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Immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906487/neutrophil-activation-during-acute-human-anaphylaxis-analysis-of-mpo-and-scd62l
#1
Abbie Francis, Erika Bosio, Shelley F Stone, Daniel M Fatovich, Glenn Arendts, Yusuf Nagree, Stephen P J Macdonald, Hugh Mitenko, Mani Rajee, Sally Burrows, Simon G A Brown
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms involved in the amplification of the mast cell response during anaphylaxis are unclear. Mouse models of anaphylaxis demonstrate the critical involvement of neutrophils. These innate immune cells are highly abundant in peripheral blood and can be rapidly activated to trigger both local and systemic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate neutrophil activation in peripheral blood during acute human anaphylaxis. METHODS: Patients presenting to the Emergency Department with anaphylaxis underwent blood sampling upon enrolment and at up to three subsequent time points...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906454/immunotherapy-of-head-and-neck-cancer-emerging-clinical-trials-from-a-national-cancer-institute-head-and-neck-cancer-steering-committee-planning-meeting
#2
Julie E Bauman, Ezra Cohen, Robert L Ferris, David J Adelstein, David M Brizel, John A Ridge, Brian O'Sullivan, Barbara A Burtness, Lisa H Butterfield, William E Carson, Mary L Disis, Bernard A Fox, Thomas F Gajewski, Maura L Gillison, James W Hodge, Quynh-Thu Le, David Raben, Scott E Strome, Jean Lynn, Shakun Malik
Recent advances have permitted successful therapeutic targeting of the immune system in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). These new immunotherapeutic targets and agents are being rapidly adopted by the oncologic community and hold considerable promise. The National Cancer Institute sponsored a Clinical Trials Planning Meeting to address the issue of how to further investigate the use of immunotherapy in patients with HNSCC. The goals of the meeting were to consider phase 2 or 3 trial designs primarily in 3 different patient populations: those with previously untreated, human papillomavirus-initiated oropharyngeal cancers; those with previously untreated, human papillomavirus-negative HNSCC; and those with recurrent/metastatic HNSCC...
December 1, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906453/syk-inhibition-blocks-airway-constriction-and-protects-from-th2-induced-airway-inflammation-and-remodeling-in-mice
#3
Christoph Tabeling, Julia Herbert, Andreas C Hocke, David Lamb, Lutz Wollin, Klaus Erb, Ekaterina Boiarina, Hesam Movassagh, Jörg Scheffel, Jan M Doehn, Stefan Hippenstiel, Marcus Maurer, Abdelilah S Gounni, Wolfgang M Kuebler, Norbert Suttorp, Martin Witzenrath
BACKGROUND: Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is an intracellular non-receptor tyrosine kinase, which has been implicated as central immune modulator promoting allergic airway inflammation. Syk inhibition has been proposed as a new therapeutic approach in asthma. However, the direct effects of Syk inhibition on airway constriction independent of allergen sensitization remain elusive. METHODS: Spectral confocal microscopy of human and murine lung tissue was performed to localize Syk expression...
December 1, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906187/systemic-application-of-3-methyladenine-markedly-inhibited-atherosclerotic-lesion-in-apoe-mice-by-modulating-autophagy-foam-cell-formation-and-immune-negative-molecules
#4
Shen Dai, Bo Wang, Wen Li, Liyang Wang, Xingguo Song, Chun Guo, Yulan Li, Fengming Liu, Faliang Zhu, Qun Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Yongyu Shi, Jianing Wang, Wei Zhao, Lining Zhang
A growing body of evidence demonstrates that autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved intracellular degradation process, is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and has become a potential therapeutic target. Here we tested the effect of two inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-chromone (LY294002), commonly used as inhibitors of autophagy, in atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice. Systemic application of 3-MA but not LY294002 markedly reduced the size of atherosclerotic plaque and increased the stability of lesions in high-fat diet-fed mice as compared with controls...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906186/preimplantation-factor-is-an-anti-apoptotic-effector-in-human-trophoblasts-involving-p53-signaling-pathway
#5
Hadia Moindjie, Esther Dos Santos, Rita-Josiane Gouesse, Nelly Swierkowski-Blanchard, Valérie Serazin, Eytan R Barnea, François Vialard, Marie-Noëlle Dieudonné
From the earliest stages of gestation, embryonic-maternal interaction has a key role in a successful pregnancy. Various factors present during gestation may significantly influence this type of juxta/paracrine interaction. PreImplantation Factor (PIF) is a recently identified factor with activity at the fetomaternal interface. PIF is secreted by viable embryos and directly controls placental development by increasing the invasive capacity of human extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs). To further specify PIF's role in the human placenta, we analyzed the genome-wide expression profile of the EVT in the presence of a synthetic PIF analog (sPIF)...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906184/1-methyl-tryptophan-attenuates-regulatory-t-cells-differentiation-due-to-the-inhibition-of-estrogen-ido1-mrc2-axis-in-endometriosis
#6
Chunyan Wei, Jie Mei, Lingli Tang, Yukai Liu, Dajin Li, Mingqing Li, Xiaoyong Zhu
Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells contribute to the local dysfunctional immune environment in endometriosis, an estrogen-dependent gynecological disease, which affects the function of ectopic endometrial tissue clearance by the immune system. The reason for the high percentage of peritoneal Treg in endometriosis patients is unknown. Here, we show that the proportion of peritoneal Treg cells increases as endometriosis progresses. To determine the probable mechanism, we established a naive T cell-macrophage-endometrial stromal cell (ESC) co-culture system to mimic the peritoneal cavity microenvironment...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906162/activation-of-myeloid-and-endothelial-cells-by-cd40l-gene-therapy-supports-t-cell-expansion-and-migration-into-the-tumor-microenvironment
#7
E Eriksson, R Moreno, I Milenova, L Liljenfeldt, L C Dieterich, L Christiansson, H Karlsson, G Ullenhag, S Mangsbo, A Dimberg, R Alemany, A Loskog
CD40 is an interesting target in cancer immunotherapy due to its ability to stimulate Th1 immunity via maturation of dendritic cells and to drive M2 to M1 macrophage differentiation. Pancreatic cancer has a high M2 content that has shown responsive to anti-CD40 agonist therapy and CD40 may thus be a suitable target for immune activation in these patients. In this study, a novel oncolytic adenovirus armed with a trimerized membrane-bound extracellular CD40L (TMZ-CD40L) was evaluated as a treatment of pancreatic cancer...
December 1, 2016: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906073/gut-barrier-structure-mucosal-immunity-and-intestinal-microbiota-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-hiv-infection
#8
REVIEW
Camilla Tincati, Daniel C Douek, Giulia Marchetti
Over the past 10 years, extensive work has been carried out in the field of microbial translocation in HIV infection, ranging from studies on its clinical significance to investigations on its pathogenic features. In the present work, we review the most recent findings on this phenomenon, focusing on the predictive role of microbial translocation in HIV-related morbidity and mortality, the mechanisms by which it arises and potential therapeutic approaches. From a clinical perspective, current work has shown that markers of microbial translocation may be useful in predicting clinical events in untreated HIV infection, while conflicting data exist on their role in cART-experienced subjects, possibly due to the inclusion of extremely varied patient populations in cohort studies...
April 11, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906052/antibody-responses-to-de-novo-identified-citrullinated-fibrinogen-peptides-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-visualization-of-the-corresponding-b-cells
#9
Vijay Joshua, Loes Schobers, Philip J Titcombe, Lena Israelsson, Johan Rönnelid, Monika Hansson, Anca I Catrina, Ger J M Pruijn, Vivianne Malmström
BACKGROUND: Antibodies against citrullinated proteins (ACPA) are common in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ACPA can appear before disease onset and target many self-antigens. Citrullinated fibrin/fibrinogen represents a classical ACPA target antigen, and mass spectrometry of RA synovial fluid reveals elevated citrullinated (cit) fibrinogen (Fib) peptides compared to non-RA controls. We investigated the extent to which these less-studied peptides represent autoantibody targets and sought to visualize the corresponding cit-Fib-reactive B cells in RA patients...
December 1, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906037/integrated-therapy-for-hiv-and-cryptococcosis
#10
REVIEW
Sirawat Srichatrapimuk, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Cryptococcosis has been one of the most common opportunistic infections and causes of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common form of cryptococcosis. Laboratory diagnosis of cryptococcosis includes direct microscopic examination, isolation of Cryptococcus from a clinical specimen, and detection of cryptococcal antigen. Without appropriate treatment, cryptococcosis is fatal. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to treatment success...
November 29, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906022/risk-factors-for-unstructured-treatment-interruptions-and-association-with-survival-in-low-to-middle-income-countries
#11
James H McMahon, Tim Spelman, Nathan Ford, Jane Greig, Anita Mesic, Charles Ssonko, Esther C Casas, Daniel P O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment interruptions lead to poor clinical outcomes with unplanned or unstructured TIs (uTIs) likely to be underreported. This study describes; uTIs, their risk factors and association with survival. METHODS: Analysis of ART programmatic data from 11 countries across Asia and Africa between 2003 and 2013 where an uTI was defined as a ≥90-day patient initiated break from ART calculated from the last day the previous ART prescription would have run out until the date of the next ART prescription...
July 11, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906009/current-trends-and-intricacies-in-the-management-of-hiv-associated-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#12
REVIEW
Narendran Gopalan, Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran, Soumya Swaminathan, Srikanth Tripathy
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has undoubtedly increased the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) globally, posing a formidable global health challenge affecting 1.2 million cases. Pulmonary TB assumes utmost significance in the programmatic perspective as it is readily transmissible as well as easily diagnosable. HIV complicates every aspect of pulmonary tuberculosis from diagnosis to treatment, demanding a different approach to effectively tackle both the diseases. In order to control these converging epidemics, it is important to diagnose early, initiate appropriate therapy for both infections, prevent transmission and administer preventive therapy...
September 26, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906007/what-happens-to-cardiovascular-system-behind-the-undetectable-level-of-hiv-viremia
#13
REVIEW
Gabriella d'Ettorre, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Paolo Pavone, Pietro Vittozzi, Gabriella De Girolamo, Ivan Schietroma, Sara Serafino, Noemi Giustini, Vincenzo Vullo
Despite the combined antiretroviral therapy has improved the length and quality of life of HIV infected patients, the survival of these patients is always decreased compared with the general population. This is the consequence of non-infectious illnesses including cardio vascular diseases. In fact large studies have indicated an increased risk of coronary atherosclerotic disease, myocardial infarction even in HIV patients on cART. In HIV infected patients several factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular problems: life-style, metabolic parameters, genetic predisposition, viral factors, immune activation, chronic inflammation and side effects of antiretroviral therapy...
April 27, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906006/integrated-therapy-for-hiv-and-tuberculosis
#14
REVIEW
Weerawat Manosuthi, Surasak Wiboonchutikul, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Tuberculosis (TB) has been the most common opportunistic infection and cause of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. Clinical manifestations of TB vary and depend on the degree of immunodeficiency. Sputum microscopy and culture with drug-susceptibility testing are recommended as a standard method for diagnosing active TB. TB-related mortality in HIV-infected patients is high especially during the first few months of treatment. Integrated therapy of both HIV and TB is feasible and efficient to control the diseases and yield better survival...
May 12, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906005/the-role-of-nk-cells-in-hiv-1-protection-autologous-allogeneic-or-both
#15
REVIEW
Jef Hens, Wim Jennes, Luc Kestens
Natural killer (NK) cells specialize in killing virally infected- or tumor cells and are part of the innate immune system. The activational state of NK cells is determined by the balance of incoming activating and inhibitory signals mediated by receptor-ligand binding with the target cell. These receptor-ligand bonds mainly consist of the killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), which are expressed at the cell surface of NK cells, and their ligands: the highly variable human leukocyte antigen -class I molecules (HLA)...
March 18, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905982/the-use-of-a-lot-quality-assurance-sampling-methodology-to-assess-and-manage-primary-health-interventions-in-conflict-affected-west-darfur-sudan
#16
Kiemanh Pham, Emily Chambers Sharpe, William M Weiss, Alexander Vu
BACKGROUND: Organizations working in conflict-affected areas have a need to monitor and evaluate their programs, however this is often difficult due to the logistical challenges of conflict areas. Lot quality assurance sampling may be a suitable method of assessing programs in these situations. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis of information collected during Medair's routine program management functions. Medair's service area in West Darfur, Sudan was divided into seven supervisory areas...
October 6, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905913/sera-from-severe-trauma-patients-with-pneumonia-and-without-infectious-complications-have-differential-effects-on-neutrophil-biology
#17
B Relja, R Taraki, M P J Teuben, K Mörs, N Wagner, S Wutzler, F Hildebrand, M Perl, I Marzi
BACKGROUND: Major trauma patients (TP) developing imbalanced immune response are at high risk for infectious post-injury complications including pneumonia. Neutrophils play a central role in the host defense against bacteria and thereby pathogenesis of infections. While there are numerous studies about neutrophil function after trauma, data about their biology in patients who suffer from pneumonia following trauma are sparse. Here, we studied the effect of serum isolated from patients who do and do not develop infection (inf...
December 1, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905894/seroprevalence-of-bordetella-pertussis-specific-immunoglobulin-g-antibody-levels-among-asymptomatic-individuals-aged-4-to-24%C3%A2-years-a-descriptive-cross-sectional-study-from-sri-lanka
#18
Shamithra Sigera, Jennifer Perera, Jeyanthakumar Rasarathinam, Dulani Samaranayake, Dileepa Ediriweera
BACKGROUND: In Sri Lanka pertussis continues to circulate in the community and cases among adolescents and adults have been reported despite 95% coverage of the four dose pertussis vaccination during early childhood. Waning of immunity following natural infection or immunization may contribute to the persistent circulation. An adolescent booster dose is not included in the national immunization schedule of Sri Lanka, although this is routine practice in many countries. Therefore information on immunity to pertussis in the adolescent group is needed prior to considering vaccination schedule changes...
December 1, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905879/transcriptome-profiling-in-the-damselfly-ischnura-elegans-identifies-genes-with-sex-biased-expression
#19
Pallavi Chauhan, Maren Wellenreuther, Bengt Hansson
BACKGROUND: Sexual dimorphism occurs widely across the animal kingdom and has profound effects on evolutionary trajectories. Here, we investigate sex-specific gene expression in Ischnura elegans (Odonata: dragonflies and damselflies), a species with pronounced sexual differences including a female-limited colour polymorphism with two female-like gynochrome morphs and one male-mimicking, androchrome morph. Whole-organism transcriptome profiling and sex-biased gene expression analysis was conducted on adults of both sexes (pooling all females as well as separating the three morphs) to gain insights into genes and pathways potentially associated with sexual development and sexual conflict...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905838/engineering-hiv-specific-immunity-with-chimeric-antigen-receptors
#20
Scott G Kitchen, Jerome A Zack
HIV remains a highly important public health and clinical issue despite many recent advances in attempting to develop a cure, which has remained elusive for most people infected with HIV. HIV disease can be controlled with pharmacologic therapies; however, these treatments are expensive, may have severe side effects, and are not curative. Consequently, an improved means to control or eliminate HIV replication is needed. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a critical role in controlling viral replication and are an important part in the ability of the immune response to eradicate most viral infections...
December 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
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