keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Enteroendocrine

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323774/obesity-impairs-oligopeptide-amino-acid-induced-ghrelin-release-and-smooth-muscle-contractions-in-the-human-proximal-stomach
#1
L Vancleef, T Thijs, F Baert, L J Ceulemans, E Canovai, Q Wang, S Steensels, A Segers, R Farré, J Pirenne, M Lannoo, J Tack, I Depoortere
SCOPE: The satiation properties of proteins involve effects on gut peptide release and gastrointestinal motility which may be altered during obesity. This study compared the in vitro response and role of amino acid (AA) taste receptors (TASR) in the effect of AAs and a casein hydrolysate on ghrelin release and smooth muscle (SM) contractions in the proximal gut of lean and obese patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Basal ghrelin release, measured from mucosal segments, was maximal in the fundus and decreased distally...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319231/temporal-and-spatial-expression-of-insulin-like-peptide-insl5a-and-insl5b-paralog-genes-during-the-embryogenesis-of-danio-rerio
#2
Massimo Venditti, Aldo Donizetti, Marcella Fiengo, Chiara Fasano, Alessandra Santillo, Francesco Aniello, Sergio Minucci
Relaxin (RLN) and insulin (INSL)-like peptides are member of the INSL/RLN superfamily, which are encoded by seven genes in humans and can activate the G-protein coupled receptor RXFP 1-4. These peptides evolved from a common ancestor, RLN3-like gene. Two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) in early vertebrate evolution, together with an additional WGD in the teleost lineage, caused an expansion of RLN genes set in the genome of Danio rerio. In particular, six RLN genes are present: a single copy of rln and insl3 genes, and two paralogs for the rln3 gene (rln3a and rln3b), and the insl5 gene (insl5a and insl5b)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311617/scfas-strongly-stimulate-pyy-production-in-human-enteroendocrine-cells
#3
P Larraufie, C Martin-Gallausiaux, N Lapaque, J Dore, F M Gribble, F Reimann, H M Blottiere
Peptide-YY (PYY) and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) play important roles in the regulation of food intake and insulin secretion, and are of translational interest in the field of obesity and diabetes. PYY production is highest in enteroendocrine cells located in the distal intestine, mirroring the sites where high concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced by gut microbiota. We show here that propionate and butyrate strongly increased expression of PYY but not GCG in human cell line and intestinal primary culture models...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289697/guanylin-and-uroguanylin-mrna-expression-is-increased-following-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-but-guanylins-do-not-play-a-significant-role-in-body-weight-regulation-and-glycemic-control
#4
María L Fernandez-Cachon, Søren L Pedersen, Kristoffer T Rigbolt, Chen Zhang, Katrine Fabricius, Henrik H Hansen, Lisbeth Elster, Lisbeth N Fink, Matthias Schäfer, Nicolai A Rhee, Ebbe Langholz, Erik Wandall, Steffen U Friis, Peter Vilmann, Viggo B Kristiansen, Christina Schmidt, Kay Schreiter, Kristin Breitschopf, Thomas Hübschle, Tina Jorsal, Tina Vilsbøll, Thorsten Schmidt, Stefan Theis, Filip K Knop, Philip Just Larsen, Jacob Jelsing
AIM: To determine whether intestinal expression of guanylate cyclase activator 2A (GUCA2A) and guanylate cyclase activator 2B (GUCA2B) genes is regulated in obese humans following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and to evaluate the corresponding guanylin (GN) and uroguanylin (UGN) peptides for potentially contributing to the beneficial metabolic effects of RYGB. METHODS: Enteroendocrine cells were harvested peri- and post-RYGB, and GUCA2A/GUCA2B mRNA expression was compared...
December 28, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277113/the-downregulation-of-sweet-taste-receptor-signaling-in-enteroendocrine-l-cells-mediates-3-deoxyglucosone-induced-attenuation-of-high-glucose-stimulated-glp-1-secretion
#5
Fei Wang, Xiudao Song, Liang Zhou, Guoqiang Liang, Fei Huang, Guorong Jiang, Lurong Zhang
CONTEXT: Sweet taste receptors (STRs) involve in regulating the release of glucose-stimulated glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Our in vivo and in vitro studies found that 3-deoxyglucosone (3DG) inhibited glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the role of STRs in 3DG-induced inhibition of high glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion. METHODS: STC-1 cells were incubated with lactisole or 3DG for 1 h under 25 mM glucose conditions...
December 26, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276156/a-phyllopod-mediated-feedback-loop-promotes-intestinal-stem-cell-enteroendocrine-commitment-in-drosophila
#6
Chang Yin, Rongwen Xi
The intestinal epithelium in the Drosophila midgut is maintained by intestinal stem cells (ISCs), which are capable of generating both enterocytes and enteroendocrine cells (EEs) via alternative cell fate specification. Activation of Delta-Notch signaling directs ISCs for enterocyte generation, but how EEs are generated from ISCs remains poorly understood. Here, we identified Phyllopod (Phyl) as a key regulator that drives EE generation from ISCs. Phyl, which is normally suppressed by Notch, functions as an adaptor protein that bridges Tramtrack 69 (Ttk69) and E3 ubiquitin ligase Sina for degradation...
December 15, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251351/3d-stromal-tissue-equivalent-affects-intestinal-epithelium-morphogenesis-in-vitro
#7
Vincenza De Gregorio, Giorgia Imparato, Francesco Urciuolo, Paolo A Netti
Current in vitro models of human intestine commonly fail to mimic the complex intestinal functions and features required for drug development and disease research. Here we deeply investigate the interaction existing between epithelium and the underneath stroma, and its role in the epithelium morphogenesis. We cultured human intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs) in two different 3D configurations: 3D-collagen gel equivalent (3D-CGE) and 3D cell-synthetized stromal equivalent (3D-CSSE). The 3D-CGEs were obtained by means of the traditional collagen-based cell technique and the 3D-CSSE were obtained by bottom-up tissue engineering strategy...
December 18, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235598/the-stimulation-of-glp-1-secretion-and-delivery-of-glp-1-agonists-via-nanostructured-lipid-carriers
#8
Neha Shrestha, Oriane Bouttefeux, Kevin Vanvarenberg, Patrik Lundquist, Juan Cunarro, Sulay Tovar, Georgiy Khodus, Ellen Andersson, Åsa V Keita, Carlos Gonzalez Dieguez, Per Artursson, Véronique Préat, Ana Beloqui
Nanoparticulate based drug delivery systems have been extensively studied to efficiently encapsulate and deliver peptides orally. However, most of the existing data mainly focus on the nanoparticles as a drug carrier, but the ability of nanoparticles having a biological effect has not been exploited. Herein, we hypothesize that nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) could activate the endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion and also act as oral delivery systems for GLP-1 analogs (exenatide and liraglutide)...
December 13, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231791/glucagon-like-peptide-2-and-neoplasia-a-systematic-review
#9
Linea Landgrebe Ring, Nikolaj Nerup, Palle Bekker Jeppesen, Lars Bo Svendsen, Michael Patrick Achiam
Glucagon like peptide-2 is synthesized from enteroendocrine L cells primarily located in the ileum and large intestine. GLP-2 stimulates crypt cell proliferation, increases intestinal blood flow, enhances gut barrier function, induces mucosal healing, and exerts an anti-apoptotic effect. Due to these effects GLP-2 is used in the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS). Areas covered The aim of this systematic review was to provide information on the potential risk of intestinal neoplasia in patients receiving treatment with GLP-2...
December 12, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226685/size-effect-on-lipid-nanocapsules-mediated-glp-1-secretion-from-enteroendocrine-l-cells
#10
Yining Xu, Dario Carradori, Mireille Alhouayek, Giulio G Muccioli, Patrice D Cani, Veronique Preat, Ana Beloqui
L cells are enteroendocrine cells located throughout the gastrointestinal tract that secrete physiologically important peptides. The most characterized peptides secreted by L cells are the peptide YY (PYY) and the glucagon-like peptide (GLP) -1 and -2. These peptides are released rapidly into the circulation after oral nutrient ingestion. Recently, lipid-based nanoparticles (NP) have been described as triggers for GLP-1 secretion by L cells. NP physicochemical properties play a key role in the NP-cell interaction, and drive NP cell internalization...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202475/discovery-characterization-and-clinical-development-of-the-glucagon-like-peptides
#11
Daniel J Drucker, Joel F Habener, Jens Juul Holst
The discovery, characterization, and clinical development of glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) spans more than 30 years and includes contributions from multiple investigators, science recognized by the 2017 Harrington Award Prize for Innovation in Medicine. Herein, we provide perspectives on the historical events and key experimental findings establishing the biology of GLP-1 as an insulin-stimulating glucoregulatory hormone. Important attributes of GLP-1 action and enteroendocrine science are reviewed, with emphasis on mechanistic advances and clinical proof-of-concept studies...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194046/updates-on-the-biology-of-serotonin-and-tryptophan-hydroxylase
#12
Tara Swami, H Christian Weber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the most recent findings relevant to the biology of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in human gastrointestinal disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Serotonin is synthesized in the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal tract where it is secreted from enteroendocrine cells. Its biosynthesis is regulated by two isoforms of the enzyme TPH of which TPH1 is localized predominantly in gastrointestinal enteroendocrine cells...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193302/enteroendocrine-and-adipokine-associations-with-type-2-diabetes-phenotypic-risk-scoring-approaches
#13
Amanda J Cox, Ping Zhang, Donald W Bowden, Benedict Devereaux, Peter M Davoren, Allan W Cripps, Nicholas P West
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The contribution of gut-derived factors to the mechanisms linking obesity and metabolic disease remain under-investigated. The aim of the current study was examine the associations between glucagon and enteroendocrine signaling and type 2 diabetes (T2D) using a derived risk score approach. To compare the relative importance of the enteroendocrine system, associations between adipokine measures and T2D were also investigated METHODS: A total of 130 individuals with T2D and 161 individuals without T2D were included in the study...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186150/in-vitro-enteroid-derived-three-dimensional-tissue-model-of-human-small-intestinal-epithelium-with-innate-immune-responses
#14
Ying Chen, Wenda Zhou, Terrence Roh, Mary K Estes, David L Kaplan
There is a need for functional in vitro 3D human intestine systems that can bridge the gap between conventional cell culture studies and human trials. The successful engineering in vitro of human intestinal tissues relies on the use of the appropriate cell sources, biomimetic scaffolds, and 3D culture conditions to support vital organ functions. We previously established a compartmentalized scaffold consisting of a hollow space within a porous bulk matrix, in which a functional and physiologically relevant intestinal epithelium system was generated using intestinal cell lines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180181/marked-stem-progenitor-cell-expansion-occurs-early-after-murine-ileostomy-a-new-model
#15
Kathryn L Fowler, Minna M Wieck, Ashley E Hilton, Xiaogang Hou, Christopher R Schlieve, Tracy C Grikscheit
BACKGROUND: Improving treatment for short bowel syndrome requires a better understanding of how intestinal adaptation is affected by factors like mechanoluminal stimulation. We hypothesized that in mice, luminal diversion via an ileostomy would drive adaptive changes similar to those seen in human intestine after diversion while offering the opportunity to study the immediate events after resection that precede intestinal adaptation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approval, a distal ileostomy with a long distal Hartman's was created in 9- to 14-week-old C57/B6 mice (n = 8)...
December 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163209/the-role-of-cholecystokinin-in-peripheral-taste-signaling-in-mice
#16
Ryusuke Yoshida, Misa Shin, Keiko Yasumatsu, Shingo Takai, Mayuko Inoue, Noriatsu Shigemura, Soichi Takiguchi, Seiji Nakamura, Yuzo Ninomiya
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a gut hormone released from enteroendocrine cells. CCK functions as an anorexigenic factor by acting on CCK receptors expressed on the vagal afferent nerve and hypothalamus with a synergistic interaction between leptin. In the gut, tastants such as amino acids and bitter compounds stimulate CCK release from enteroendocrine cells via activation of taste transduction pathways. CCK is also expressed in taste buds, suggesting potential roles of CCK in taste signaling in the peripheral taste organ...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152528/x-linked-lissencephaly-with-absent-corpus-callosum-and-abnormal-genitalia-an-evolving-multisystem-syndrome-with-severe-congenital-intestinal-diarrhea-disease
#17
David Coman, Tom Fullston, Cheryl Shoubridge, Richard Leventer, Flora Wong, Simon Nazaretian, Ian Simpson, Josef Gecz, George McGillivray
X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia is a rare and devastating syndrome. The authors present an infant with a multisystem phenotype where the intestinal manifestations were as life limiting as the central nervous system features. Severe chronic diarrhea resulted in failure to thrive, dehydration, electrolyte derangements, long-term hospitalization, and prompted transition to palliative care. Other multisystem manifestations included megacolon, colitis, pancreatic insufficiency hypothalamic dysfunction, hypothyroidism, and hypophosphatasia...
January 2017: Child Neurology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144463/a-single-cell-survey-of-the-small-intestinal-epithelium
#18
Adam L Haber, Moshe Biton, Noga Rogel, Rebecca H Herbst, Karthik Shekhar, Christopher Smillie, Grace Burgin, Toni M Delorey, Michael R Howitt, Yarden Katz, Itay Tirosh, Semir Beyaz, Danielle Dionne, Mei Zhang, Raktima Raychowdhury, Wendy S Garrett, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Hai Ning Shi, Omer Yilmaz, Ramnik J Xavier, Aviv Regev
Intestinal epithelial cells absorb nutrients, respond to microbes, function as a barrier and help to coordinate immune responses. Here we report profiling of 53,193 individual epithelial cells from the small intestine and organoids of mice, which enabled the identification and characterization of previously unknown subtypes of intestinal epithelial cell and their gene signatures. We found unexpected diversity in hormone-secreting enteroendocrine cells and constructed the taxonomy of newly identified subtypes, and distinguished between two subtypes of tuft cell, one of which expresses the epithelial cytokine Tslp and the pan-immune marker CD45, which was not previously associated with non-haematopoietic cells...
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142310/sodium-channel-nav1-3-is-important-for-enterochromaffin-cell-excitability-and-serotonin-release
#19
Peter R Strege, Kaitlyn Knutson, Samuel J Eggers, Joyce H Li, Fan Wang, David Linden, Joseph H Szurszewski, Lorin Milescu, Andrew B Leiter, Gianrico Farrugia, Arthur Beyder
In the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium, enterochromaffin (EC) cells are enteroendocrine cells responsible for producing >90% of the body's serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). However, the molecular mechanisms of EC cell function are poorly understood. Here, we found that EC cells in mouse primary cultures fired spontaneous bursts of action potentials. We examined the repertoire of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV) in fluorescence-sorted mouse EC cells and found that Scn3a was highly expressed. Scn3a-encoded NaV1...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139621/paneth-and-intestinal-stem-cells-preserve-their-functional-integrity-during-worsening-of-acute-cellular-rejection-in-small-bowel-transplantation
#20
M Pucci Molineris, V Gonzalez Polo, F Perez, D Ramisch, M Rumbo, G E Gondolesi, D Meier
Graft survival after small bowel transplantation remains impaired due to acute cellular rejection (ACR), the leading cause of graft loss. Although it was shown that the number of enteroendocrine progenitor cells in intestinal crypts was reduced during mild ACR, no results of Paneth and intestinal stem cells localized at the crypt bottom have been shown so far. Therefore, we wanted to elucidate integrity and functionality of the Paneth and stem cells during different degrees of ACR, and to assess whether these cells are the primary targets of the rejection process...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
keyword
keyword
105876
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"