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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432936/the-immunosuppressive-characteristics-of-fb1-by-inhibition-of-maturation-and-function-of-bmdcs
#1
Yinhuan Li, Yanhong Fan, Bingbing Xia, Qiuping Xiao, Qingqing Wang, Weidong Sun, Haibin Zhang, Chenghua He
Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is one kind of mycotoxins that has the neurotoxicity, carcinogenicity, hepatotoxicity and immunotoxicity produced by the fungus Fusarium verticillioides, which commonly infects corn and other crops and is harmful to animal and human health upon consumption of FB1-contaminated feed or food. However, the mechanism of immunotoxicity, especially the immunosuppression induced by FB1 is still unclear. The most pivotal cells in the induction of immune responses are dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we used murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) as a model system to elucidate the effect of FB1 on the function of BMDCs through biological methods...
April 19, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432400/-the-intestinal-microbiome-and-metabolic-diseases-from-obesity-to-diabetes-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#2
S C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiome consists of about 10 million genes, many of which encode digestive enzymes. This explains why animal and human experiments revealed that the intestinal microbiome adapts to food intake and optimizes energy harvest from food. This function is considered beneficial in states of lack of food, but following overnutrition, it might support the development of obesity. OBJECTIVES: The relevance of the intestinal microbiome for the pathogenesis of obesity and associated metabolic diseases such as fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus and for the clinical management of such diseases shall be discussed...
April 21, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432200/tissue-adaptation-implications-for-gut-immunity-and-tolerance
#3
REVIEW
Ana M C Faria, Bernardo S Reis, Daniel Mucida
Tissue adaptation is an intrinsic component of immune cell development, influencing both resistance to pathogens and tolerance. Chronically stimulated surfaces of the body, in particular the gut mucosa, are the major sites where immune cells traffic and reside. Their adaptation to these environments requires constant discrimination between natural stimulation coming from harmless microbiota and food, and pathogens that need to be cleared. This review will focus on the adaptation of lymphocytes to the gut mucosa, a highly specialized environment that can help us understand the plasticity of leukocytes arriving at various tissue sites and how tissue-related factors operate to shape immune cell fate and function...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432104/dancing-attraction-followers-of-honey-bee-tremble-and-waggle-dances-exhibit-similar-behaviors
#4
Calvin Lam, Yanlei Li, Tim Landgraf, James Nieh
The function of the honey bee tremble dance and how it attracts signal receivers is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that tremble followers and waggle followers exhibit the same dance following behavior. If correct, this would unify our understanding of dance following, provide insight into dance information transfer, and offer a way to identify the signal receivers of tremble dance information. Followers showed similar initial attraction to and tracking of dancers. However, waggle dancers were faster than tremble dancers, and follower forward, sideways, and angular velocities were generally similar to the velocities of their respective dancers...
April 21, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431984/thyroid-disrupting-pesticides-impair-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular-axis-of-a-wildlife-bird-amandava-amandava
#5
Banalata Mohanty, Surya Prakash Pandey, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui
The effect of two thyroid disrupting pesticides (TDPs) mancozeb (MCZ) and imidacloprid (IMI) on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal/testicular (HPG) axis of a seasonally breeding bird, Amandava amandava has been evaluated. Male birds (n=8/group) were exposed to each of the pesticide (0.25% LD50 of respective pesticide) as well as to their two equimixture doses (0.25% of LD50 of each and 0.5% LD50 of each) through food for 30d during pre-breeding stage of the reproductive cycle. Reduction in weight, volume and other histopathological features revealed testicular regression...
April 18, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431803/reutilization-of-discarded-biomass-for-preparing-functional-polymer-materials
#6
REVIEW
Jianfeng Wang, Wenzhen Qian, Yufeng He, Yubing Xiong, Pengfei Song, Rong-Min Wang
Biomass is abundant and recyclable on the earth, which has been assigned numerous roles to human beings. However, over the past decades, accompanying with the rapid expansion of man-made materials, such as alloy, plastic, synthetic rubber and fiber, a great number of natural materials had been neglected and abandoned, such as straw, which cause a waste of resource and environmental pollution. In this review, based on introducing sources of discarded biomass, the main composition and polymer chains in discarded biomass materials, the traditional treatment and novel approach for reutilization of discarded biomass were summarized...
April 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431767/the-new-drug-conditional-approval-process-in-china-challenges-and-opportunities
#7
REVIEW
Xuefang Yao, Jinxi Ding, Yingfang Liu, Penghui Li
PURPOSE: Our aim was to characterize the newly established new drug conditional approval process in China and discuss the challenges and opportunities with respect to new drug research and development and registration. METHODS: We examined the new approval program through literature review, law analysis, and data analysis. Data were derived from published materials, such as journal articles, government publications, press releases, and news articles, along with statistical data from INSIGHT-China Pharma Databases, the China Food and Drug Administration website, the Center for Drug Evaluation website, the US Food and Drug Administration website, and search results published by Google...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431310/characterization-of-bacterial-communities-of-donkey-milk-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#8
Maria de Los Dolores Soto Del Rio, Alessandra Dalmasso, Tiziana Civera, Maria Teresa Bottero
The interest in donkey milk (DM) is growing because of its functional properties and nutritional value, especially for children with allergies and food intolerances. However, most of the available reports of DM microbiota are based on culture-dependent methods to investigate food safety issues and the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The aim of this study was to determine the composition of DM bacterial communities using a high-throughput sequencing (HTS) approach. Bulk milk samples from Italian donkey dairy farms from two consecutive years were analysed using the MiSeq Illumina platform...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429829/molecular-adaptation-in-the-world-s-deepest-living-animal-insights-from-transcriptome-sequencing-of-the-hadal-amphipod-hirondellea-gigas
#9
Yi Lan, Jin Sun, Renmao Tian, Douglas H Bartlett, Runsheng Li, Yue Him Wong, Weipeng Zhang, Jian-Wen Qiu, Ting Xu, Li-Sheng He, Harry G Tabata, Pei-Yuan Qian
The Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench is the deepest point in the oceans of our planet. Understanding how animals adapt to this harsh environment characterized by high hydrostatic pressure, food-limited, dark, and cold is of great scientific interest. Of the animals dwelling in the Challenger Deep, amphipods have been captured using baited traps. In the present study, we sequenced the transcriptome of the amphipod Hirondellea gigas collected at a depth of 10,929 m from the East Pond of the Challenger Deep...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429814/sulfated-polysaccharides-from-enteromorpha-prolifera-suppress-srebp-2-and-hmg-coa-reductase-expression-and-attenuate-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#10
Rendong Ren, Junjie Gong, Yanyan Zhao, Xinyun Zhuang, Yin Ye, Wenting Lin
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by fat accumulation and is associated with abnormal cholesterol metabolism. Previous work indicates that polysaccharides from alga Enteromorpha prolifera improve glucose metabolism and lower cholesterol in diabetic rats. Thus, we studied the possible protective effects of E. prolifera polysaccharides (EP) in the development of NAFLD and underlying mechanisms. EP (200 mg kg(-1)) significantly reduced the liver weight and significantly lowered hepatic HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) mRNA protein expression...
April 21, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429758/intracellular-lipid-binding-protein-family-diversity-from-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-genomic-and-structural-features-of-invertebrate-lipid-transporters
#11
Guilherme de Toledo-Silva, Guilherme Razzera, Flavia Lucena Zacchi, Nestor Cubas Wendt, Jacó Joaquim Mattos, Afonso Celso Dias Bainy
Intracellular lipid binding proteins (iLBPs) play a role in the transport and cellular uptake of fatty acids and gene expression regulation. The aim of this work was to characterize the iLBP gene family of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, one of the most cultivated marine bivalves in the world, using bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches. A total of 26 different iLBPs transcripts were identified in the Pacific oyster genome, including alternative splicing and gene duplication events. The oyster iLBP gene family seems to be more expanded than in other invertebrates...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429510/mixing-of-water-masses-caused-by-a-drifting-iceberg-affects-bacterial-activity-community-composition-and-substrate-utilization-capability-in-the-southern-ocean
#12
Julie Dinasquet, Inga Richert, Ramiro Logares, Patricia Yager, Stefan Bertilsson, Lasse Riemann
The number of icebergs produced from ice-shelf disintegration has increased over the past decade in Antarctica. These drifting icebergs mix the water column, influence stratification and nutrient condition, and can affect local productivity and food web composition. Data on whether icebergs affect bacterioplankton function and composition are scarce, however. We assessed the influence of iceberg drift on bacterial community composition and on their ability to exploit carbon substrates during summer in the coastal Southern Ocean...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429468/decision-making-in-obesity-without-eating-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-iowa-gambling-task-performances
#13
REVIEW
J-Y Rotge, C Poitou, P Fossati, J Aron-Wisnewsky, J-M Oppert
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that obesity is associated with impairments in executive functions, such as deficits in decision-making, planning or problem solving, which might interfere with weight loss in obese individuals. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of decision-making abilities, as measured with the Iowa gambling task (IGT), in obesity without eating disorders. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted to identify studies comparing IGT performances between groups of obese patients without eating disorders and groups of healthy control groups...
April 21, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427880/evaluation-of-effective-microorganisms-on-home-scale-organic-waste-composting
#14
Yee Van Fan, Chew Tin Lee, Jiří Jaromír Klemeš, Lee Suan Chua, Mohamad Roji Sarmidi, Chee Woh Leow
Home composting can be an effective way to reduce the volume of municipal solid waste. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Effective Microorganism™ (EM) for the home scale co-composting of food waste, rice bran and dried leaves. A general consensus is lacking regarding the efficiency of inoculation composting. Home scale composting was carried out with and without EM (control) to identify the roles of EM. The composting parameters for both trials showed a similar trend of changes during the decomposition...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426751/the-role-of-microsporidian-polar-tube-protein-4-ptp4-in-host-cell-infection
#15
Bing Han, Valérie Polonais, Tatsuki Sugi, Rama Yakubu, Peter M Takvorian, Ann Cali, Keith Maier, Mengxian Long, Matthew Levy, Herbert B Tanowitz, Guoqing Pan, Frédéric Delbac, Zeyang Zhou, Louis M Weiss
Microsporidia have been identified as pathogens that have important effects on our health, food security and economy. A key to the success of these obligate intracellular pathogens is their unique invasion organelle, the polar tube, which delivers the nucleus containing sporoplasm into host cells during invasion. Due to the size of the polar tube, the rapidity of polar tube discharge and sporoplasm passage, and the absence of genetic techniques for the manipulation of microsporidia, study of this organelle has been difficult and there is relatively little known regarding polar tube formation and the function of the proteins making up this structure...
April 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425960/studying-lactoferrin-n-glycosylation
#16
REVIEW
Sercan Karav, J Bruce German, Camille Rouquié, Annabelle Le Parc, Daniela Barile
Lactoferrin is a multifunctional glycoprotein found in the milk of most mammals. In addition to its well-known role of binding iron, lactoferrin carries many important biological functions, including the promotion of cell proliferation and differentiation, and as an anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-parasitic protein. These functions differ among lactoferrin homologs in mammals. Although considerable attention has been given to the many functions of lactoferrin, its primary nutritional contribution is presumed to be related to its iron-binding characteristics, whereas the role of glycosylation has been neglected...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425836/development-and-validation-of-a-multianalyte-method-for-the-regulatory-control-of-carotenoids-used-as-feed-additives-in-fish-and-poultry-feed
#17
Ursula Vincent, Federica Serano, Christoph von Holst
Carotenoids are used in animal nutrition mainly as sensory additives that favourably affect the colour of fish, birds and food of animal origin. Various analytical methods exist for their quantification in compound feed, reflecting the different physico-chemical characteristics of the carotenoid and the corresponding feed additives. They may be natural products or specific formulations containing the target carotenoids produced by chemical synthesis. In this study a multi-analyte method has been developed that can be applied to the determination of all ten carotenoids currently authorised within the EU for compound feedingstuffs...
April 20, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425188/effects-of-age-and-viscosity-on-food-transport-and-breathing-swallowing-coordination-during-eating-of-two-phase-food-in-nursing-home-residents
#18
Tsuyoshi Yamada, Koichiro Matsuo, Masayuki Izawa, Shizuru Yamada, Yuji Masuda, Tadashi Ogasawara
AIM: When eating food that contains both liquid and solid phases, the liquid component frequently enters the hypopharynx before swallowing and can increase the risk of aspiration. Thus, we examined whether the initial viscosity of mixed consistency food could alter pre-swallow food transport and breathing-swallowing coordination in older adults. METHODS: Fiberoptic endoscopy was recorded while 18 healthy young adults and 19 older adults ate 5 g of steamed rice combined with 3 mL of blue-dye water...
April 20, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425100/mass-spectrometry-analysis-and-in-silico-prediction-of-allergenicity-of-peptides-in-tryptic-hydrolysates-of-the-proteins-from-ruditapes-philippinarum
#19
Yue Yu, Hongwei Liu, Maolin Tu, Meiling Qiao, Zhenyu Wang, Ming Du
BACKGROUND: The Ruditapes philippinarum is nutrient-rich and widely-distributed, but little attentions had been paid on the identification and characterization of bioactive peptides in the bivalve. In this study, we evaluated the peptides of the Ruditapes philippinarum enzymolysised by trypsin using a combination of UPLC separation and a ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS spectrometer, followed by data processing, sequence-similarity database searching. The potential allergenicity of the peptides was assessed in silico...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424924/effects-of-gw002-a-novel-recombinant-human-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-analog-fusion-protein-on-cho-recombinant-cells-and-bks-db-mice
#20
Wan-Wan Ji, Dong-An Yu, Min Fan, Meng You, You Lu, Er-Bing Li, Ning Xie, Shou-Sheng Yan
AIMS: GLP-1-based strategies have many advantages in treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but native GLP-1 has a short half-life in the circulation, which limits its clinical application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of GW002, a novel recombinant GLP-1 analog fusion protein produced by linking the human GLP-1 analog C-terminus to the N-terminus of human serum albumin via a linker, in vitro and in BKS-db mice. METHODS: To determine whether GW002 can activate the GLP-1 receptor in cells, the level of luciferase expression was evaluated in vitro...
April 19, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
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