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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930574/food-addiction-a-common-neurobiological-mechanism-with-drug-abuse
#1
Elsa Lindgren, Kyle Gray, Gregg Miller, Ryan Tyler, Corinde E Wiers, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Drugs and food both exert a rewarding effect through the firing of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area, resulting in the release of dopamine into the nucleus accumbens and effects on the mesolimbic pathway. Here, we review the neuroimaging literature to consider the validity of food addiction and the common neurobiological mechanisms that overlap in food and drug addiction. This review paper focuses on findings from Positron Emission Tomography (PET), functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and structural imaging studies, as well as evidence from neuroimaging studies of bariatric surgery and pharmacological interventions on obese individuals...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930284/effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-the-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-signal-in-food-motivation-and-cognitive-control-pathways-in-overweight-and-obese-men
#2
Franziska Plessow, Dean A Marengi, Sylvia K Perry, Julia M Felicione, Rachel Franklin, Tara M Holmes, Laura M Holsen, Nikolaos Makris, Thilo Deckersbach, Elizabeth A Lawson
Recent research indicates that the hypothalamic neuropeptide hormone oxytocin is a key central nervous system factor in the regulation of food intake and weight. However, the mechanisms underlying the anorexigenic effects of oxytocin in humans are unknown and critical to study in order to consider oxytocin as a neurohormonal weight loss treatment. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with single-dose intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) in ten overweight or obese, otherwise healthy men...
September 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930272/antimicrobial-activity-of-some-essential-oils-present-status-and-future-perspectives
#3
REVIEW
Sonam Chouhan, Kanika Sharma, Sanjay Guleria
Extensive documentation on the antimicrobial properties of essential oils and their constituents has been carried out by several workers. Although the mechanism of action of a few essential oil components has been elucidated in many pioneering works in the past, detailed knowledge of most of the compounds and their mechanism of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important for the determination of the effect of essential oils on different microorganisms, how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds, and their interaction with food matrix components...
August 8, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930143/ginseng-for-liver-injury-friend-or-foe
#4
REVIEW
Tae-Woo Kim
Panax sp., including Panax ginseng Meyer, Panax quiquifolius L., or Panax notoginseng (Burk.) FH Chen, have been used as functional foods or for traditional Chinese medicine for diabetes, inflammation, stress, aging, hepatic injury, and cancer. In recent decades, a number of both in vitro and in vivo experiments as well as human studies have been conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of various types of ginseng samples and their components. Of these, the hepatoprotective and hepatotoxic effects of ginseng and their ginsenosides and polysaccharides are reviewed and summarized...
December 17, 2016: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929899/nutrition-as-a-component-of-dementia-risk-reduction-strategies
#5
Carol E Greenwood, Matthew D Parrott
According to the Alzheimer Society of Canada, within the next generation, Canada will experience a more than doubling of individuals living with dementia and a potentially economically crippling 10-fold increase in costs to Canadians. Up to 50% of cases with dementia can be attributed to seven modifiable, predominantly vascular and/or lifestyle-associated, risk factors. Multi-modal dementia risk reduction strategies, targeting diet, exercise, mental stimulation, and vascular risk monitoring, are likely to be the most successful...
January 2017: Healthcare Management Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929866/culture-and-food-practices-of-african-american-women-with-type-2-diabetes
#6
Lisa L Sumlin, Sharon A Brown
Purpose The goals of this descriptive ethnographic study were to (1) describe the day-to-day selection, preparation, and consumption of food among African American women (AAW) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); (2) identify their typical food selections and consumption practices when dining out at restaurants and at social gatherings (ie, church functions, holidays); (3) highlight the valued behaviors and beliefs that influence these women's food practices; and (4) determine how social interactions influence those food practices...
September 1, 2017: Diabetes Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929768/protein-corona-analysis-of-silver-nanoparticles-links-to-their-cellular-effects
#7
Sabine Juling, Alicia Niedzwiecka, Linda Böhmert, Dajana Lichtenstein, Soeren Selve, Albert Braeuning, Andreas F Thünemann, Eberhard Krause, Alfonso Lampen
The breadth of applications of nanoparticles and the access to food-associated consumer products containing nano-sized materials lead to oral human exposure to such particles. In biological fluids nanoparticles dynamically interact with biomolecules and form a protein corona. Knowledge about the protein corona is of great interest for understanding the molecular effects of particles as well as their fate inside the human body. We used a mass spectrometry-based toxicoproteomics approach to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity of silver nanoparticles and to comprehensively characterize the protein corona formed around silver nanoparticles in Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929676/-understanding-and-development-strategy-of-health-food-containing-chinese-materia-medica
#8
REVIEW
Lin-Yuan Wang, Jian-Jun Zhang, Chun Wang, Jing-Xia Wang, Ying-Li Zhu, Jia Wang, Xue-Min Gao
Health food containing Chinese materia medica (CMM) conforms to the development demands of the age of big health and the theory of preventive treatment. In the view of health care and improvement of resisting diseases, it plays an important role in the market. It is very necessary to have further study and discussion on health food containing CMM. First of all, by comparing, analyzing and summarizing, the health food containing CMM could be defined as the health food which is qualified in security and functionality evaluation, with the traditional Chinese medicines(TCM) within TCM standards as the main raw materials, and the formulation-composition is based on the theory of TCM...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929651/-evaluation-and-cumulative-characteristics-of-heavy-metals-in-soil-uncaria-rhynchophylla-system-of-different-functional-areas
#9
Jia-Chun Zhang, Xian-Ping Zeng, Zhen-Ming Zhang, Shao-Xia Lin, Qing-Hai Zhang, Chang-Hu Lin
Soil and Uncaria rhynchophylla in different functional areas were selected for the study,the content of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, and Hg in soil and U. rhynchophylla was discussed, the characteristics of their accumulation in the U.rhynchophylla was analyzed, the contamination levels of heavy metals in soil in different functional areas was evaluated. The results showed that content of Cu, As, Pb and Cr in soil was being cropland>woodland>wasteland, content of Cd was being woodland>cropland>wasteland, content of Hg was being cropland>woodland>wasteland...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929362/brain-reactivity-to-visual-food-stimuli-after-moderate-intensity-exercise-in-children
#10
Travis D Masterson, C Brock Kirwan, Lance E Davidson, Michael J Larson, Kathleen L Keller, S Nicole Fearnbach, Alyssa Evans, James D LeCheminant
Exercise may play a role in moderating eating behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an acute bout of exercise on neural responses to visual food stimuli in children ages 8-11 years. We hypothesized that acute exercise would result in reduced activity in reward areas of the brain. Using a randomized cross-over design, 26 healthy weight children completed two separate laboratory conditions (exercise; sedentary). During the exercise condition, each participant completed a 30-min bout of exercise at moderate-intensity (~ 67% HR maximum) on a motor-driven treadmill...
September 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929212/an-insight-into-phage-diversity-at-environmental-habitats-using-comparative-metagenomics-approach
#11
Krupa Parmar, Nishant Dafale, Rajesh Pal, Hitesh Tikariha, Hemant Purohit
Bacteriophages play significant role in driving microbial diversity; however, little is known about the diversity of phages in different ecosystems. A dynamic predator-prey mechanism called "kill the winner" suggests the elimination of most active bacterial populations through phages. Thus, interaction between phage and host has an effect on the composition of microbial communities in ecosystems. In this study, secondary phage metagenome data from aquatic habitats: wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), fresh, marine, and hot water spring habitat were analyzed using MG-RAST and STAMP tools to explore the diversity of the viruses...
September 19, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928642/key-odorants-regulate-food-attraction-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Thomas Giang, Jianzheng He, Safaa Belaidi, Henrike Scholz
In insects, the search for food is highly dependent on olfactory sensory input. Here, we investigated whether a single key odorant within an odor blend or the complexity of the odor blend influences the attraction of Drosophila melanogaster to a food source. A key odorant is defined as an odorant that elicits a difference in the behavioral response when two similar complex odor blends are offered. To validate that the observed behavioral responses were elicited by olfactory stimuli, we used olfactory co-receptor Orco mutants...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928524/volatiles-formation-in-gelled-emulsions-enriched-in-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-storage-type-of-oil-and-antioxidant
#13
Lucía Gayoso, Candelaria Poyato, María Isabel Calvo, Rita Yolanda Cavero, Diana Ansorena, Iciar Astiasarán
Gelled emulsions with carrageenan are a novel type of emulsion that could be used as a carrier of unsaturated fatty acids in functional foods formulations. Lipid degradation through volatile compounds was studied in gelled emulsions which were high in polyunsaturated oils (sunflower or algae oil) after 49 days of storage. Aqueous Lavandula latifolia extract was tested as a natural antioxidant. Analysis of the complete volatile profile of the samples resulted in a total of 40 compounds, classified in alkanes, alkenes, aldehydes, ketones, acids, alcohols, furans, terpenes and aromatic hydrocarbons...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928523/influence-of-ph-and-salt-concentration-on-functional-properties-of-walnut-protein-from-different-extraction-methods
#14
Haifang Hu, Tao Fan, Xiaoyan Zhao, Xiaowei Zhang, Yali Sun, Hongkai Liu
The effect of pH and NaCl on solubility and functional properties of walnut proteins obtained through AOT reverse micelles, enzyme-assisted reverse micelles and aqueous phase extraction methods was investigated and compared. Extraction yield, foaming properties, water holding capacities of protein obtained through enzyme-assisted reverse micelles at pH 2-12 and NaCl concentration 0.1-1 M were significantly higher than those of the AOT reverse micelles and aqueous phase extracted two. The solubility of proteins by AOT reverse micelles and enzyme-assisted reverse micelles at certain pH and NaCl concentration had no significant difference, but was higher that of the aqueous buffer...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928518/therapeutic-evaluation-of-grain-based-functional-food-formulation-in-a-geriatric-animal-model
#15
Deepa Teradal, Neena Joshi, Ravindranath H Aladakatti
This study investigates the effect of wholesome grain based functional food formulation, on clinical and biochemical parameters in 24-30 months old Wistar albino geriatric rats, corresponding to human age 60-75 years. Animals were randomly divided into five, groups. Experimental diets were compared to the basal rat diet (Group I). Four food, formulation were-wheat based (Group II), finger millet based (Group III), wheat based, diet + fenugreek seed powder (Group IV), finger millet based diet + fenugreek powder, (Group V)...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928504/bioactivity-based-antioxidative-components-screening-and-evaluation-in-grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-extract
#16
Jie Gao, Shengtao Lv, Changzhi Li, Jin Tao, Chengqi Jia, Min Jiang, Yuanyuan Hou, Xiaotao Hou, Jiagang Deng, Gang Bai
Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), a type of functional food, possesses potent antioxidant activity. In this study, GSPE protected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells from H2O2-induced cell injury and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. The key effective constituents that exerted the most potent antioxidative activity in GSPE were screened by using a modified ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF MS) integrated 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation antioxidative activity analysis system...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928068/pistachio-hull-water-soluble-polysaccharides-as-a-novel-prebiotic-agent
#17
Safoura Akbari-Alavijeh, Sabihe Soleimanian-Zad, Mahmoud Sheikh-Zeinoddin, Sarwar Hashmi
We isolated and characterized pistachio hull polysaccharides (PHP). The PHP was a heteropolysaccharide mainly contained 75.50% (w/w) total sugar and 9.51% (w/w) uronic acid. As determined by GPC analysis, the polysaccharide with a molecular weight of 3.71×10(6) D (83.2%) was the most dominant fraction. Moreover, HPLC analysis indicated that PHP was predominantly composed of xylose, glucose, arabinose, and fructose with a molar ratio of 1.00:2.50:19.67:28.81. FT-IR and NMR analysis also confirmed the results obtained by HPLC and characterized preliminary structure features of the PHP...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928014/chronic-exposure-to-subtherapeutic-antibiotics-aggravates-ischemic-stroke-outcome-in-mice
#18
Xiao-Hui Dong, Cheng Peng, Yu-Yi Zhang, Yu-Long Tao, Xia Tao, Chuan Zhang, Alex F Chen, He-Hui Xie
Subtherapeutic antibiotics have been widely used in agriculture since the 1950s, which can be accumulated in human body through various approaches and may have long-term consequences. However, there is limited information about the link between chronic subtherapeutic antibiotic exposure and the outcome of ischemic brain injury. Here we showed that long-term treatment with subtherapeutic chlortetracycline, penicillin or vancomycin, which were widely used in agriculture approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), could impair EPC functions, reduce ischemic brain angiogenesis and aggravate cerebral ischemic injury and long-term stroke outcomes in mice...
September 6, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927876/the-nonapeptide-isotocin-in-goldfish-evidence-for-serotonergic-regulation-and-functional-roles-in-the-control-of-food-intake-and-pituitary-hormone-release
#19
Jan A Mennigen, Hélène Volkoff, John P Chang, Vance L Trudeau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927628/network-structure-and-functional-properties-of-transparent-hydrogel-sanxan-produced-by-sphingomonas-sanxanigenens-nx02
#20
Mengmeng Wu, Zhong Shi, Haidong Huang, Jianmei Qu, Xiaohui Dai, Xuefeng Tian, Weiying Wei, Guoqiang Li, Ting Ma
The micro-network structure and functional properties of sanxan, a novel polysaccharide produced by Sphingomonas sanxanigenens NX02, were investigated. Transparent hydrogel sanxan was a high acyl polymer containing 8.96% acetyl and 4.75% glyceroyl. The micro-network structure of sanxan was mainly cyclic configurations composed of side-by-side intermolecular associations, with many rounded nodes found. Sanxan exhibited predominant gelation behavior at concentrations above 0.1%, which was enhanced by adding cations, especially Ca(2+)...
November 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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