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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353433/recent-trends-and-analytical-challenges-in-plant-bioactive-peptide-separation-identification-and-validation
#1
REVIEW
Susy Piovesana, Anna Laura Capriotti, Chiara Cavaliere, Giorgia La Barbera, Carmela Maria Montone, Riccardo Zenezini Chiozzi, Aldo Laganà
Interest in research into bioactive peptides (BPs) is growing because of their health-promoting ability. Several bioactivities have been ascribed to peptides, including antioxidant, antihypertensive and antimicrobial properties. As they can be produced from precursor proteins, the investigation of BPs in foods is becoming increasingly popular. For the same reason, production of BPs from by-products has also emerged as a possible means of reducing waste and recovering value-added compounds suitable for functional food production and supplements...
January 20, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352944/fabrication-of-cellulose-nanowhiskers-reinforced-chitosan-xylan-nanocomposite-films-with-antibacterial-and-antioxidant-activities
#2
Yuping Bao, Hao Zhang, Qian Luan, Mingming Zheng, Hu Tang, Fenghong Huang
Antibacterial and antioxidant chitosan-xylan/cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) nanocomposite films were successfully prepared using CNW as nanofillers. The structure and morphology of the nanocomposite films were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optical transmittance, thermal stability, mechanical property, and swelling property of the nanocomposite films were also evaluated. These results revealed the microstructure of the films and confirmed the good miscibility between chitosan-xylan and CNW...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352909/a-review-of-polysaccharides-from-schisandra-chinensis-and-schisandra-sphenanthera-properties-functions-and-applications
#3
REVIEW
Zijian Li, Xin He, Fei Liu, Jue Wang, Juan Feng
Schisandra is an herbal plant resource with dual functions in medicine and food since ancient times. It has a variety of healthcare and therapeutic effects. Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill and Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wits are two of the most commonly used Schisandra. Traditional Chinese medicine experience has shown that water-soluble polysaccharide from Schisandra may be one of its main components with pharmacological effects. Progress in the industrial production and extraction process of plant polysaccharides, especially Chinese medicine polysaccharides in the past three decades, have led to many new discoveries about Schisandra polysaccharides in the fields of purification and identification...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352899/sodium-alginate-adhesives-as-binders-in-wood-fibers-textile-waste-fibers-biocomposites-for-building-insulation
#4
Clément Lacoste, Roland El Hage, Anne Bergeret, Stéphane Corn, Patrick Lacroix
Alginate derived from seaweed is a natural polysaccharide able to form stable gel through carbohydrate functional groups largely used in the food and pharmaceutical industry. This article deals with the use of sodium alginate as an adhesive binder for wood fibres/textile waste fibres biocomposites. Several aldehyde-based crosslinking agents (glyoxal, glutaraldehyde) were compared for various wood/textile waste ratios (100/0, 50/50, 60/40, 70/30 and 0/100 in weight). The fully biomass derived composites whose properties are herewith described satisfy most of the appropriate requirements for building materials...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352879/structural-characterization-and-in-vitro-fermentation-of-a-novel-polysaccharide-from-sargassum-thunbergii-and-its-impact-on-gut-microbiota
#5
Xiong Fu, Changliang Cao, Beibei Ren, Bin Zhang, Qiang Huang, Chao Li
The aim of the present study was to investigate structural characteristic and in vitro fermentation of a novel polysaccharide named ST-P2 from Sargassum thunbergii by human fecal inoculums, and its impact on human colonic microbiota. The results showed that ST-P2 was homogeneous with molecular weight of 48,788 Da, and consisted of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose, and mannose. The main linkage types were identified as (1 → 5)-α-L-Araf, (1 → 3)-α-L-Manp, (1 → 3,6)-β-D-Galp, (1 → 6)-α-D-Glcp, and (1 → 3)-β-D-Xylp, respectively...
March 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352754/providing-ethical-healthcare-in-resource-poor-environments
#6
Kenneth V Iserson
The ethics of providing health care in resource-poor environments is a complex topic. It implies two related questions: What can we do with the resources on hand? Of all the things we can do, which ones should we do? "Resource-poor" (i.e., resource-challenged, resource-constrained) environments are situations in which clinicians, organizations, or healthcare systems have the knowledge and skills, but not the means, to carry out highly effective and beneficial interventions. Determinants of a population's health often rely less on disease and injury management than on recognizing and meeting their basic needs...
January 19, 2018: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352524/effects-of-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-on-brain-response-to-high-calorie-food-cues-in-young-adults
#7
Shan Luo, Sydney G O'Connor, Britni R Belcher, Kathleen A Page
OBJECTIVE: Physical activity (PA) promotes weight maintenance, potentially because of its beneficial effects on feeding behavior regulation via diminished food cue reactivity within brain reward regions. This study examined how levels of PA and sedentary behavior (SB) relate to brain responses to food cues. METHODS: Participants (22 lean, 18 with obesity) completed three to five PA recalls over 2 months. Average minutes per day of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and SB were calculated...
January 19, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352090/production-of-ophthalmic-acid-using-engineered-escherichia-coli
#8
Tomokazu Ito, Maiko Tokoro, Ran Hori, Hisashi Hemmi, Tohru Yoshimura
Ophthalmic acid (l-γ-glutamyl-l-2-aminobutyryl-glycine, OA) is an analog of glutathione (l-γ-glutamyl-l-cysteinyl-glycine, GSH) in which the cysteine moiety is replaced by l-2-aminobutyrate. OA is a useful peptide for the pharmaceutical and/or food industries. Herein, we report a method for the production of OA using engineered Escherichia coli cells. The yggS-deficient E. coli cells, which lack the highly conserved pyridoxal 5' -phosphate-binding protein YggS and naturally accumulate OA, were selected as the starting strain background...
January 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351799/effect-of-the-replacement-of-dietary-vegetable-oils-with-a-low-dose-of-extravirgin-olive-oil-in-the-mediterranean-diet-on-cognitive-functions-in-the-elderly
#9
Elisa Mazza, Antonietta Fava, Yvelise Ferro, Stefania Rotundo, Stefano Romeo, Domenico Bosco, Arturo Pujia, Tiziana Montalcini
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have investigated the role of the monounsaturated fatty acid and other dietary factors in the prevention of cognitive decline but the short-term effect of a low dose of extravirgin olive oil on cognitive performances in the elderly have not still been investigated. Our aim was to investigate whether the replacement of all vegetable oils with a lower amount of extravirgin olive oil, in the contest of a Mediterranean Diet, would improve cognitive performances, among elderly Italian individuals...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351662/the-versatile-tanycyte-a-hypothalamic-integrator-of-reproduction-and-energy-metabolism
#10
Vincent Prevot, Bénédicte Dehouck, Ariane Sharif, Philippe Ciofi, Paolo Giacobini, Jerome Clasadonte
The fertility and survival of an individual rely on the ability of the periphery to promptly, effectively and reproducibly communicate with brain neural networks that control reproduction, food intake and energy homeostasis. Tanycytes, a specialized glial cell type lining the wall of the third ventricle in the median eminence of the hypothalamus, appear to act as the linchpin of these processes by dynamically controlling the secretion of neuropeptides into the portal vasculature by hypothalamic neurons and regulating blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid exchanges, both processes that depend on the ability of these cells to adapt their morphology to the physiological state of the individual...
January 17, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351603/the-unexpected-function-of-a-flavin-dependent-oxidoreductase-fox-from-variovorax-paradoxus-tbea6
#11
Christina Meinert, Marc Schürmann, Jan-Eike Domeyer, Anja Poehlein, Rolf Daniel, Alexander Steinbüchel
3,3'-Thiodipropionic acid (TDP) is used as an additive in food and cosmetic industry and as precursor substrate for biotechnical polythioester production. Its catabolism was investigated in Variovorax paradoxus TBEA6 previous to this study. It was reported that the insertion of the transposon Tn5::mob into a gene showing high homology to flavin-dependent oxidoreductases (fox) resulted in impaired growth with TDP. Therefore, it was assumed that the initial cleavage of TDP is catalyzed by an FAD-dependent oxidoreductase (Fox, VPARA_05580)...
January 17, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351428/control-of-appetite-blood-glucose-and-blood-pressure-during-melanocortin-4-receptor-activation-in-normoglycemic-and-diabetic-npy-deficient-mice
#12
Alexandre A da Silva, John Nathan Freeman, John E Hall, Jussara M do Carmo
Although central melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) blockade abolishes the CNS-mediated anorexogenic, antidiabetic and cardiovascular actions of leptin, chronic MC4R stimulation fails to completely mimic leptin's effects. Because neuropeptide Y (NPY) and MC4R exert opposite effects on cardiovascular and metabolic functions, we tested its role in offsetting the long-term actions of MC4R activation. Wild-type (WT) and NPY-deficient (NPY-/-) mice were implanted with telemetry probes for measuring mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) 24-h/d...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351420/fourth-ventricular-tsh-induces-satiety-and-increases-body-temperature-in-rats
#13
Ulrika Smedh, Karen A Scott, Timothy H Moran
Besides its well-known action to stimulate thyroid hormone release, Thyrotropin mRNA is expressed within the brain and Thyrotropin and its receptor have been shown to be present in brain areas that control feeding and gastrointestinal function. Here, the hypothesis that Thyrotropin acts on receptors in the dorsal hindbrain to alter food intake and/or gastric function was tested. Fourth ventricular injections of Thyrotropin (0.06, 0.6 and 6.0 µg) were given to rats with chronic intracerebroventricular cannulas aimed at the fourth ventricle...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351361/pathways-of-nitric-oxide-metabolism-and-operation-of-phytoglobins-in-legume-nodules-missing-links-and-future-directions
#14
Antoine Berger, Renaud Brouquisse, Pradeep Kumar Pathak, Imène Hichri, Inderjit Singh, Sabhyata Bhatia, Alexandre Boscari, Abir U Igamberdiev, Kapuganti Jagadis Gupta
The interaction between legumes and rhizobia leads to the establishment of a beneficial symbiotic relationship. Recent advances in legume - rhizobium symbiosis revealed that various reactive oxygen and nitrogen species including nitric oxide (NO) play important roles during this process. Nodule development occurs with a transition from a normoxic environment during the establishment of symbiosis to a microoxic environment in functional nodules. Such oxygen dynamics are required for activation and repression of various NO production and scavenging pathways...
January 19, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351315/large-scale-mapping-of-bioactive-peptides-in-structural-and-sequence-space
#15
Agustina E Nardo, M Cristina Añón, Gustavo Parisi
Health-enhancing potential bioactive peptide (BP) has driven an interest in food proteins as well as in the development of predictive methods. Research in this area has been especially active to use them as components in functional foods. Apparently, BPs do not have a given biological function in the containing proteins and they do not evolve under independent evolutionary constraints. In this work we performed a large-scale mapping of BPs in sequence and structural space. Using well curated BP deposited in BIOPEP database, we searched for exact matches in non-redundant sequences databases...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351249/utilizing-dietary-micronutrient-ratios-in-nutritional-research-may-be-more-informative-than-focusing-on-single-nutrients
#16
Owen J Kelly, Jennifer C Gilman, Jasminka Z Ilich
The 2015 US dietary guidelines advise the importance of good dietary patterns for health, which includes all nutrients. Micronutrients are rarely, if ever, consumed separately, they are not tissue specific in their actions and at the molecular level they are multitaskers. Metabolism functions within a seemingly random cellular milieu however ratios are important, for example, the ratio of adenosine triphosphate to adenosine monophosphate, or oxidized to reduced glutathione. Health status is determined by simple ratios, such as the waist hip ratio, or ratio of fat mass to lean mass...
January 19, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351232/dietary-acid-load-and-potassium-intake-associate-with-blood-pressure-and-hypertension-prevalence-in-a-representative-sample-of-the-german-adult-population
#17
Danika Krupp, Jonas Esche, Gert Bernardus Maria Mensink, Stefanie Klenow, Michael Thamm, Thomas Remer
Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, like the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-diet, are usually characterized by high potassium intake and reduced dietary acid load, and have been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP). However, the relevance of potential renal acid load (PRAL) for BP has not been compared with the relevance to BP of urinary biomarker (K-urine)- and dietary food frequency questionnaire (K-FFQ)-based estimates of potassium intake in a general adult population sample. For 6788 participants (aged 18-79 years) of the representative German Health-Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1), associations of PRAL, K-urine, and K-FFQ with BP and hypertension prevalence were cross-sectionally examined in multivariable linear and logistic regression models...
January 19, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351230/comparison-of-antioxidative-effects-of-insect-tea-and-its-raw-tea-kuding-tea-polyphenols-in-kunming-mice
#18
Xin Zhao, Jia-Le Song, Ruokun Yi, Guijie Li, Peng Sun, Kun-Young Park, Huayi Suo
Kudingcha is a traditional Chinese tea, and insect tea is a special drink produced by the metabolism of insect larvae using the raw Kuding tea. Insect tea polyphenols (ITP) and its raw tea (Kuding tea) polyphenols (KTP) are high-purity polyphenols extracted by centrifuge precipitation. The present study was designed to compare the antioxidative effects of insect tea polyphenols (ITP) and its raw tea (Kuding tea) polyphenols (KTP) on d-galactose-induced oxidation in Kunming (KM) mice. KM mice were treated with ITP (200 mg/kg) and KTP (200 mg/kg) by gavage, and vitamin C (VC, 200 mg/kg) was also used as a positive control by gavage...
January 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350748/protective-effect-of-chitosan-oligosaccharides-against-cyclophosphamide-induced-immunosuppression-and-irradiation-injury-in-mice
#19
Xingchen Zhai, Xin Yang, Pan Zou, Yong Shao, Shoujun Yuan, A M Abd El-Aty, Jing Wang
Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS), hydrolyzed products of chitosan, was found to display various biological activities. Herein, we assessed the immunostimulatory activity of COS both in in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro cytotoxicity studies to murine macrophage RAW264.7 revealed that COS is safe even at the maximum tested concentration of 1000 μg/mL. It also stimulates the production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and enhances the phagocytosis in COS-stimulated RAW264.7. We have shown that the COS could significantly (P < 0...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350563/dietary-advanced-glycosylation-end-products-dages-and-melanoidins-formed-through-maillard-reaction-physiological-consequences-of-their-intake
#20
Cristina Delgado-Andrade, Vincenzo Fogliano
The main purpose of this review is to clarify whether the consumption of food rich in melanoidins and dietary advanced glycosylation end-products (dAGEs) are harmful or beneficial for human health. There are conflicting results on their harmful effects in the literature, partly due to a methodological issue in how dAGEs are determined in food. Melanoidins have positive functions particularly within the gastrointestinal tract, whereas the intake of dAGEs has controversial physiological consequences. Most of the in vivo intervention trials were done comparing boiled versus roasted diet (low and high dAGE, respectively)...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
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