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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317613/glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-is-indispensable-in-embryonic-development-by-modulation-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-the-nox-smad3-mir-200b-axis
#1
Yi-Hsuan Wu, Ying-Hsuan Lee, Hung-Yu Shih, Shih-Hsiang Chen, Yi-Chuan Cheng, Daniel Tsun-Yee Chiu
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a housekeeping enzyme involved in the pentose phosphate shunt for producing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). Severe G6PD deficiency leads to embryonic lethality, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In the current study, the effects of G6PD on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), especially during embryonic development, were investigated. The knockdown of G6PD induced morphological changes, accompanied by the suppression of epithelial markers, E-cadherin and β-catenin, in A549 and MDCK cells...
January 9, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306589/oxidative-stress-dependent-mmp-13-activity-underlies-glucose-neurotoxicity
#2
Ashley L Waldron, Patricia A Schroder, Kelly L Bourgon, Jessie K Bolduc, James L Miller, Adriana D Pellegrini, Amanda L Dubois, Magdalena Blaszkiewicz, Kristy L Townsend, Sandra Rieger
BACKGROUND: A complication of diabetes is neuropathy, a condition of sensory axon degeneration that originates in the epidermis. The mechanisms remain unknown but reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in this condition. In this study, we assessed the role of ROS and a candidate downstream target, MMP-13 in glucose-induced sensory axon degeneration in zebrafish and mice. METHODS: The effects of glucose on metabolism and sensory axon degeneration were assessed using qPCR and live imaging...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274064/metabolic-and-bone-effects-of-high-fat-diet-in-adult-zebrafish
#3
Marta Carnovali, Livio Luzi, Ileana Terruzzi, Giuseppe Banfi, Massimo Mariotti
An increase of visceral fat affects human bone health causing fragility, mechanical strength reduction, and increased propensity to fractures because of impaired bone matrix microstructure and aberrant bone cell function. Adult Danio rerio (zebrafish) represents a powerful model to study both metabolic diseases and bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to generate an obese adult zebrafish by high-fat diet and evaluate metabolic and bone tissue effects. Fish blood glucose and insulin levels were found to be altered in high-fat diet fish revealing a failure in β-cells insulin production...
December 22, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274062/metformin-beta-cell-development-and-novel-processes-following-beta-cell-ablation-in-zebrafish
#4
Georgia Wyett, Yann Gibert, Megan Ellis, Hozana A Castillo, Jan Kaslin, Kathryn Aston-Mourney
PURPOSE: Type 1 and 2 diabetes are characterized by a loss of insulin-producing beta-cells. Current treatments help maintain blood glucose levels but cannot provide a cure. As such, a vital target for the cure of diabetes is a way to restore beta-cell mass. The drug metformin can protect cultured beta-cells/islets from hyperglycemia-induced dysfunction and death. Further, treatment of pregnant mice with metformin results in an enhanced beta-cell fraction in the embryos; however, whether this occurs via a direct effect is unknown...
December 22, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242313/dissection-of-glomerular-transcriptional-profile-in-patients-with-diabetic-nephropathy-srgap2a-protects-podocyte-structure-and-function
#5
Yu Pan, Song Jiang, Qing Hou, Dandan Qiu, Jingsong Shi, Ling Wang, Zhaohong Chen, Mingchao Zhang, Aiping Duan, Weisong Qin, Ke Zen, Zhihong Liu
Podocytes play a pivotal role in maintaining glomerular filtration function through their interdigitated foot processes. However, the mechanisms that govern the podocyte cytoskeletal rearrangement still remain unclear. Through analyzing transcriptional profile of renal biopsy from diabetic nephropathy (DN) patients and control donors, we identify Slit-Robo GTP activating protein 2a (SRGAP2a) as one of the main 'hub' genes that are strongly associated with proteinuria and glomerular filtration in type 2 DN patients...
December 14, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190094/active-glucocorticoids-have-a-range-of-important-adverse-developmental-and-physiological-effects-on-developing-zebrafish-embryos
#6
Raffael Alois Willi, Susanne Faltermann, Timm Hettich, Karl Fent
Glucocorticoids in aquatic systems originating from natural excretion and medical use may pose a risk to fish. Here, we analyzed physiological and transcriptional effects of clobetasol propionate (CLO), cortisol and cortisone in zebrafish embryos as single compounds and binary mixtures. CLO and cortisol, but not cortisone showed a concentration-dependent decrease in muscle contraction, increase in heart rate, and accelerated hatching. CLO also induced immobilization and edema at high concentrations. Transcription analysis covering up to 26 genes showed that mostly genes related to glucose metabolism, immune system and development were differentially expressed at 91 ng/L and higher...
December 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165729/polyphenols-from-euphorbia-pekinensis-inhibit-ages-formation-in-vitro-and-vessel-dilation-in-larval-zebrafish-in-vivo
#7
Ik-Soo Lee, Seung-Hyun Jung, Jin Sook Kim
To identify active compounds in the roots of Euphorbia pekinensis for treatment of diabetic complications, an active column fraction from a 70% EtOH extract of E. pekinensis root was purified by preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, leading to the isolation of a new ellagic acid derivative, 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid 4-O-(6"-O-galloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1), along with three known compounds, geraniin (2), 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid 4-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (3), and ellagic acid 3,3'-dimethyl ether (4)...
November 17, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157578/evaluation-of-the-insulinotropic-and-glucose-lowering-actions-of-zebrafish-gip-in-mammalian-systems-evidence-for-involvement-of-the-glp-1-receptor
#8
Galyna V Graham, J Michael Conlon, Yasser H Abdel-Wahab, Victor A Gault, Peter R Flatt
The insulinotropic properties of zebrafish GIP (zfGIP) were assessed in vitro using clonal pancreatic β-cell lines and isolated mouse islets and acute effects on glucose tolerance and insulin release in vivo were evaluated in mice. The peptide produced a dose-dependent increase in the rate of insulin release from BRIN-BD11 rat clonal β-cells at concentrations ≥30nM. Insulin release from 1.1 B4 human clonal β-cells and mouse islets was significantly increased by zfGIP (10nM and 1μM). The in vitro insulinotropic activity of zfGIP was decreased after incubating BRIN-BD11 cells with the GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin-4(9-39) (p<0...
November 17, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116147/spexin-suppress-food-intake-in-zebrafish-evidence-from-gene-knockout-study
#9
Binbin Zheng, Shuisheng Li, Yun Liu, Yu Li, Huapu Chen, Haipei Tang, Xiaochun Liu, Haoran Lin, Yong Zhang, Christopher H K Cheng
Spexin1 (SPX1) is a newly discovered neuropeptide in vertebrates. Its biological function remains to be elucidated. In this study, we have generated the zebrafish spx1 (-/-) mutant lines using transcription activator-like effector nucleases. Phenotypes of the spx1 (-/-) mutant zebrafish were analyzed in order to understand the effects on reproduction and food intake. The reproductive capability is not impaired in spx1 mutant zebrafish. However, we found that the spx1 (-/-) mutant fish had a higher food intake than the wild type (WT) fish...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071448/effects-of-acute-handling-stress-on-short-term-central-expression-of-orexigenic-anorexigenic-genes-in-zebrafish
#10
Raul Cortés, Mariana Teles, Miguel Oliveira, Camino Fierro-Castro, Lluis Tort, José Miguel Cerdá-Reverter
Physiological mechanisms driving stress response in vertebrates are evolutionarily conserved. These mechanisms involve the activation of both the hypothalamic-sympathetic-chromaffin cell (HSC) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes. In fish, the reduction of food intake levels is a common feature of the behavioral response to stress but the central mechanisms coordinating the energetic response are not well understood yet. In this work, we explore the effects of acute stress on key central systems regulating food intake in fish as well as on total body cortisol and glucose levels...
October 25, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046352/the-lignan-manassantin-is-a-potent-and-specific-inhibitor-of-mitochondrial-complex-i-and-bioenergetic-activity-in-mammals
#11
Yibao Ma, Hae-Ki Min, Unsong Oh, Adam M Hawkridge, Wei Wang, Ahmed A Mohsin, Qun Chen, Arun Sanyal, Edward J Lesnefsky, Xianjun Fang
Dineolignans manassantin A and B from the plant Saururus cernuus are used in traditional medicine to manage a wide range of ailments such as edema, jaundice, and gonorrhea. Cell-based studies have identified several molecular target candidates of manassantin including NF-kappaB, MAPK, STAT3 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1alpha). It is unclear whether or how these structurally diverse proteins or pathways mediate any of the medical benefits of manassantin in vivo. Moreover, it has been recently reported that manassantin causes developmental arrest in zebrafish by inhibiting the mitochondrial complex I, but it is unknown whether manassantin inhibits mitochondrial respiration in intact mammalian cells and live animals...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946120/bisphenol-s-exposure-impairs-glucose-homeostasis-in-male-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#12
Fei Zhao, Guobin Jiang, Penghao Wei, Hongfang Wang, Shaoguo Ru
Bisphenol S (BPS) is a substitute of the plastic additive bisphenol A (BPA). Its concentrations detected in surface waters and urine samples are on the same order of magnitude as BPA. Human exposure to BPA has been implicated in the development of diabetes mellitus; however, whether BPS can disrupt glucose homeostasis and increase blood glucose concentration remains unclear. We extensively investigated the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of BPS on glucose metabolism in male zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the underlying mechanisms of these effects...
January 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939870/different-developmental-histories-of-beta-cells-generate-functional-and-proliferative-heterogeneity-during-islet-growth
#13
Sumeet Pal Singh, Sharan Janjuha, Theresa Hartmann, Özge Kayisoglu, Judith Konantz, Sarah Birke, Priyanka Murawala, Ezzaldin Ahmed Alfar, Kei Murata, Anne Eugster, Naoki Tsuji, Edward R Morrissey, Michael Brand, Nikolay Ninov
The proliferative and functional heterogeneity among seemingly uniform cells is a universal phenomenon. Identifying the underlying factors requires single-cell analysis of function and proliferation. Here we show that the pancreatic beta-cells in zebrafish exhibit different growth-promoting and functional properties, which in part reflect differences in the time elapsed since birth of the cells. Calcium imaging shows that the beta-cells in the embryonic islet become functional during early zebrafish development...
September 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926587/functional-characterization-of-zebrafish-orthologs-of-the-human-beta-3-glucosyltransferase-b3glct-gene-mutated-in-peters-plus-syndrome
#14
Eric Weh, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Sanaa Muheisen, Robert S Haltiwanger, Elena V Semina
Peters Plus Syndrome (PPS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by ocular defects, short stature, brachydactyly, characteristic facial features, developmental delay and other highly variable systemic defects. Classic PPS is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the B3GLCT gene encoding for a β3-glucosyltransferase that catalyzes the attachment of glucose via a β1-3 glycosidic linkage to O-linked fucose on thrombospondin type 1 repeats (TSRs). B3GLCT was shown to participate in a non-canonical ER quality control mechanism; however, the exact molecular processes affected in PPS are not well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925940/zebrafish-as-a-model-for-the-study-of-microvascular-complications-of-diabetes-and-their-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
Karl Heckler, Jens Kroll
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a crucial metabolic disease that leads to severe disorders. These include macrovascular complications such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral artery disease and microvascular complications including diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. Diabetes mellitus, along with its associated organ pathologies, is one of the key problems in today's medicine. Zebrafish is an upcoming disease model organism in diabetes research. Its glucose metabolism and the pathways of reactive metabolite formation are very similar to those of humans...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924380/intracellular-insulin-and-impaired-autophagy-in-a-zebrafish-model-and-a-cell-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#16
Xiang-Hui Meng, Bo Chen, Jing-Pu Zhang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance. However, the complete molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, zebrafish were fed a long-term high-fat diet to induce type 2 diabetes, which resulted in a higher body weight, body mass index, more lipid vacuoles in liver, increased insulin transcription level in liver, brain and muscle, and high fasting blood glucose in the high-fat diet zebrafish. Oppositely, the transcription levels of insulin substrate-2 and glucose transporter 2 were significantly decreased, indicating insulin signaling pathway and glucose transport impaired in the insulin-targeting tissues...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901286/biochemical-adaptations-of-the-retina-and-retinal-pigment-epithelium-support-a-metabolic-ecosystem-in-the-vertebrate-eye
#17
Mark A Kanow, Michelle M Giarmarco, Connor Sr Jankowski, Kristine Tsantilas, Abbi L Engel, Jianhai Du, Jonathan D Linton, Christopher C Farnsworth, Stephanie R Sloat, Austin Rountree, Ian R Sweet, Ken J Lindsay, Edward D Parker, Susan E Brockerhoff, Martin Sadilek, Jennifer R Chao, James B Hurley
Here we report multiple lines of evidence for a comprehensive model of energy metabolism in the vertebrate eye. Metabolic flux, locations of key enzymes, and our finding that glucose enters mouse and zebrafish retinas mostly through photoreceptors support a conceptually new model for retinal metabolism. In this model, glucose from the choroidal blood passes through the retinal pigment epithelium to the retina where photoreceptors convert it to lactate. Photoreceptors then export the lactate as fuel for the retinal pigment epithelium and for neighboring Müller glial cells...
September 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881243/assessing-biological-effects-of-fluoxetine-in-developing-zebrafish-embryos-using-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-based-metabolomics
#18
Priti Mishra, Zhiyuan Gong, Barry C Kelly
Continuous low-dose exposure of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in aquatic ecosystems is a concern worldwide. In this study, we utilized a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics approach to assess endogenous metabolite changes in developing zebrafish embryos exposed to different concentrations of the widely used antidepressant, fluoxetine. Embryos were exposed from 2 h post fertilization (hpf) until 96 hpf. Using the Fiehn GC-MS library, a total of 31 metabolites were positively identified in embryos...
August 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852872/amino-acids-are-major-energy-substrates-for-tissues-of-hybrid-striped-bass-and-zebrafish
#19
Sichao Jia, Xinyu Li, Shixuan Zheng, Guoyao Wu
Fish generally have much higher requirements for dietary protein than mammals, and this long-standing puzzle remains unsolved. The present study was conducted with zebrafish (omnivores) and hybrid striped bass (HSB, carnivores) to test the hypothesis that AAs are oxidized at a higher rate than carbohydrates (e.g., glucose) and fatty acids (e.g., palmitate) to provide ATP for their tissues. Liver, proximal intestine, kidney, and skeletal muscle isolated from zebrafish and HSB were incubated at 28.5 °C (zebrafish) or 26 °C (HSB) for 2 h in oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer (pH 7...
August 29, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851992/tcf7l2-plays-pleiotropic-roles-in-the-control-of-glucose-homeostasis-pancreas-morphology-vascularization-and-regeneration
#20
Nicola Facchinello, Estefania Tarifeño-Saldivia, Enrico Grisan, Marco Schiavone, Margherita Peron, Alessandro Mongera, Olivier Ek, Nicole Schmitner, Dirk Meyer, Bernard Peers, Natascia Tiso, Francesco Argenton
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease characterized by impaired insulin secretion. The Wnt signaling transcription factor Tcf7l2 is to date the T2D-associated gene with the largest effect on disease susceptibility. However, the mechanisms by which TCF7L2 variants affect insulin release from β-cells are not yet fully understood. By taking advantage of a tcf7l2 zebrafish mutant line, we first show that these animals are characterized by hyperglycemia and impaired islet development. Moreover, we demonstrate that the zebrafish tcf7l2 gene is highly expressed in the exocrine pancreas, suggesting potential bystander effects on β-cell growth, differentiation and regeneration...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
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