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Ola Lasekan, Megala Muniady, Mee Lin, Fatma Dabaj
BACKGROUND: Food flavor appreciation is one of the first signals along with food appearance and texture encountered by consumers during eating of food. Also, it is well known that flavor can strongly influence consumer's acceptability judgment. The increase in the consumption of snail meat across the world calls for the need to research into the aroma compounds responsible for the distinctive aroma notes of processed snail meat. RESULTS: The odorants responsible for the unique aroma notes in thermally processed giant African snail meats were evaluated by means of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and odor activity values (OAVs) respectively...
April 24, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Imad Zyout, Roberto Togneri
Achieving a high performance for the detection and characterization of architectural distortion in screening mammograms is important for an efficient breast cancer early detection. Viewing a mammogram image as a rough surface that can be described using the fractal theory is a well-recognized approach. This paper presents a new fractal-based computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithm for characterizing various breast tissues in screening mammograms with a particular focus on distinguishing between architectural distortion and normal breast parenchyma...
April 3, 2018: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
Seyed Amir Oleyaei, Seyed Mohammad Ali Razavi, Kirsi S Mikkonen
In this study, the physico-chemical and rheo-mechanical properties of sage seed gum hydrogel, reinforced by various ratios (0-25 wt.%) of Laponite, were investigated. Particles size measurements indicated the formation of large SSG-Laponite microstructures upon nanoparticle adding, due to the interactions generated between the anionic SSG and the charged surfaces of clay platelets. Laponite affected the surface tension and density of the SSG-based systems significantly, but only influenced the ζ-potential above 20 wt...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Tatiana Porto Santos, Rosiane Lopes Cunha
Gellan gels were produced using different approaches forming structures with varied potential applications. Gels were characterized from appearance, mechanical properties, water holding capacity (WHC) and microstructure. In addition, in vitro digestibility of these gels was evaluated to understand the effect of gastrointestinal environment on their structure stability. All gels presented high WHC (>80% w/w) but gels were stronger with salt or acid addition, which was associated to the reduction of double helices repulsion of the negatively charged carboxyl groups of gellan...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Abdalla Abdelwahab, Jesica Castelo-Quibén, José F Vivo-Vilches, María Pérez-Cadenas, Francisco J Maldonado-Hódar, Francisco Carrasco-Marín, Agustín F Pérez-Cadenas
A series of carbon aerogels doped with iron, cobalt and nickel have been prepared. Metal nanoparticles very well dispersed into the carbon matrix catalyze the formation of graphitic clusters around them. Samples with different Ni content are obtained to test the influence of the metal loading. All aerogels have been characterized to analyze their textural properties, surface chemistry and crystal structures. These metal-doped aerogels have a very well-developed porosity, making their mesoporosity remarkable...
April 23, 2018: Nanomaterials
Xiaoyang Chen, Qiao Dai, Xingcheng Li, Yalin Lu, Yang Zhang
In this study, as-cast Mg⁻6Sn⁻2Zn (wt.%) alloy was subjected to friction stir processing (FSP) and the microstructure and tensile properties of FSP Mg⁻6Sn⁻2Zn samples were investigated. It was found that, in the stir zone (SZ) of FSP Mg⁻6Sn⁻2Zn samples, α-Mg grains were significantly refined via dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and the Mg₂Sn phase was broken and partially dissolved. The microstructure in SZ was nonuniform and DRXed grains in the SZ-up regions were coarser than those in the SZ-down regions...
April 23, 2018: Materials
Somphouthone Phimmachak, Niane Sivongxay, Sengvilay Seateun, Siriporn Yodthong, Attapol Rujirawan, Thy Neang, Anchalee Aowphol, Bryan L Stuart
A new species of "fanged frog" in the genus Limnonectes resembling L. kohchangae (Smith, 1922) from southeastern Thailand and southwestern Cambodia is described from upper elevations of the Bolaven Plateau, southern Laos. However, the new species, L. coffeatus sp. nov., is not resolved to be the closest relative of L. kohchangae, and is further distinguished from this taxon by differences in skin texture and coloration. The new species is potentially threatened from extensive conversion of forest into coffee plantations on the Bolaven Plateau...
January 25, 2018: Zootaxa
George Garcia Santos, Elielton Nascimento, Ulisses Pinheiro
In this paper we report and describe material of Halichondriidae sampled at 11 different stations in the Brazilian northeastern coast. Halichondria (Halichondria) marianae sp. nov. is a massively encrusting sponge, with firm texture, soft, fleshy, but compact and compressible. Color in vivo is dark green, becoming grayish or brown after fixation in ethanol; the spicules are smooth oxeas. Amorphinopsis atlantica from the Northeastern Brazil is thickly encrusting to massively, also with firm texture, color in vivo is usually yellow to dark green and both distributed in different regions, brownish after fixation in ethanol; the spicules are smooth oxeas and styles...
February 15, 2018: Zootaxa
Belén García-Gómez, Ángeles Romero-Rodríguez, Lourdes Vázquez-Odériz, Nieves Muñoz-Ferreiro, Manuel Vázquez
BACKGROUND: Currently consumers demand low-fat or non-fat yoghurt but their physical properties are less attractive than those of full-fat yoghurt. It was reported that microbial transglutaminase (TG) can be used in the production of low-fat yoghurt. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of TG on low-fat yoghurt to improve their physicochemical and textural properties to approach to those of full-fat yoghurt. Two TG application methods (addition before fermentation or simultaneously addition with the starter), three dose levels and TG origin were evaluated...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Roberto Berenguer, María Del Rosario Pastor-Juan, Jesús Canales-Vázquez, Miguel Castro-García, María Victoria Villas, Francisco Mansilla Legorburo, Sebastià Sabater
Purpose To identify the reproducible and nonredundant radiomics features (RFs) for computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods Two phantoms were used to test RF reproducibility by using test-retest analysis, by changing the CT acquisition parameters (hereafter, intra-CT analysis), and by comparing five different scanners with the same CT parameters (hereafter, inter-CT analysis). Reproducible RFs were selected by using the concordance correlation coefficient (as a measure of the agreement between variables) and the coefficient of variation (defined as the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean)...
April 24, 2018: Radiology
Xiaoyan Tang, Murray B McBride
To assess the impact of Ni toxicity in soils after long-term field aging, a coarse-textured soil was spiked with Ni salt at 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 Ni concentrations. These soils were aged in the field along with an unspiked (control) soil under natural conditions for 12 years, after which total soil Ni was measured and tests of Ni extractability by 0.01 M CaCl2 and DTPA were done. Soybean assays and soil respiration tests were performed to determine residual Ni toxicity of the aged contaminated soils...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Kotaro Nagase, Takuya Inoue, Shinichi Koba, Yutaka Narisawa
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but more lethal cutaneous cancer than melanoma. However, spontaneous regression of a number of MCC has been reported, although the cause of this regression remains unclear. In most cases, MCC regresses after a surgical procedure, for example, biopsy. Herein, we report a case of Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative MCC coincident with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that underwent true spontaneous regression without biopsy. One month after the patient's first visit, clinical examination revealed that the tumor had not grown, but its surface showed changes in texture and color...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Dermatology
Yanqin Li, Qi Gao, Lijuan Zhang, Yunshan Zhou, Yuxu Zhong, Ying Ying, Mingcai Zhang, Chunqian Huang, Yong'an Wang
Currently extensive effort is compulsively expended to decontaminate efficiently banned chemical war agents. In this work, H5PV2Mo10O40 molecules have been encapsulated in mesoporous MIL-101(Cr), which features two types of mesoporous cages (internal diameters of 29 Å and 34 Å) and microporous windows (diameters of 12 Å and 16 Å), leading to the formation of a new composite H5PV2Mo10O40@MIL-101(Cr) through a simple impregnation method. The composite was characterized thoroughly by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, TG/DTA, and textural analysis thereby confirming the encapsulation of the H5PV2Mo10O40 into MIL-101(Cr)...
April 24, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Alexandria Peterson, Elicia F Abella, Frederick E Grine, Mark F Teaford, Peter S Ungar
The importance of diet in primate ecology has motivated the use of a variety of methods to reconstruct dietary habits of extinct hominin taxa. Dental microwear is one such approach that preserves evidence from consumed food items. This study is based on 44 specimens of Australopithecus africanus from Makapansgat and Sterkfontein, and 66 specimens of Paranthropus robustus from Swartkrans, Kromdraai and Drimolen. These samples enable examination of potential differences between the two assemblages of A. africanus, and among the various assemblages of P...
June 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Bettina Baeßler, Manoj Mannil, David Maintz, Hatem Alkadhi, Robert Manka
PURPOSE: To test in a first proof-of-concept study whether texture analysis (TA) allows for the detection of myocardial tissue alterations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) on non-contrast T1-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images using machine learning based approaches. METHODS: This retrospective, IRB-approved study included 32 patients with known HCM. Thirty patients with normal CMR served as controls. Regions-of-interest for TA encompassing the left ventricle were drawn on short-axis non-contrast T1-weighted images using a freely available software package...
May 2018: European Journal of Radiology
R C J Beckers, S Trebeschi, M Maas, R S Schnerr, J M L Sijmons, G L Beets, J B Houwers, R G H Beets-Tan, D M J Lambregts
OBJECTIVES: To study the ratio between the CT texture of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) and the surrounding liver parenchyma and assess the potential of various texture measures and ratios as predictive/prognostic imaging markers. MATERIALS: Seventy patients with colorectal cancer and synchronous CRLM were included. All visible metastases, as well as the whole-volume of the surrounding liver, were separately delineated on the portal venous phase primary staging CT...
May 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Xun Wang, Lijin Lin, Yi Tang, Hui Xia, Xiancong Zhang, Maolan Yue, Xia Qiu, Ke Xu, Zhihui Wang
BACKGROUND: During fresh fruit consumption, sensory texture is one factor that affects the organoleptic qualities. Chemical components of plant cell walls, including pectin, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, play central roles in determining the textural qualities. To explore the genes and regulatory pathways involved in fresh citrus' perceived sensory texture, we performed mRNA-seq analyses of the segment membranes of two citrus cultivars, Shiranui and Kiyomi, with different organoleptic textures...
April 23, 2018: BMC Genomics
Heather A Lowers, G N Breit, M Strand, R M Pillers, G P Meeker, T I Todorov, G S Plumlee, R E Wolf, M Robinson, J Parr, R Miller, S Groshong, F Green, C Rose
Humans accumulate large numbers of inorganic particles in their lungs over a lifetime. Whether this causes or contributes to debilitating disease over a normal lifespan depends on the type and concentration of the particles. We developed and tested a protocol for in situ characterization of the types and distribution of inorganic particles in biopsied lung tissue from three human groups using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Many distinct particle types were recognized among the 13 000 particles analyzed...
April 23, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Kiyoung Jeong, Hyeonbin O, So Yeon Shin, Young-Soon Kim
This study evaluated the influence of different factors on pork hams cooked by sous-vide method. The quality and structural and microbiological properties of the treated samples were compared with those of controls. Samples were subjected to treatment at different combinations of temperature (61 °C or 71 °C), time (45 or 90 min), and vacuum degree (98.81% or 96.58%). The control sample was air packaged and boiled for 45 min in boiling water. Temperature and vacuum degree affected quality properties, while the effect of time was limited...
April 10, 2018: Meat Science
Simone La Padula, Barbara Hersant, Jean Paul Meningaud, Francesco D'Andrea
BACKGROUND: Facial burn outcomes are often difficult to treat. Residual scars represent a problem for aesthetic and functional concerns as well as for patient's social and psychological life. Autologous fat graft can be used in the treatment of burn outcomes, providing a sensitive improvement in the quality of the burned areas. The aim of our report is the discussion of the value of lipofilling and fractional CO2 laser in optimizing aesthetic and functional results of burn sequelae. METHODS: We treated twenty four patients with post burns scars who underwent to autologous fat graft followed by CO2 fractional laser treatment...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
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