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Functional foods

Kathy Steppe, Maurits W Vandegehuchte, Bart A E Van de Wal, Pieter Hoste, Adrien Guyot, Catherine E Lovelock, David A Lockington
Mangrove forests depend on a dense structure of sufficiently large trees to fulfil their essential functions as providers of food and wood for animals and people, CO2 sinks and protection from storms. Growth of these forests is known to be dependent on the salinity of soil water, but the influence of foliar uptake of rainwater as a freshwater source, additional to soil water, has hardly been investigated. Under field conditions in Australia, stem diameter variation, sap flow and stem water potential of the grey mangrove (Avicennia marina (Forssk...
March 17, 2018: Tree Physiology
Folachodé U G Akogou, Heidy M W den Besten, A P Polycarpe Kayodé, Vincenzo Fogliano, Anita R Linnemann
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) extract is traditionally used as red biocolorant in West Africa to colour foods, among which wagashi, a soft cheese. This biocolorant is a source of the phytoalexin apigeninidin and phenolic acids, and users claim that it has preservative effects next to its colouring properties. If such a claim can be scientifically substantiated, it adds a valuable functional property to this natural red colorant, thereby increasing its potential applications in the food industry. Hence, the present study evaluated the antimicrobial properties of dye sorghum extracts using challenge tests in broth and wagashi as a model of a popular food application...
2018: PloS One
María Figueiredo-González, Patricia Reboredo-Rodríguez, Carmen González-Barreiro, Alegría Carrasco-Pancorbo, Jesús Simal-Gándara, Beatriz Cancho-Grande
The increasing interest in the Mediterranean diet is based on the protective effects against several diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. Polyphenol-rich functional foods have been proposed to be unique supplementary and nutraceutical treatments for these disorders. Extra-virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from 'Brava' and 'Mansa', varieties recently identified from Galicia (northwestern Spain), were selected for in vitro screening to evaluate their capacity to inhibit key enzymes involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) (acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX)), major depressive disorder (MDD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) (monoamine oxidases: h MAO-A and h MAO-B respectively)...
March 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Y Q Liu, P Strappe, Z K Zhou, C Blanchard
Rice bran, a valuable byproduct of the rice milling process, has limitations in food industrial applications due to its instability during storage. This review summaries the methodology for stabilization and its impact on the nutritional properties of rice bran. A variety of treatments have been used and these include heat treatment, low-temperature storage, biological and chemical approaches and these will be discussed in terms of their ability to destroy/inhibit enzyme activity and improve storage performance of rice bran...
March 21, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Mohamed A Farag, Amira R Khattab, Anja Ehrlich, Matthias Kropf, Andreas G Heiss, Ludger A Wessjohann
Lens culinaris and several Lupinus species are two legumes regarded as potential protein resources aside from their richness in phytochemicals. Characterization of their metabolite composition is warranted as a sustainable functional food. This study presents a discriminatory-holistic approach for metabolites profiling in accessions of four lentil cultivars and four lupinus species via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 107 metabolites were identified encompassing organic and amino acids, sugars and sterols along with anti-nutrients viz...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Géraldine Coppin, David Sander, Alain Golay, Zoltan Pataky
Besides hormonal regulation of appetite and satiety, food intake depends on the activity of certain brain systems. Functional imaging studies are useful to better understand this central regulation of energy intake. Obesity is associated with increased brain responses to food stimuli at the level of the reward system. More specifically, studies have shown in obese individuals an increased motivation to obtain food reward as well as a decrease in pleasure during its actual consumption. Food consumption may be, in some instances, comparable to addiction, and be reflected by irresistible cravings for certain foods...
March 21, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Autumn N Harris, Hyun-Wook Lee, Gunars Osis, Lijuan Fang, Kierstin L Webster, Jill W Verlander, I David Weiner
Renal ammonia metabolism has a major role in the maintenance of acid-base homeostasis. Sex differences are well recognized as an important biological variable in many aspects of renal function, including fluid and electrolyte metabolism. However, sex differences in renal ammonia metabolism have not been previously reported. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate sex differences in renal ammonia metabolism. We studied 4-month-old wild type C57BL/6 mice fed a normal diet. Despite similar levels of food intake, and thus protein intake, which is the primary determinant of endogenous acid production, female mice excreted greater amounts of ammonia, but not titratable acids, than did male mice...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Alejandra Ramírez-Martínez, Estela Camarillo-Hernández, Magda Carvajal-Moreno, Manuel Vargas-Ortíz, Nathalie Wesolek, Guadalupe Del Carmen Rodriguez Jimenes, Miguel Ángel Garcia Alvarado, Alain-Claude Roudot, Marco Antonio Salgado Cervantes, Victor J Robles-Olvera
The present study evaluated the exposure of Southeast Mexican population to Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and M2 (AFM2) through the consumption of Oaxaca cheese. The intake of Oaxaca cheese was assessed via a food 7-day dairy questionnaire (N = 1100, 2014 and 2015). Thirty Oaxaca cheeses were randomly sampled, and the origin of the samples was also investigated. AFM1 and AFM2 were quantified by HPLC-FD. The exposure was assessed through the combination of the Probabilistic Density Functions (probabilistic approach)...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Han Wu, Xin Rui, Wei Li, Yu Xiao, Jianzhong Zhou, Mingsheng Dong
This study explored a novel strategy to develop solid-state whole-grain oats as a novel carrier of lactic acid bacteria and a nutraceutical supplement rich in ACE inhibitory peptides. Oats were fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum B1-6, Rhizopus oryzae, or a combination of L. plantarum B1-6 and R. oryzae. L. plantarum showed a much better growth performance in oats when it was combined with R. oryzae than when it was cultured alone, as evidenced by an increase in viable cell count to 9.70 log cfu g-1 after 72 h of fermentation...
March 21, 2018: Food & Function
Qiannan Peng, Shuaiming Jiang, Jieling Chen, Chenchen Ma, Dongxue Huo, Yuyu Shao, Jiachao Zhang
Fermented vegetables are typically traditional foods made of fresh vegetables and their juices, which are fermented by beneficial microorganisms. Herein, we applied high-throughput sequencing and culture-dependent technology to describe the diversities of microbiota and identify core microbiota in fermented vegetables from different areas of Hainan Province, and abundant metabolic pathways in the fermented vegetables were simultaneously predicted. At the genus level, Lactobacillus bacteria were the most abundant...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jessica Alber, Kelly McGarry, Richard B Noto, Peter J Snyder
Background: Recent genome-wide association screening (GWAS) studies have linked Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology to gene networks that regulate immune function. Kan et al. recently reported that Arg1 (an anti-inflammatory gene that codes for arginase-1) is expressed in parts of the brain associated with amyloidosis prior to the onset of neuronal loss, suggesting that chronic brain arginine deprivation promotes AD-related neuropathology. They blocked arginine catabolism in their mouse AD model by administration of eflornithine (DFMO) to juvenile animals, effectively blocking the expression of AD-related amyloid pathology as the mice aged...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Laura J Henze, Brendan T Griffin, Martin Christiansen, Christoffer Bundgaard, Peter Langguth, Rene Holm
The present study investigated the gastric emptying rate in Göttingen minipigs pre- and post-prandial and evaluated the effect of metoclopramide on the same parameter, using paracetamol as an absorption marker. The pharmacokinetic evaluation of the obtained plasma concentration data for paracetamol demonstrated that the fastest gastric emptying rate was observed in the animals that were allowed access to normal pig food. There was no significant difference in the stomach emptying rate observed between fasted and fed minipigs, when fed either with a FDA standard breakfast or a nutritional energy drink...
March 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Ozge Selin Cevik, Leyla Sahin, Lulufer Tamer
AIM: The type and duration of exposure to stress is an important influence on emotional and cognitive functions. Learning is the adaptive response of the central nervous system that occurs in hippocampus which affects from environmental factors like exercise. In this study, we investigated effects of long term treadmill exercise on learning and behavior on chronic social isolated rat. MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n = 32) randomly assigned into four groups: control, exercised, social isolation, social isolation + exercise during postnatal days (PNDs) 21-34...
March 17, 2018: Life Sciences
Hirono Ohashi, Takaomi Sakai
In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, hunger has a significant impact on its sensory systems and brain functions, and consequently modifies related behaviors. However, it remains unclarified whether hunger affects nociceptive behavioral responses to heat stimuli. In this study, we show that food deprivation reduces responses to noxious heat in wild-type flies. We further identified that the neuropeptide Leucokinin (Lk) and its receptor (Lkr) are essential for the reduction of responses to noxious heat. Temporal silencing of Lk-expressing neurons and a knockout mutation of Lkr generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 system inhibited the reduction of responses to noxious heat...
March 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yoon-Young Sung, Dong-Seon Kim, Seung-Hyung Kim, Ho Kyoung Kim
BACKGROUND: Allium fistulosum (Welsh onion) is a traditional medicinal plant used for the treatment of colds, influenza, abdominal pain, headache, and heart disease. This study evaluated the effects of A. fistulosum ethanolic extract (AFE) and aqueous extract (AFW) on body weight and other obesity-related parameters. METHODS: Male 8-week-old C57BL/6 J mice were fed either a standard chow diet (normal control) or a high-fat diet (HFD) either alone (HFD-control) or in combination with G...
March 20, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Jun Takanari, Atsuya Sato, Hideaki Waki, Shogo Miyazaki, Kazuo Uebaba, Tatsuya Hisajima
AHCC® is a functional food from the basidiomycete Lentinula edodes. We evaluated the effects of AHCC® on subjects under different kinds of stress and at rest. Physical stress was imposed using an active standing test, known as Schellong's test. Sympathetic nervous activity in the standing position was significantly greater in AHCC®-treated subjects than in a placebo group. In contrast, AHCC® significantly increased parasympathetic nervous activity at rest. Under mental stress, AHCC® increased sympathetic nervous activity, with no difference in the parasympathetic nervous system...
January 2018: J Evid Based Integr Med
Carlos Rumbo, Juan Antonio Tamayo-Ramos, M Federica Caso, Antonio Rinaldi, Lorena Romero-Santacreu, Roberto Quesada, Santiago Cuesta
Electrospun biodegradable polymers have emerged as promising materials for their applications in several fields, including biomedicine and food industry. For this reason, the susceptibility of these materials to be colonized by different pathogens is a critical issue for public health, and their study can provide future knowledge to develop new strategies against bacterial infections. In this work, the ability of three pathogenic bacterial species ( Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Listeria monocytogenes) to adhere and form biofilm in electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) microfibrous meshes was investigated...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yan Li, Yajun Zheng, Yufeng Zhang, Jianguo Xu, Gang Gao
Coconut cake is an abundant and good potential edible protein source. However, until now it has not been extensively used in the food industry. To promote its usage, the characterization, nutrition value and antioxidant activity of coconut cake protein fractions (albumin, globulin, prolamine, glutelin-1 and glutelin-2) were studied. Results revealed that all the albumin, globulin, glutelin-1 and glutelin-2 fractions showed a high nutrition value. The prolamine, glutelin-1 and glutelin-2 all exhibited good radical scavenging activity and reducing power, and the globulin and prolamine showed high ion chelating ability (89...
March 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ali H El-Far, Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye, Masood Sepehrimanesh, Mahmoud A Gab Allah, Ibrahim Abu Reidah, Hazem M Shaheen, Iman Razeghian-Jahromi, Abd El-Wahab A Alsenosy, Ahmed E Noreldin, Soad K Al Jaouni, Shaker A Mousa
Phoenix dactylifera is a useful traditional medicinal plant, mainly the fruit is used, which is the edible part of the plant (Ajwa date). It is now considered to be a valuable source of natural medicinal products against various diseases. Phytochemical investigations have shown that the fruit contains anthocyanins, phenolics, sterols, carotenoids, and flavonoids. The fruits are a rich source of carbohydrates, vitamins, and proteins. P. dactylifera is considered as a complete diet because it also contains different fatty acids, amino acids, proteins, and steroidal substances...
March 19, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Guo Liu, Shengwei Sun, Baoyan Guo, Benchun Miao, Zhen Luo, Zumeng Xia, Danyang Ying, Fei Liu, Bin Guo, Jian Tang, Yong Cao, Jianyin Miao
Casein phosphopeptides (CPPs) have been demonstrated to be calcium chelators. Unfortunately, few studies have been reported on the effects of CPPs on the mechanism of the uptake and absorption of Ca2+ and bone metabolism. In this study, a monomeric peptide fraction isolated by RP-HPLC (F6-1) that possessed high calcium transport capacity in Caco-2 cell monolayers was separated and characterized. The effects of F6-1 on the absorption mechanisms of Ca2+ in a Caco-2 monolayer model and bone metabolism in rats were investigated...
March 20, 2018: Food & Function
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