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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102299/systemic-regulation-of-l-carnitine-in-nutritional-metabolism-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#1
Jia-Min Li, Ling-Yu Li, Xun Qin, Li-Jun Ning, Dong-Liang Lu, Dong-Liang Li, Mei-Ling Zhang, Xin Wang, Zhen-Yu Du
Excess fat accumulation has been observed widely in farmed fish; therefore, efficient lipid-lowering factors have obtained high attention in the current fish nutrition studies. Dietary L-carnitine can increase fatty acid β-oxidation in mammals, but has produced contradictory results in different fish species. To date, the mechanisms of metabolic regulation of L-carnitine in fish have not been fully determined. The present study used zebrafish to investigate the systemic regulation of nutrient metabolism by dietary L-carnitine supplementation...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095320/lethal-dysregulation-of-energy-metabolism-during-embryonic-vitamin-e-deficiency
#2
Melissa McDougall, Jaewoo Choi, Hye-Kyeong Kim, Gerd Bobe, J Frederik Stevens, Enrique Cadenas, Robert Tanguay, Maret G Traber
Vitamin E (α-tocopherol, VitE) was discovered in 1922 for its role in preventing embryonic mortality. We investigated the underlying mechanisms causing lethality using targeted metabolomics analyses of zebrafish VitE-deficient embryos over five days of development, which coincided with their increased morbidity and mortality. VitE deficiency resulted in peroxidation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), depleting DHA-containing phospholipids, especially phosphatidylcholine, which also caused choline depletion. This increased lipid peroxidation also increased NADPH oxidation, which depleted glucose by shunting it to the pentose phosphate pathway...
January 14, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005350/responses-of-the-proteome-and-metabolome-in-livers-of-zebrafish-exposed-chronically-to-environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-microcystin-lr
#3
Liang Chen, Yufei Hu, Jun He, Jun Chen, John P Giesy, Ping Xie
In this study, for the first time, changes in expressions of proteins and profiles of metabolites in liver of the small, freshwater fish [Formula: see text] (zebrafish) were investigated after long-term exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). Male zebrafish were exposed via water to 1 or 10 μg MC-LR/L for 90 days, and iTRAQ-based proteomics and (1)H NMR-based metabolomics were employed. Histopathological observations showed that MC-LR caused damage to liver, and the effects were more pronounced in fish exposed to 10 μg MC-LR/L...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938984/-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-analysis-of-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio-after-exposure-to-diniconazole-as-well-as-its-bioaccumulation-behavior
#4
Yao Wang, Wentao Zhu, Dezhen Wang, Miaomiao Teng, Jin Yan, Jiyan Miao, Zhiqiang Zhou
As a systemic triazole fungicide, limited information is known about diniconazole. In this study, toxicological effects and bioaccumulation behavior of diniconazole in zebrafish were both evaluated to perform an overall assessment of its environmental risk towards aquatic organisms. The (1)H NMR-based metabolomics analysis revealed that 70 μg L(-1) diniconazole exposure increased valine, leucine, isoleucine, alanine, lactate and choline, accompanied by decreased glucose, creatine and taurine, in comparison to the control...
February 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930690/structural-mapping-and-functional-characterization-of-zebrafish-class-b-g-protein-coupled-receptor-gpcr-with-dual-ligand-selectivity-towards-glp-1-and-glucagon
#5
Deena A Oren, Yang Wei, Luce Skrabanek, Billy K C Chow, Thomas Mommsen, Svetlana Mojsov
GLP-1 and glucagon regulate glucose metabolism through a network of metabolic pathways initiated upon binding to their specific receptors that belong to class B G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). The therapeutic potential of glucagon is currently being evaluated, while GLP-1 is already used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Development of a second generation of GLP-1 based therapeutics depends on a molecular and structural understanding of the interactions between the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and its ligand GLP-1...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818940/critical-role-for-adenosine-receptor-a2a-in-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation
#6
Nadja Schulz, Ka-Cheuk Liu, Jérémie Charbord, Charlotte L Mattsson, Lingjie Tao, Dominika Tworus, Olov Andersson
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological activation of adenosine signaling has been shown to increase β-cell proliferation and thereby β-cell regeneration in zebrafish and rodent models of diabetes. However, whether adenosine has an endogenous role in regulating β-cell proliferation is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether endogenous adenosine regulates β-cell proliferation-either in the basal state or states of increased demand for insulin-and to delineate the mechanisms involved...
November 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696252/chronic-hyperglycemia-affects-bone-metabolism-in-adult-zebrafish-scale-model
#7
Marta Carnovali, Livio Luzi, Giuseppe Banfi, Massimo Mariotti
Type II diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia that induce other pathologies including diabetic retinopathy and bone disease. The mechanisms implicated in bone alterations induced by type II diabetes mellitus have been debated for years and are not yet clear because there are other factors involved that hide bone mineral density alterations. Despite this, it is well known that chronic hyperglycemia affects bone health causing fragility, mechanical strength reduction and increased propensity of fractures because of impaired bone matrix microstructure and aberrant bone cells function...
October 1, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690380/flavonoids-from-litsea-japonica-inhibit-ages-formation-and-rat-lense-aldose-reductase-in-vitro-and-vessel-dilation-in-zebrafish
#8
Ik-Soo Lee, Yu Jin Kim, Seung-Hyun Jung, Joo-Hwan Kim, Jin Sook Kim
In our ongoing efforts to identify effective naturally sourced agents for the treating of diabetic complications, two new (1 and 2) and 11 known phenolic compounds (3-13) were isolated from an 80 % ethanol extract of Litsea japonica leaves. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic and chemical studies. These isolates (1-13) were subjected to an in vitro bioassay evaluating their inhibitory activity on advanced glycation end products formation and rat lens aldose reductase activity...
September 30, 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618422/corticosteroid-fludrocortisone-acetate-targets-multiple-end-points-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-at-low-concentrations
#9
Yanbin Zhao, Kun Zhang, Karl Fent
Synthetic corticosteroids may pose an environmental risk to fish. Here, we describe multiend point responses of adult zebrafish (8 months old) upon 21-day exposure to a commonly prescribed corticosteroid, fludrocortisone acetate (FLU), at concentrations between 0.006 and 42 μg/L. No remarkable reproductive impacts were observed, while physiological effects, including plasma glucose level and blood leukocyte numbers were significant altered even at 42 ng/L. Ovary parameters and transcriptional analysis of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis revealed negligible effects...
September 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566402/myc-nick-promotes-cell-migration-by-inducing-fascin-expression-and-cdc42-activation
#10
Sarah Anderson, Kumud Raj Poudel, Minna Roh-Johnson, Thomas Brabletz, Ming Yu, Nofit Borenstein-Auerbach, William N Grady, Jihong Bai, Cecilia B Moens, Robert N Eisenman, Maralice Conacci-Sorrell
MYC-nick is a cytoplasmic, transcriptionally inactive member of the MYC oncoprotein family, generated by a proteolytic cleavage of full-length MYC. MYC-nick promotes migration and survival of cells in response to chemotherapeutic agents or withdrawal of glucose. Here we report that MYC-nick is abundant in colonic and intestinal tumors derived from mouse models with mutations in the Wnt, TGF-β, and PI3K pathways. Moreover, MYC-nick is elevated in colon cancer cells deleted for FBWX7, which encodes the major E3 ligase of full-length MYC frequently mutated in colorectal cancers...
September 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488665/insulin-and-sgk1-reduce-the-function-of-na-monocarboxylate-transporter-1-smct1-slc5a8
#11
Adriana López-Barradas, Tania González-Cid, Norma Vázquez, Marisol Gavi-Maza, Adriana Reyes-Camacho, Laura A Velázquez-Villegas, Victoria Ramírez, Kambiz Zandi-Nejad, David B Mount, Nimbe Torres, Armando R Tovar, Michael F Romero, Gerardo Gamba, Consuelo Plata
SMCTs move several important fuel molecules that are involved in lipid, carbohydrate, and amino acid metabolism, but their regulation has been poorly studied. Insulin controls the translocation of several solutes that are involved in energetic cellular metabolism, including glucose. We studied the effect of insulin on the function of human SMCT1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The addition of insulin reduced α-keto-isocaproate (KIC)-dependent (22)Na(+) uptake by 29%. Consistent with this result, the coinjection of SMCT1 with SGK1 cRNA decreased the KIC-dependent (22)Na(+) uptake by 34%...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406217/fucoxanthin-suppresses-lipid-accumulation-and-ros-production-during-differentiation-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#12
Min-Jung Seo, Young-Jin Seo, Cheol-Ho Pan, Ok-Hwan Lee, Kui-Jin Kim, Boo-Yong Lee
Fucoxanthin, a pigment from the chloroplasts of marine brown algae, has a number of effects against obesity, diabetes, inflammation and cancer and provides cerebrovascular protection. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of fucoxanthin on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenesis. Treatment with fucoxanthin suppresses protein levels of the adipogenic transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha C/EBPα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and of their target protein, fatty acid binding protein 4...
July 13, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363927/sexual-dimorphisms-in-swimming-behavior-cerebral-metabolic-activity-and-adrenoceptors-in-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#13
Konstantinos Ampatzis, Catherine R Dermon
Sexually dimorphic behaviors and brain sex differences, not only restricted to reproduction, are considered to be evolutionary preserved. Specifically, anxiety related behavioral repertoire is suggested to exhibit sex-specific characteristics in rodents and primates. The present study investigated whether behavioral responses to novelty, have sex-specific characteristics in the neurogenetic model organism zebrafish (Danio rerio), lacking chromosomal sex determination. For this, aspects of anxiety-like behavior (including reduced exploration, increased freezing behavior and erratic movement) of male and female adult zebrafish were tested in a novel tank paradigm and after habituation...
October 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348393/high-resolution-magic-angle-spinning-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-of-intact-zebrafish-embryos-detects-metabolic-changes-following-exposure-to-teratogenic-polymethoxyalkenes-from-algae
#14
John P Berry, Upasana Roy, Asha Jaja-Chimedza, Kristel Sanchez, Joerg Matysik, A Alia
Techniques based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for imaging and chemical analyses of in vivo, or otherwise intact, biological systems are rapidly emerging and finding diverse applications within a wide range of fields. Very recently, several NMR-based techniques have been developed for the zebrafish as a model animal system. In the current study, the novel application of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR is presented as a means of metabolic profiling of intact zebrafish embryos. Toward investigating the utility of HR-MAS NMR as a toxicological tool, these studies specifically examined metabolic changes of embryos exposed to polymethoxy-1-alkenes (PMAs)-a recently identified family of teratogenic compounds from freshwater algae-as emerging environmental contaminants...
October 2016: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312501/zebrafish-pancreas-as-a-model-for-development-and-disease
#15
R A Kimmel, D Meyer
The vertebrate pancreas is composed of acinar tissue that produces digestive enzymes, a ductal system for transporting those enzymes, and the endocrine islets which produce hormones critical for organism glucose homeostasis. Recent studies have highlighted similarities between zebrafish and mammals in organ development, and increasingly reveal that the regulation of metabolic homeostasis is highly conserved as well. Use of zebrafish as a model organism, with its ease of genetic manipulation, high fecundity, and ready access for imaging, has been highly productive for studies of islet cell development...
2016: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27292639/foxn3-regulates-hepatic-glucose-utilization
#16
Santhosh Karanth, Erin K Zinkhan, Jonathon T Hill, H Joseph Yost, Amnon Schlegel
A SNP (rs8004664) in the first intron of the FOXN3 gene is associated with human fasting blood glucose. We find that carriers of the risk allele have higher hepatic expression of the transcriptional repressor FOXN3. Rat Foxn3 protein and zebrafish foxn3 transcripts are downregulated during fasting, a process recapitulated in human HepG2 hepatoma cells. Transgenic overexpression of zebrafish foxn3 or human FOXN3 increases zebrafish hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression, whole-larval free glucose, and adult fasting blood glucose and also decreases expression of glycolytic genes...
June 21, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27195698/breast-milk-from-frequent-trans-fatty-acid-consumers-shows-high-triglyceride-and-glucose-levels-but-low-cholesterol-and-apolipoprotein-a-i-levels-with-resulting-impaired-in-vitro-zebrafish-embryo-growth-and-survival
#17
Seong-Min Kim, Jihoe Kim, Inho Choi, Jae-Ryong Kim, Kyung-Hyun Cho
BACKGROUND: It is well known that breast milk is the best nutritional source for infant growth. However, there has been no information about the quality of breast milk from individuals who daily consume a trans fatty acid (TFA)-enriched diet. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We performed compositional and functional analyses with breast milk from lactating mothers, in terms of lipid content and zebrafish embryo survivability, among individuals who daily consumed TFA-enriched food (n = 5), normal diet as control (n = 5), and powder formula (n = 5)...
June 2016: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125736/klotho-related-protein-klrp-structure-and-functions
#18
Y Hayashi, M Ito
Klotho (KL) family proteins share one or two glycoside hydrolase (GH) motifs homologous to GH family 1. However, the biological significance of GH motifs in KL family proteins remains elusive. We describe here that KL-related protein (KLrP), which is composed of a single GH motif, is a cytosolic β-glucocerebrosidase (GCase, EC 3.2.1.145). We detected a neutral conduritol B epoxide (CBE)-insensitive glucosylceramide (GlcCer)-degrading activity in the cytosol fractions of human fibroblasts, rat brains, and zebrafish embryos...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27066534/altered-glycolysis-and-mitochondrial-respiration-in-a-zebrafish-model-of-dravet-syndrome
#19
Maneesh G Kumar, Shane Rowley, Ruth Fulton, Matthew T Dinday, Scott C Baraban, Manisha Patel
Altered metabolism is an important feature of many epileptic syndromes but has not been reported in Dravet syndrome (DS), a catastrophic childhood epilepsy associated with mutations in a voltage-activated sodium channel, Nav1.1 (SCN1A). To address this, we developed novel methodology to assess real-time changes in bioenergetics in zebrafish larvae between 4 and 6 d postfertilization (dpf). Baseline and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) stimulated glycolytic flux and mitochondrial respiration were simultaneously assessed using a Seahorse Biosciences extracellular flux analyzer...
March 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26974334/generation-of-mice-with-hepatocyte-specific-conditional-deletion-of-notum
#20
Frédéric Canal, Sara Charawi, Gisèle Grimber, Christophe Houbron, Valérie Drouet, Sabine Colnot, Benoit Terris, Catherine Cavard, Christine Perret
BACKGROUND: Fine tuning of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is essential for the proper development and function of the liver. Aberrant activation of this pathway is observed in 20%-40% of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Notum encodes a secreted Wnt deacylase that inhibits Wnt activity and thereby restricts the zone of activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. An important role of NOTUM has been described in development in drosophila, planaria and zebrafish, but its role in the mammalian liver is unknown...
2016: PloS One
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