolic conditions, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2, and the gut microbiota may interact with both disease entities. We have previously shown that a high-fat diet (HFD) exacerbated depressive-like behaviour uniquely in Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats that inherently present with an increased level of depressive-like behaviour compared with Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats. We therefore investigated whether multispecies probiotics possessed anti-depressant-like effect in FSL rats or protected against the pro-depressant-like effect of HFD...
April 24, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446880/shifts-in-the-gut-microbiota-composition-due-to-depleted-bone-marrow-beta-adrenergic-signaling-are-associated-with-suppressed-inflammatory-transcriptional-networks-in-the-mouse-colon
#17
Tao Yang, Niousha Ahmari, Jordan T Schmidt, Ty Redler, Rebeca Arocha, Kevin Pacholec, Kacy L Magee, Wendi Malphurs, Jennifer L Owen, Gregory A Krane, Eric Li, Gary P Wang, Thomas W Vickroy, Mohan K Raizada, Christopher J Martyniuk, Jasenka Zubcevic
The brain-gut axis plays a critical role in the regulation of different diseases, many of which are characterized by sympathetic dysregulation. However, a direct link between sympathetic dysregulation and gut dysbiosis remains to be illustrated. Bone marrow (BM)-derived immune cells continuously interact with the gut microbiota to maintain homeostasis in the host. Their function is largely dependent upon the sympathetic nervous system acting via adrenergic receptors present on the BM immune cells. In this study, we utilized a novel chimera mouse that lacks the expression of BM beta1/2 adrenergic receptors (b1/2-ARs) to investigate the role of the sympathetic drive to the BM in gut and microbiota homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438331/-the-intestinal-microbiota-a-new-player-in-depression
#18
M Meyrel, L Varin, B Detaint, F Mouaffak
Depression is the leading cause of disability in the world according to the World Health Organization. The effectiveness of the available antidepressant therapies is limited. Data from the literature suggest that some subtypes of depression may be associated with chronic low grade inflammation. The uncovering of the role of intestinal microbiota in the development of the immune system and its bidirectional communication with the brain have led to growing interest on reciprocal interactions between inflammation, microbiota and depression...
April 21, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417216/pathogenic-mechanisms-following-ischemic-stroke
#19
REVIEW
Seyed Esmaeil Khoshnam, William Winlow, Maryam Farzaneh, Yaghoob Farbood, Hadi Fathi Moghaddam
Stroke is the second most common cause of death and the leading cause of disability worldwide. Brain injury following stroke results from a complex series of pathophysiological events including excitotoxicity, oxidative and nitrative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Moreover, there is a mechanistic link between brain ischemia, innate and adaptive immune cells, intracranial atherosclerosis, and also the gut microbiota in modifying the cerebral responses to ischemic insult. There are very few treatments for stroke injuries, partly owing to an incomplete understanding of the diverse cellular and molecular changes that occur following ischemic stroke and that are responsible for neuronal death...
April 17, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404070/pathophysiology-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Gerald J Holtmann, Alexander C Ford, Nicholas J Talley
Traditionally, irritable bowel syndrome has been considered to be a disorder with no known underlying structural or biochemical explanation, but this concept is likely to be outdated. In this Review we challenge the widely accepted view that irritable bowel syndrome is an unexplained brain-gut disorder. There is epidemiological evidence that, in a major subset of patients, gastrointestinal symptoms arise first and only later do incident mood disorders occur. Additionally, possible mechanisms for gut-brain dysfunction have been identified, suggesting primary gut disturbances might be the underlying cause in a subgroup...
October 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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