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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651372/living-arrangements-disability-and-gender-of-older-adults-among-rural-south-africa
#1
Enid Schatz, Margaret Ralston, Sangeetha Madhavan, Mark A Collinson, F Xavier Gómez-Olivé
Objective: A limited understanding exists of the relationship between disability and older persons' living arrangements in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). We examine the associations between living arrangements, disability, and gender for individuals older than 50 years in rural South Africa. Method: Using the Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) survey and Agincourt Health and socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) data, we explore older persons' self-reported disability by living arrangements and gender, paying particular attention to various multigenerational arrangements...
June 23, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651353/protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-mediates-sleep-fragmentation-induced-insulin-resistance-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-mice
#2
David Gozal, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Zhuanghong Qiao, Mahzad Akbarpour, Rosanna Maccari, Rosaria Ottanà
Study Objectives: Sleep fragmentation (SF) is highly prevalent and has emerged as an important contributing factor to obesity and metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that SF-induced increases in protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B) expression and activity underlie increased food intake, inflammation, and leptin and insulin resistance. Methods: Wild type (WT) and ObR-PTP-1b-/- mice (Tg) were exposed to SF and control sleep (SC), and food intake was monitored...
June 23, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651352/circular-rna-profiling-reveals-that-circular-rnas-from-anxa2-can-be-used-as-new-biomarkers-for-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Iparraguirre Leire, Muñoz-Culla Maider, Prada Iñigo, Castillo-Triviño Tamara, Olascoaga Javier, Otaegui David
Multiple Sclerosis is an autoimmune disease, with higher prevalence in women, in whom the immune system is dysregulated. This dysregulation has been shown to correlate with changes in transcriptome expression as well as in gene-expression regulators, such as non-coding RNAs (e.g. microRNAs). Indeed, some of these have been suggested as biomarkers for multiple sclerosis even though few biomarkers have reached the clinical practice.Recently, a novel family of non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs, has emerged as a new player in the complex network of gene-expression regulation...
June 23, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651251/electrical-potential-of-leaping-eels
#4
Kenneth C Catania
When approached by a large, partially submerged conductor, electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) will often defend themselves by leaping from the water to directly shock the threat. Presumably, the conductor is interpreted as an approaching terrestrial or semiaquatic animal. In the course of this defensive behavior, eels first make direct contact with their lower jaw and then rapidly emerge from the water, ascending the conductor while discharging high-voltage volleys. In this study, the equivalent circuit that develops during this behavior was proposed and investigated...
June 27, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651220/clozapine-versus-other-antipsychotics-during-the-first-18-weeks-of-treatment-a-retrospective-study-on-risk-factor-increase-of-blood-dyscrasias
#5
Michele Fabrazzo, Vincenzo Prisco, Gaia Sampogna, Francesco Perris, Francesco Catapano, Alessio Maria Monteleone, Mario Maj
Blood dyscrasias excluding agranulocytosis received limited attention in antipsychotic-treated patients during the first 18 weeks of therapy, although severe clinical conditions have been reported in a few cases. We extracted data records of 285 Caucasian patients after 18 weeks of antipsychotic treatments to investigate risk factors of blood dyscrasias. We observed a higher risk to develop both transient and persistent anemia, neutrophilia and eosinophilia in clozapine-treated patients, whereas in those treated with other atypical antipsychotics when compared to a reference group under typical antipsychotics, emerged an increased risk for transient neutrophilia and eosinophilia...
June 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651210/associations-between-perfluorinated-alkyl-acids-in-blood-and-ovarian-follicular-fluid-and-ovarian-function-in-women-undergoing-assisted-reproductive-treatment
#6
Jessica A McCoy, Jacqueline T Bangma, Jessica L Reiner, John A Bowden, John Schnorr, Michael Slowey, Thomas O'Leary, Louis J Guillette, Benjamin B Parrott
Endocrine disrupting contaminants, in combination with other environmental variables, are associated with altered reproductive health. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures offer valuable opportunities to explore the connections between environmental contaminants in the ovarian microenvironment and measures of fertility, including impaired responsiveness to gonadotropins. Here, we investigate an emerging class of environmental contaminants, the perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), to determine whether ovarian contaminant levels are associated with measures of ovarian responsiveness and fertility outcomes in a South Carolina population of women undergoing ART...
June 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651196/dancing-to-death-a-case-of-heat-stroke
#7
K Nadesan, Chandra Kumari, Mohd Afiq
Heat stroke is a medical emergency which may lead to mortality unless diagnosed early and treated effectively. Heat stroke may manifest rapidly, hence making it difficult to differentiate it from other clinical causes in a collapsed victim.(1) We are presenting a case report of twelve patients who were admitted to our emergency department from a music festival held on 13-15th of March 2014. They developed complications arising from a combination of severe adverse weather condition, prolonged outdoor physical exertion due to long hours of dancing and drug-use, resulting in heat stroke...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651178/the-influence-of-impact-direction-and-axial-loading-on-the-bone-fracture-pattern
#8
Haim Cohen, Chen Kugel, Hila May, Bahaa Medlej, Dan Stein, Viviane Slon, Tamar Brosh, Israel Hershkovitz
The effect of the direction of the impact and the presence of axial loading on fracture patterns have not yet been established in experimental 3-point bending studies. PURPOSE: To reveal the association between the direction of the force and the fracture pattern, with and without axial loading. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A Dynatup Model POE 2000 (Instron Co.) low energy pendulum impact machine was utilized to apply impact loading on fresh pig femoral bones (n=50). The bone clamp shaft was adjusted to position the bone for three-point bending with and without additional bone compression...
May 22, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651153/the-role-of-marijuana-use-disorder-in-predicting-emergency-department-and-inpatient-encounters-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
Cynthia I Campbell, Amber L Bahorik, Andrea H Kline-Simon, Derek D Satre
BACKGROUND: Marijuana use disorder (MUD) is the most common illegal drug use disorder and its prevalence is increasing. It is associated with psychiatric and medical problems, but little is known about its impact on emergency department (ED) and inpatient utilization rates. DESIGN: In a retrospective cohort design, we used electronic health record (EHR) data to identify patients with MUD (n=2752) and demographically matched patients without MUD (n=2752) in 2010...
June 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651111/the-rise-of-zika-infection-and-microcephaly-what-can-we-learn-from-a-public-health-emergency
#10
REVIEW
B McCloskey, T Endericks
OBJECTIVES: To consider why Zika was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), why it stopped being one and what we can learn from this for the future. STUDY DESIGN: This paper reviews the sequence of events and evidence base for the decision to declare Zika a PHEIC, the global response to this, the challenges in maintaining an evidence-based approach to outbreak response and identifies learning outcomes. METHODS: Evidence review, all published articles in reputable UK and international journals were identified...
June 23, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651094/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-brachyspira-hyodysenteriae-to-a-commercial-citrus-fruit-extract
#11
Pedro J G de Nova, Ana Carvajal, Miguel Prieto, Pedro Rubio
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is the main etiological agent of swine dysentery (SD). Nowadays, treatment and control of SD is increasingly difficult due to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance together with the restrictions on the use of antibiotics in veterinary practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate, as an alternative in the control of this disease, the antimicrobial activity and the main mechanism of action of BIOCITRO, a citrus extract commercialized as raw material and used as feed additive, against B...
June 20, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651089/validation-of-commercial-real-time-pcr-arrays-for-environmental-risk-assessment-application-to-the-study-of-p-p%C3%A2-dde-toxicity-in-mus-spretus-mice-liver
#12
Noelia Morales-Prieto, Carmen Pueyo, Nieves Abril
Data on gene transcription profiles provide a comprehensive assessment of the toxic and defensive mechanisms that are triggered by pollutants. PCR-arrays have emerged as a reliable tool for analyzing the expression of a panel of relevant, pathway- or disease-focused genes under uniform cycling conditions. By using SYBR Green-optimized primer assays, it is possible to simultaneously amplify a sample with high specificity and amplification efficiencies. However, commercial PCR-arrays target a limited group of organisms, excluding most of those with environmental relevance, as is the case with Mus spretus mice...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651087/effects-of-terrestrial-and-marine-organic-matters-on-deposition-of-dechlorane-plus-dp-in-marine-sediments-from-the-southern-yellow-sea-china-evidence-from-multiple-biomarkers
#13
Guoguang Wang, Jialin Peng, Ting Hao, Lijuan Feng, Qiaoling Liu, Xianguo Li
As an emerging halogenated organic contaminant, Dechlorane Plus (DP) was scarcely reported in marine environments, especially in China. In this work, 35 surface sediments and a sediment core were collected across the Southern Yellow Sea (SYS) to comprehensively explore the spatio-temporal distribution and possible migration pathway of DP. DP concentrations ranged from 14.3 to 245.5 pg/g dry weight in the surface sediments, displaying a seaward increasing trend with the high levels in the central mud zone. This spatial distribution pattern was ascribed to that fine particles with the elevated DP levels were preferentially transported to the central mud zone under hydrodynamic forcing and/or via long-range atmospheric transportation and deposition...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651057/how-to-identify-plasmons-from-the-optical-response-of-nanostructures
#14
Runmin Zhang, Luca Bursi, Joel D Cox, Yao Cui, Caroline M Krauter, Alessandro Alabastri, Alejandro Manjavacas, Arrigo Calzolari, Stefano Corni, Elisa Molinari, Emily A Carter, F Javier Garcia de Abajo, Hui Zhang, Peter Nordlander
A promising trend in plasmonics involves shrinking the size of plasmon-supporting structures down to a few nanometers, thus enabling control over light-matter interaction at extreme-subwavelength scales. In this limit, quantum-mechanical effects, such as nonlocal screening and size quantization, strongly affect the plasmonic response, rendering it substantially different from classical predictions. For very small clusters and molecules, collective plasmonic modes are hard to distinguish from other excitations such as single-electron transitions...
June 26, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651047/prioritization-of-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-in-wastewater-treatment-plant-discharges-using-chemical-gene-interactions-in-caged-fish
#15
Edward J Perkins, Tanwir Habib, Barbara L Escalon, Jenna E Cavallin, Linnea Thomas, Matthew Weberg, Megan N Hughes, Kathleen M Jensen, Michael D Kahl, Daniel L Villeneuve, Gerald T Ankley, Natalia Garcia-Reyero
We examined whether contaminants present in surface waters could be prioritized for further assessment by linking the presence of specific chemicals to gene expression changes in exposed fish. Fathead minnows were deployed in cages for 2, 4, or 8 days at three locations near two different wastewater treatment plant discharge sites in the Saint Louis Bay, Duluth, MN and one upstream reference site. The biological impact of 51 chemicals detected in the surface water of 133 targeted chemicals was determined using biochemical endpoints, exposure activity ratios for biological and estrogenic responses, known chemical:gene interactions from biological pathways and knowledge bases, and analysis of the co-variance of ovary gene expression with surface water chemistry...
June 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651010/macrophages-but-not-neutrophils-are-critical-for-proliferation-of-burkholderia-cenocepacia-and-ensuing-host-damaging-inflammation
#16
Jennifer Mesureur, Joana R Feliciano, Nelly Wagner, Margarida C Gomes, Lili Zhang, Monica Blanco-Gonzalez, Michiel van der Vaart, David O'Callaghan, Annemarie H Meijer, Annette C Vergunst
Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) can cause devastating pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, yet the precise mechanisms underlying inflammation, recurrent exacerbations and transition from chronic stages to acute infection and septicemia are not known. Bcc bacteria are generally believed to have a predominant extracellular biofilm life style in infected CF lungs, similar to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but this has been challenged by clinical observations which show Bcc bacteria predominantly in alveolar macrophages...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650995/septins-restrict-inflammation-and-protect-zebrafish-larvae-from-shigella-infection
#17
Maria J Mazon-Moya, Alexandra R Willis, Vincenzo Torraca, Laurent Boucontet, Avinash R Shenoy, Emma Colucci-Guyon, Serge Mostowy
Shigella flexneri, a Gram-negative enteroinvasive pathogen, causes inflammatory destruction of the human colonic epithelium. Infection by S. flexneri has been well-studied in vitro and is a paradigm for bacterial interactions with the host immune system. Recent work has revealed that components of the cytoskeleton have important functions in innate immunity and inflammation control. Septins, highly conserved cytoskeletal proteins, have emerged as key players in innate immunity to bacterial infection, yet septin function in vivo is poorly understood...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650986/evolutionary-history-and-phylogeographic-relationships-of-shrews-from-sorex-araneus-group
#18
Paweł Mackiewicz, Magdalena Moska, Heliodor Wierzbicki, Przemysław Gagat, Dorota Mackiewicz
Shrews of the Sorex genus are an evolutionarily successful group that includes more than 77 species widely distributed in Eurasia and North America. The genus is one of the rare cases where karyotypic changes reflect well the evolutionary relationships among its species. The taxa showing the greatest variation in karyotype are usually classified into the Sorex araneus group. Its evolution was associated with chromosomal rearrangements, which could have promoted fast diversification of this group into many chromosomal races and species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650966/insecticide-resistance-to-permethrin-and-malathion-and-associated-mechanisms-in-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes-from-st-andrew-jamaica
#19
Sheena Francis, Karla Saavedra-Rodriguez, Rushika Perera, Mark Paine, William C Black, Rupika Delgoda
The emergence of novel diseases spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito in Jamaica and the Caribbean, has prompted studies on insecticide resistance towards effective management of the vector. Though Jamaica has been using the organophosphate insecticide malathion in its vector control program for more than 30 years, resistance to the pesticide has not been tested in over a decade. We analyzed resistance to malathion and the pyrethroid insecticide, permethrin on mosquitoes collected across St. Andrew, Jamaica, and analyzed the molecular basis of resistance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650959/peridomestic-aedes-malayensis-and-aedes-albopictus-are-capable-vectors-of-arboviruses-in-cities
#20
Ian H Mendenhall, Menchie Manuel, Mahesh Moorthy, Theodore T M Lee, Dolyce H W Low, Dorothée Missé, Duane J Gubler, Brett R Ellis, Eng Eong Ooi, Julien Pompon
BACKGROUND: Dengue and chikungunya are global re-emerging mosquito-borne diseases. In Singapore, sustained vector control coupled with household improvements reduced domestic mosquito populations for the past 45 years, particularly the primary vector Aedes aegypti. However, while disease incidence was low for the first 30 years following vector control implementation, outbreaks have re-emerged in the past 15 years. Epidemiological observations point to the importance of peridomestic infection in areas not targeted by control programs...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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