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Luis Estevez, Venkateshkumar Prabhakaran, Adam L Garcia, Yongsoon Shin, Jinhui Tao, Ashleigh M Schwarz, Jens Darsell, Priyanka Bhattacharya, Vaithiyalingam Shutthanandan, Ji-Guang Zhang
Developing hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) materials with competing textural characteristics such as surface area and pore volume in one material is difficult to accomplish-particularly for an atomically ordered graphitic carbon. Herein we describe a synthesis strategy to engineer tunable HPC materials across micro- meso- and macroporous length scales, allowing the fabrication of a graphitic HPC material (HPC-G) with both very high surface area (>2500 m(2)/g) and pore volume (>11 cm(3)/g), the combination of which has not been attained previously...
October 18, 2017: ACS Nano
Yanjun Zhang, Yutong Zhang, Fei Xu, Gang Wu, Lehe Tan
The molecular structure of starches isolated from five jackfruits (M2, M3, M4, M8 and X1) and its relationship with physicochemical properties were investigated. Although they had uniform amylose (AM) content, the five jackfruit starches displayed different physicochemical properties, including their pasting, thermal, crystal and texture properties. Furthermore, differences in the molecular structure (i.e., average weight-average molar mass (Mw) of amylose and amylopectin (AP) as well as the same AP fine structure) were also found in the five jackfruit starches...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ke Fan, Sheng Zhang, Ying Zhang, Jun Lu, Mike Holcombe, Xiao Zhang
During cellular reprogramming, the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition is accompanied by changes in morphology, which occur prior to iPSC colony formation. The current approach for detecting morphological changes associated with reprogramming purely relies on human experiences, which involve intensive amounts of upfront training, human error with limited quality control and batch-to-batch variations. Here, we report a time-lapse-based bright-field imaging analysis system that allows us to implement a label-free, non-invasive approach to measure morphological dynamics...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kamila Kočí, Ivana Troppová, Miroslava Edelmannová, Jakub Starostka, Lenka Matějová, Jaroslav Lang, Martin Reli, Helena Drobná, Anna Rokicińska, Piotr Kuśtrowski, Libor Čapek
Lanthanum-modified TiO2 photocatalysts (0.2-1.5 wt% La) were investigated in the methanol decomposition in an aqueous solution. The photocatalysts were prepared by the common sol-gel method followed by calcination. The structural (X-ray diffraction, Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), textural (N2 physisorption), and optical properties (diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoelectrochemical measurements) of all synthetized nanomaterials were correlated with photocatalytic activity. Both pure TiO2 and La-doped TiO2 photocatalysts proved higher yields of hydrogen in comparison to photolysis...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jinsoo Kang, Jungu Lee, Moonkyeung Choi, Yongik Jin, Dongchil Chang, Yoon Hyuk Chang, Misook Kim, Yoonhwa Jeong, Youngseung Lee
This study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of noodles made from four different potato varieties: Atlantic, Go-un, Sae-bong, Jin-sun, and wheat flour. Quality characteristics of five noodles were analyzed by general components analysis, cooking quality (rate of water absorption, cooking loss, and volume increase), and mechanical textural properties. Some variations existed in wheat- or potato-based noodles for the general components analysis, but no clear trend was observed. Higher values in the rates of water absorption, cooking loss, and volume increase were observed for the wheat flour noodle, while some variations were observed for potato noodles depending on the variety...
September 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Paul Eichinger, Esther Alberts, Claire Delbridge, Stefano Trebeschi, Alexander Valentinitsch, Stefanie Bette, Thomas Huber, Jens Gempt, Bernhard Meyer, Juergen Schlegel, Claus Zimmer, Jan S Kirschke, Bjoern H Menze, Benedikt Wiestler
We hypothesized that machine learning analysis based on texture information from the preoperative MRI can predict IDH mutational status in newly diagnosed WHO grade II and III gliomas. This retrospective study included in total 79 consecutive patients with a newly diagnosed WHO grade II or III glioma. Local binary pattern texture features were generated from preoperative B0 and fractional anisotropy (FA) diffusion tensor imaging. Using a training set of 59 patients, a single hidden layer neural network was then trained on the texture features to predict IDH status...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zhuoran Zeng, Jian-Feng Nie, Shi-Wei Xu, Chris H J Davies, Nick Birbilis
Magnesium, the lightest structural metal, is difficult to form at room temperature due to an insufficient number of deformation modes imposed by its hexagonal structure and a strong texture developed during thermomechanical processes. Although appropriate alloying additions can weaken the texture, formability improvement is limited because alloying additions do not fundamentally alter deformation modes. Here we show that magnesium can become super-formable at room temperature without alloying. Despite possessing a strong texture, magnesium can be cold rolled to a strain at least eight times that possible in conventional processing...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
K Iwaya, Y Kohsaka, K Okawa, T Machida, M S Bahramy, T Hanaguri, T Sasagawa
A bulk superconductor possessing a topological surface state at the Fermi level is a promising system to realise long-sought topological superconductivity. Although several candidate materials have been proposed, experimental demonstrations concurrently exploring spin textures and superconductivity at the surface have remained elusive. Here we perform spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunnelling microscopy on the centrosymmetric superconductor β-PdBi2 that hosts a topological surface state. By combining first-principles electronic-structure calculations and quasiparticle interference experiments, we determine the spin textures at the surface, and show not only the topological surface state but also all other surface bands exhibit spin polarisations parallel to the surface...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
A J Dicken, J P O Evans, K D Rogers, D Prokopiou, S X Godber, M Wilson
We demonstrate a novel imaging architecture to collect range encoded diffraction patterns from overlapping samples in a single conical shell projection. The patterns were measured in the dark area encompassed by the beam via a centrally positioned aperture optically coupled to a pixelated energy-resolving detector. We show that a single exposure measurement of 0.3 mAs enables d-spacing values to be calculated. The axial positions of the samples were not required and the resultant measurements were robust in the presence of crystallographic textures...
September 4, 2017: Optics Express
Yunwon Song, Keorock Choi, Dong-Hwan Jun, Jungwoo Oh
GaAs solar cells with nanostructured emitter layers were fabricated via metal-assisted chemical etching. Au nanoparticles produced via thermal treatment of Au thin films were used as etch catalysts to texture an emitter surface with nanohole structures. Epi-wafers with emitter layers 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 um in thickness were directly textured and a window layer removal process was performed before metal catalyst deposition. A nanohole-textured emitter layer provides effective light trapping capabilities, reducing the surface reflection of a textured solar cell by 11...
October 2, 2017: Optics Express
Atefeh Habibpourmoghadam, Liana Lucchetti, Dean R Evans, Victor Y Reshetnyak, Faissal Omairat, Samuel L Schafforz, Alexander Lorenz
A chiral nematic (N*) liquid crystal (LC) was hybridized with a z-cut iron doped lithium niobate (Fe:LN) substrate and exposed with a focused continuous wave diode laser beam. The N* LC layer was confined with a cover glass to provide a homogeneous LC layer thickness. Two distinct kinds of test cells were investigated, one with an uncoated glass covering slip and one with an indium tin oxide (ITO) coated cover glass. Photo generated electric fields (generated in the Fe:LN) resulted in a localized defect formation and textural transitions in the N* LC...
October 16, 2017: Optics Express
Xia Chen, Song Zhang
This paper presents a novel method to effectively store three-dimensional (3D) data and 2D texture data into a regular 24-bit image. The proposed method uses the Hilbert space-filling curve to map the normalized unwrapped phase map to two 8-bit color channels, and saves the third color channel for 2D texture storage. By further leveraging existing 2D image and video compression techniques, the proposed method can achieve high compression ratios while effectively preserving data quality. Since the encoding and decoding processes can be applied to most of the current 2D media platforms, this proposed compression method can make 3D data storage and transmission available for many electrical devices without requiring special hardware changes...
October 16, 2017: Optics Express
Gustavo Haquin, Zohar Yungrais, Danielle Ilzycer, Hovav Zafrir, Noam Weisbrod
The dependency of radon emanation on soil texture was investigated using the closed chamber method. Ground phosphate rock with a large specific surface area was analyzed, and the presence of inner pores, as well as a high degree of roughness and heterogeneity in the phosphate particles, was found. The average radon emanation of the dry phosphate was 0.145 ± 0.016. The emanation coefficient was highest (0.169 ± 0.019) for the smallest particles (<25 μm), decreasing to a constant value (0.091 ± 0...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
M Bradley Calobrace, Michael R Schwartz, Kamakshi R Zeidler, Troy A Pittman, Robert Cohen, W Grant Stevens
In this review, the authors provide a 20-year review and comparison of implant options and describe the evolution of breast implant surface textures; compare available implant surfaces; present long-term safety data from the 10-year US-based Core clinical studies; list the key benefits and risks associated with smooth and textured implants; and provide perspectives on breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL). The authors explore the key benefits and risks associated with all available devices so that optimal and safe patient outcomes can be achieved...
September 28, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Marcos Sforza, Renato Zaccheddu, Angelo Alleruzzo, Adriano Seno, Domenico Mileto, Arnaldo Paganelli, Hassan Sulaiman, Michael Payne, Lajos Maurovich-Horvat
Background: Silicone breast implants have been in use for breast augmentation for more than 50 years, but technological innovation has been lacking in implant design until recently. Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the complication and reoperation rates following breast augmentation utilizing the Motiva silicone breast implants. Methods: This retrospective study evaluated the safety of Motiva implants in 5813 consecutive cases of breast augmentation...
September 14, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Franck Duteille, Pierre Perrot, Marie-Hélène Bacheley, Sharon Stewart
Background: The safety and efficacy of all medical devices, including breast implants, is important and consistent performance is best shown by undertaking long-term clinical and vigilance studies. Local complications such as capsular contracture and rupture are risks often associated with breast implant surgery. Objectives: The authors investigate and evaluate the safety and performance of Eurosilicone's (Eurosilicone S.A.S, Apt Cedex, France) Cristalline Paragel breast implants at 8 years postimplantation...
June 24, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Danrong Yang, Jianjun Xue, Wenxia Ma, Furong Liu, Yameng Fan, Jie Rong, Aimin Yang, Yan Yu
INTRODUCTION: I therapy is a choice for Graves' hyperthyroidism. Several factors that affect the success of I treatment in Graves' disease (GD) patients have been put forward. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the factors influencing the success of I therapy and the occurrence of hypothyroidism after I therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed 325 GD patients, who were well documented out of 779 cases, treated with I in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University between 2010 and 2016...
October 16, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Josko Viskic, Drazen Jokic, Suzana Jakovljevic, Lana Bergman, Sladana Milardovic Ortolan, Senka Mestrovic, Ketij Mehulic
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the surface of glazed lithium disilicate dental ceramics after irradiation under different irradiation settings of Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three glazed-press lithium disilicate ceramic discs were treated with HF, Er:YAG, and Nd:YAG, respectively. The laser-setting variables tested were laser mode, repetition rate (Hz), power (W), time of exposure (seconds), and laser energy (mJ)...
October 17, 2017: Angle Orthodontist
Sandra Elnegaard, Rikke Sand Andersen, Anette Fischer Pedersen, Dorte Ejg Jarbøl
OBJECTIVE: To describe patterns of disclosure of symptoms experienced among people in the general population to persons in their personal and/or professional network. DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional study. Data were collected from a web-based survey. SETTING: The general population in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 100 000 individuals randomly selected, representative of the adult Danish population aged ≥20 years were invited...
October 15, 2017: BMJ Open
Lalit K Vora, Ryan F Donnelly, Eneko Larraneta, Patricia González-Vázquez, Raghu Raj Singh Thakur, Pradeep R Vavia
Polymeric microneedle (MN) arrays continue to receive growing attention due to their ability to bypass the skin's stratum corneum barrier in a minimally-invasive fashion and achieve enhanced transdermal drug delivery and "targeted" intradermal vaccine administration. In this research work, we fabricated biodegradable bilayer MN arrays containing nano - microparticles for targeted and sustained intradermal drug delivery. For this study, model drug (vitamin D3, VD3)-loaded PLGA nano- and microparticles (NMP) were prepared by a single emulsion solvent evaporation method with 72...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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