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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926348/melatonin-treatment-suppresses-appetite-genes-and-improves-adipose-tissue-plasticity-in-diet-induced-obese-zebrafish
#1
G Montalbano, M Mania, F Abbate, M Navarra, M C Guerrera, R Laura, J A Vega, M Levanti, A Germanà
PURPOSE: Overweight and obesity are important risk factors for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and premature death in modern society. Recently, numerous natural and synthetic compounds have been tested in diet-induced obese animal models, to counteract obesity. Melatonin is a circadian hormone, produced by pineal gland and extra-pineal sources, involved in processes which have in common a rhythmic expression. In teleost, it can control energy balance by activating or inhibiting appetite-related peptides...
June 20, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874129/retinoic-acid-signaling-is-essential-for-maintenance-of-the-blood-retinal-barrier
#2
Lana M Pollock, Jing Xie, Brent A Bell, Bela Anand-Apte
The predominant function of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) is to maintain retinal homeostasis by regulating the influx and efflux between the blood and retina. Breakdown of the BRB occurs in a number of ocular diseases that result in vision loss. Understanding the molecular and cellular pathways involved in the development and maintenance of the BRB is critical to developing therapeutics for these conditions. To visualize the BRB in vivo, we used the transgenic Tg(l-fabp:DBP-EGFP:flk1:mCherry) zebrafish model that expresses vitamin D binding protein (a member of the albumin gene family) tagged to green fluorescent protein...
June 6, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794036/deep-phenotyping-in-zebrafish-reveals-genetic-and-diet-induced-adiposity-changes-that-may-inform-disease-risk
#3
James E N Minchin, Catherine M Scahill, Nicole Staudt, Elisabeth M Busch-Nentwich, John F Rawls
The regional distribution of adipose tissues is implicated in a wide range of diseases. For example, proportional increases in visceral adipose tissue increase the risk for insulin resistance, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Zebrafish offer a tractable model system by which to obtain unbiased and quantitative phenotypic information on regional adiposity, and deep phenotyping can explore complex disease-related adiposity traits. To facilitate deep phenotyping of zebrafish adiposity traits, we used pairwise correlations between 67 adiposity traits to generate stage-specific adiposity profiles that describe changing adiposity patterns and relationships during growth...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785241/an-in-vivo-zebrafish-model-for-interrogating-ros-mediated-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-injury-response-and-prevention
#4
Abhishek A Kulkarni, Abass M Conteh, Cody A Sorrell, Anjali Mirmira, Sarah A Tersey, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Amelia K Linnemann, Ryan M Anderson
It is well known that a chronic state of elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pancreatic β -cells impairs their ability to release insulin in response to elevated plasma glucose. Moreover, at its extreme, unmitigated ROS drives regulated cell death. This dysfunctional state of ROS buildup can result both from genetic predisposition and environmental factors such as obesity and overnutrition. Importantly, excessive ROS buildup may underlie metabolic pathologies such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. The ability to monitor ROS dynamics in β -cells in situ and to manipulate it via genetic, pharmacological, and environmental means would accelerate the development of novel therapeutics that could abate this pathology...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772372/palmitate-induces-nitric-oxide-production-and-inflammatory-cytokine-expression-in-zebrafish
#5
Seon-Heui Cha, Yongha Hwang, Kil-Nam Kim, Hee-Sook Jun
Inflammation markers in zebrafish embryos reflect a toxic response that is common to other animal models and humans. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are known to cause damage in various tissues by inducing inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether a FFA (palmitate) induces inflammation in zebrafish embryos. Nitrous oxide (NO) production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression were increased in palmitate-treated zebrafish embryos in a dose-dependent manner. mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α), were also increased...
May 14, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750032/protection-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-eysenhardtia-polystachya-in-peroxide-induced-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-damage-and-their-antidiabetic-properties-in-zebrafish
#6
Abraham Heriberto Garcia Campoy, Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez, Gabriela Manriquez-Alvirde, Alethia Muñiz Ramirez
Background: The aim was to explore the efficacy of extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya -loaded silver nanoparticles (EP/AgNPs) on pancreatic β cells, INS-1 cells, and zebrafish as a valuable model for the study of diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods: EP/AgNPs were synthesized using methanol/water bark extract of E. polystachya and characterized using various physicochemical techniques. Results: Immersion of adult zebrafish in 111 mM glucose solution resulted in a sustained hyperglycemic, hyperlipidemic state, and serum insulin levels decreased...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723547/hyperglycemia-elicits-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-zebrafish-protective-role-of-dietary-diphenyl-diselenide
#7
Matheus M Dos Santos, Gabriel T de Macedo, Alessandro S Prestes, Vânia L Loro, Graciela M Heidrich, Rochele S Picoloto, Denis B Rosemberg, Nilda V Barbosa
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease that may comorbid with various psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression. The search for effective therapeutics to alleviate hyperglycemia and complications resulting from DM is continuous. Here we investigate the effects of diphenyl diselenide (DD), an organoselenium compound with several pharmacological properties, in a zebrafish model of hyperglycemia. Fish were fed for 74 days with a diet containing 3 mg/Kg DD, a concentration chosen after experiments based in a dose-response curve (DD 1, 2 and 3 mg/Kg) that did not cause overt toxicity (mortality, weight loss and neurobehavioral deficits)...
April 30, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720549/the-role-of-palladin-in-podocytes
#8
Nadine Artelt, Tim A Ludwig, Henrik Rogge, Panagiotis Kavvadas, Florian Siegerist, Antje Blumenthal, Jens van den Brandt, Carol A Otey, Marie-Louise Bang, Kerstin Amann, Christos E Chadjichristos, Christos Chatziantoniou, Karlhans Endlich, Nicole Endlich
Background Podocyte loss and effacement of interdigitating podocyte foot processes are the major cause of a leaky filtration barrier and ESRD. Because the complex three-dimensional morphology of podocytes depends on the actin cytoskeleton, we studied the role in podocytes of the actin bundling protein palladin, which is highly expressed therein. Methods We knocked down palladin in cultured podocytes by siRNA transfection or in zebrafish embryos by morpholino injection and studied the effects by immunofluorescence and live imaging...
June 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642853/a-comparative-genomics-study-of-carbohydrate-glucose-metabolic-genes-from-fish-to-mammals
#9
Yuru Zhang, Chaobin Qin, Liping Yang, Ronghua Lu, Xiaoyan Zhao, Guoxing Nie
BACKGROUND: Glucose plays a key role as an energy source in most mammals, but its importance in fish appears to be limited that so far seemed to belong to diabetic humans only. Several laboratories worldwide have made important efforts in order to better understand this strange phenotype observed in fish. However, the mechanism of carbohydrate/glucose metabolism is astonishingly complex. Why basal glycaemia is different between fish and mammals and how carbohydrate metabolism is different amongst organisms is largely uncharted territory...
April 11, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617347/flavonoid-8-o-glucuronides-from-the-aerial-parts-of-malva-verticillata-and-their-recovery-effects-on-alloxan-induced-pancreatic-islets-in-zebrafish
#10
Jung-Hwan Ko, Youn Hee Nam, Sun-Woo Joo, Hyoung-Geun Kim, Yeong-Geun Lee, Tong Ho Kang, Nam-In Baek
Malva verticillata (Cluster mallow), a leafy vegetable that has been popular in East Asia for a long time, has also been used in herbal teas and medicines. The aqueous fraction of the aerial parts of Malva verticillata, exhibiting a very high quantity of flavonoids compared to the EtOAc and n -BuOH fractions, exhibited significant recovery effects on pancreatic islets damaged by alloxan in zebrafish larvae. Thus, the bioactive components responsible for this anti-diabetic activity were investigated. A new flavonoid glucuronide (1) and five known flavonoids were isolated from the aqueous fraction...
April 4, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562229/insulin-resistance-in-cavefish-as-an-adaptation-to-a-nutrient-limited-environment
#11
Misty R Riddle, Ariel C Aspiras, Karin Gaudenz, Robert Peuß, Jenny Y Sung, Brian Martineau, Megan Peavey, Andrew C Box, Julius A Tabin, Suzanne McGaugh, Richard Borowsky, Clifford J Tabin, Nicolas Rohner
Periodic food shortages are a major challenge faced by organisms in natural habitats. Cave-dwelling animals must withstand long periods of nutrient deprivation, as-in the absence of photosynthesis-caves depend on external energy sources such as seasonal floods. Here we show that cave-adapted populations of the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, have dysregulated blood glucose homeostasis and are insulin-resistant compared to river-adapted populations. We found that multiple cave populations carry a mutation in the insulin receptor that leads to decreased insulin binding in vitro and contributes to hyperglycaemia...
March 29, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514876/adipogenesis-in-fish
#12
REVIEW
Cristina Salmerón
White adipose tissue (AT) is the main lipid storage depot in vertebrates. Initially considered to be a simple lipid store, AT has recently been recognized as playing a role as an endocrine organ that is implicated in processes such as energy homeostasis and as a rich source of stem cells. Interest in adipogenesis has increased not only because of the prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in humans, but also in aquaculture because of the excessive fat deposition experienced in some cultured fish species, which may compromise both their welfare and their final product quality...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498212/the-transcription-factor-dach1-is-essential-for-podocyte-function
#13
Nicole Endlich, Felix Kliewe, Frances Kindt, Katharina Schmidt, Ahmed M Kotb, Nadine Artelt, Maja T Lindenmeyer, Clemens D Cohen, Franziska Döring, Andreas W Kuss, Kerstin Amann, Marcus J Moeller, Nazanin Kabgani, Antje Blumenthal, Karlhans Endlich
Dedifferentiation and loss of podocytes are the major cause of chronic kidney disease. Dach1, a transcription factor that is essential for cell fate, was found in genome-wide association studies to be associated with the glomerular filtration rate. We found that podocytes express high levels of Dach1 in vivo and to a much lower extent in vitro. Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) that are still under debate to be a type of progenitor cell for podocytes expressed Dach1 only at low levels. The transfection of PECs with a plasmid encoding for Dach1 induced the expression of synaptopodin, a podocyte-specific protein, demonstrated by immunocytochemistry and Western blot...
May 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493228/activatable-near-infrared-fluorescent-probe-for-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-and-its-bioimaging-applications-in-living-cells-and-animals
#14
Tao Liu, Jing Ning, Bo Wang, Bin Dong, Song Li, Xiangge Tian, Zhenlong Yu, Yulin Peng, Chao Wang, Xinyu Zhao, Xiaokui Huo, Chengpeng Sun, Jingnan Cui, Lei Feng, Xiaochi Ma
Visualization of endogenous disease-associated enzymes is of great clinical significance, as it could allow earlier clinical diagnosis and timely intervention. Herein, we first synthesized and characterized an enzyme-activatable near-infrared fluorescent probe, GP-DM, for determining the activity of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), which is associated with various pathological processes, especially in diabetes and malignant tumors. GP-DM emitted significant turn-on NIR fluorescent signals simultaneously in response to DPP IV, making it favorable for accurately and dynamically monitoring DPP IV activity in vitro and in vivo...
March 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463877/cinnamaldehyde-accelerates-wound-healing-by-promoting-angiogenesis-via-up-regulation-of-pi3k-and-mapk-signaling-pathways
#15
Xing Yuan, Lin Han, Peng Fu, Huawu Zeng, Chao Lv, Wanlin Chang, R Scott Runyon, Momoko Ishii, Liwen Han, Kechun Liu, Taiping Fan, Weidong Zhang, Runhui Liu
The bark of Cinnamomum cassia (C. cassia) has been used for the management of coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes mellitus. C. cassia may target the vasculature, as it stimulates angiogenesis, promotes blood circulation and wound healing. However, the active components and working mechanisms of C. cassia are not fully elucidated. The Shexiang Baoxin pill (SBP), which consists of seven medicinal materials, including C. cassia etc., is widely used as a traditional Chinese patent medicine for the treatment of CHD...
February 20, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429148/fasiglifam-tak-875-a-g-protein-coupled-receptor-40-gpr40-agonist-may-induce-hepatotoxicity-through-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-in-a-gpr40-dependent-manner
#16
MinJeong Kim, Gyo Jeong Gu, Yun-Sook Koh, Su-Hyun Lee, Yi Rang Na, Seung Hyeok Seok, Kyung-Min Lim
Fasiglifam (TAK-875) a G-protein coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) agonist, significantly improves hyperglycemia without hypoglycemia and weight gain, the major side effects of conventional anti-diabetics. Unfortunately, during multi-center Phase 3 clinical trials, unexpected liver toxicity resulted in premature termination of its development. Here, we investigated whether TAK-875 directly inflicts toxicity on hepatocytes and explored its underlying mechanism of toxicity. TAK-875 decreased viability of 2D and 3D cultures of HepG2, a human hepatocarcinoma cell line, in concentration- (>50 μM) and time-dependent manners, both of which corresponded with ROS generation...
February 12, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417450/zebrafish-as-a-model-for-toxicological-perturbation-of-yolk-and-nutrition-in-the-early-embryo
#17
REVIEW
Karilyn E Sant, Alicia R Timme-Laragy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Developmental toxicity assessments often focus on structural outcomes and overlook subtle metabolic differences which occur during the early embryonic period. Deviant embryonic nutrition can result in later-life disease, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Prior to placenta-mediated nutrient exchange, the human embryo requires maternally supplied nutritional substrates for growth, called yolk. Here, we compare the biology of the human and zebrafish yolk and review examples of toxicant-mediated perturbation of yolk defects, composition, and utilization...
March 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364210/studying-diabetes-through-the-eyes-of-a-fish-microdissection-visualization-and-analysis-of-the-adult-tg-fli-egfp-zebrafish-retinal-vasculature
#18
Lucas Moritz Wiggenhauser, Katharina Kohl, Nadine Dietrich, Hans-Peter Hammes, Jens Kroll
Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness among middle-aged adults. The rising prevalence of diabetes worldwide will make the prevention of diabetic microvascular complications one of the key research fields of the next decades. Specialized, targeted therapy and novel therapeutic drugs are needed to manage the increasing number of patients at risk of vision-loss. The zebrafish is an established animal model for developmental research questions with increasing relevance for modeling metabolic multifactorial disease processes...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351486/different-physiological-roles-of-insulin-receptors-in-mediating-nutrient-metabolism-in-zebrafish
#19
Bin-Yuan Yang, Gang Zhai, Yu-Long Gong, Jing-Zhi Su, Xu-Yan Peng, Guo-Hui Shang, Dong Han, Jun-Yan Jin, Hao-Kun Liu, Zhen-Yu Du, Zhan Yin, Shou-Qi Xie
Insulin, the most potent anabolic hormone, is critical for somatic growth and metabolism in vertebrates. Type 2 diabetes, which is the primary cause of hyperglycemia, results from an inability of insulin to signal glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Our previous study showed that double knockout of insulin receptor a (insra) and b (insrb) caused β-cell hyperplasia and lethality from 5 dpf to 16 dpf. In this study, we characterized the physiological roles of Insra and Insrb, in somatic growth and fueling metabolism, respectively...
December 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306589/oxidative-stress-dependent-mmp-13-activity-underlies-glucose-neurotoxicity
#20
Ashley L Waldron, Patricia A Schroder, Kelly L Bourgon, Jessie K Bolduc, James L Miller, Adriana D Pellegrini, Amanda L Dubois, Magdalena Blaszkiewicz, Kristy L Townsend, Sandra Rieger
BACKGROUND: A complication of diabetes is neuropathy, a condition of sensory axon degeneration that originates in the epidermis. The mechanisms remain unknown but reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in this condition. In this study, we assessed the role of ROS and a candidate downstream target, MMP-13 in glucose-induced sensory axon degeneration in zebrafish and mice. METHODS: The effects of glucose on metabolism and sensory axon degeneration were assessed using qPCR and live imaging...
March 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
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