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Enteroendocrine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777703/bacterial-metabolite-s-equol-modulates-glucagon-like-peptide-1-secretion-from-enteroendocrine-l-cell-line-glutag-cells-via-actin-polymerization
#1
Kazuki Harada, Shoko Sada, Hidekazu Sakaguchi, Mai Takizawa, Rika Ishida, Takashi Tsuboi
S-equol is one of gut bacterial metabolites produced from soybean isoflavone daizein. While S-equol is known to promote glucose-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells, whether S-equol affects glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion from enteroendoceine L cells remains unclear. Here we assessed the effect of S-equol on GLP-1 secretion from mouse enteroendocrine L cell line GLUTag cells. GLUTag cells expressed GPR30 and estrogen receptors, which are putative S-equol receptors. Application of S-equol induced an increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels via GPR30...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732709/restoration-of-enteroendocrine-and-pancreatic-function-after-internal-hernia-and-short-bowel-syndrome-in-a-young-woman-with-gastric-bypass-a-2-year-follow-up
#2
Märta Borghede, Lars Vinter-Jensen, Henrik H Rasmussen, Simon Veedfald, Jens F Rehfeld, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst, Filip K Knop, David P Sonne
A serious complication to the laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is internal hernia, which can lead to massive bowel necrosis that may result in short bowel syndrome. We determined postprandial enteropancreatic hormonal responses and metabolites in a 22-year-old nondiabetic woman with a history of RYGB experiencing severe internal herniation with widespread bowel necrosis. Extensive resections were performed leaving her with a saliva fistula from the pouch-enteric anastomosis, an intact duodenum, 15 cm of jejunum, 35 cm of ileum, and intact colon...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723041/transcriptional-factor-pancreatic-duodenal-homeobox-1-pdx1-is-involved-in-age-related-gip-hypersecretion-in-mice
#3
Eri Ikeguchi, Norio Harada, Yoshinori Kanemaru, Akiko Sankoda, Shunsuke Yamane, Kanako Iwasaki, Masamichi Imajo, Yuki Murata, Kazuyo Suzuki, Erina Joo, Nobuya Inagaki
Fat accumulation with aging is a serious problem; glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin that plays an important role in fat accumulation. GIP receptor-knockout mice show reduced fat mass and improved insulin sensitivity associated with aging. Therefore, GIP is involved in fat accumulation and insulin resistance with aging. However, age-related changes of GIP secretion remain unclear. The present study aimed to elucidate age-related changes of GIP secretion and enteroendocrine K cells using GIP reporter (GIP-GFP knock-in heterozygous; GIPgfp/+ ) mice...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688303/free-fatty-acid-receptors-in-enteroendocrine-cells
#4
Van B Lu, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann
Free fatty acid receptors (FFAs) are highly enriched in enteroendocrine cells providing pathways to link dietary fats and microbially-generated short chain fatty acids (SCFA) to the secretion of a variety of gut hormones. FFA1 and FFA4 are receptors for long chain fatty acids that have been linked to the elevation of plasma gut hormones after fat ingestion. FFA2 and FFA3 are receptors for SCFA, which are generated at high concentrations by microbial fermentation of dietary fibre, and have also been implicated in enhancement of gut hormone secretion...
April 23, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684353/bitter-tastant-quinine-modulates-glucagon-like-peptide-1-exocytosis-from-clonal-glutag-enteroendocline-l-cells-via-actin-reorganization
#5
Kazuki Harada, Hidekazu Sakaguchi, Shoko Sada, Rika Ishida, Yuki Hayasaka, Takashi Tsuboi
Enteroendocrine L cells in the gastrointestinal tract secrete glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. Here we investigated the effect of bitter tastant quinine on GLP-1 secretion using clonal GLUTag mouse enteroendocrine L cells. We found that GLUTag cells expressed putative quinine receptors at mRNA levels. Although application of quinine resulted in an increase of intracellular Ca2+ levels, which was mediated by Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca2+ influx through voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels, quinine had little effect on GLP-1 secretion...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679034/enteric-nervous-system-regulation-of-intestinal-stem-cell-differentiation-and-epithelial-monolayer-function
#6
Marissa Puzan, Sanjin Hosic, Caroline Ghio, Abigail Koppes
The Enteric Nervous System (ENS) is a complex network of neurons and glia, which regulates sensorimotor function throughout the gastroinestinal tract (GI). Here we investigated the role of the ENS and intestinal myofibroblasts in the maintenance of a primary intestinal epithelial barrier through regulation of monolayer permeability, cytokine production, and differentiation of intestinal stem cells. Utilizing a novel, in vitro, transwell-based coculture system, murine small intestinal stem cells were isolated and cultured with ENS neurons and glia or subepithelial myofibroblasts...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678923/eje-prize-2018-a-gut-feeling-about-glucagon
#7
Filip Krag Knop
Hyperglucagonaemia (in the fasting as well as in the postprandial state) is considered a core pathophysiological component of diabetes and to contribute substantially to the hyperglycaemic state of diabetes. Hyperglucagonaemia is usually viewed upon as a consequence of pancreatic alpha cell insensitivity to the glucagon-suppressive effects of glucose and insulin. Since we observed that the well-known hyperglucagonaemic response to oral glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes is exchanged by normal suppression of plasma glucagon levels following isoglycaemic intravenous glucose administration in these patients, we have been focusing on the gut and gut-derived factors as potential mediators of diabetic hyperglucagonaemia...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675450/engineered-human-gastrointestinal-cultures-to-study-the-microbiome-and-infectious-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Sarah E Blutt, Sue E Crawford, Sasirekha Ramani, Winnie Y Zou, Mary K Estes
New models to study the intestine are key to understanding intestinal diseases and developing novel treatments. Intestinal organ-like culture systems (organoids and enteroids) have substantially advanced the study of the human gastrointestinal tract. Stem cell-derived cultures produce self-organizing structures that contain the multiple differentiated intestinal epithelial cell types including enterocytes, goblet, Paneth, and enteroendocrine cells. Understanding host-microbial interactions is one area in which these cultures are expediting major advancements...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674959/meal-sensing-signaling-pathways-in-functional-dyspepsia
#9
REVIEW
Amanda J Page, Hui Li
The upper gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in sensing the arrival, amount and chemical composition of a meal. Ingestion of a meal triggers a number of sensory signals in the gastrointestinal tract. These include the response to mechanical stimulation (e.g., gastric distension), from the presence of food in the gut, and the interaction of various dietary nutrients with specific "taste" receptors on specialized enteroendocrine cells in the small intestine culminating in the release of gut hormones...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674680/author-correction-transient-scute-activation-via-a-self-stimulatory-loop-directs-enteroendocrine-cell-pair-specification-from-self-renewing-intestinal-stem-cells
#10
Jun Chen, Na Xu, Chenhui Wang, Pin Huang, Huanwei Huang, Zhen Jin, Zhongsheng Yu, Tao Cai, Renjie Jiao, Rongwen Xi
In the version of this Article originally published, the author had misnumbered the reference citations in the Methods, using numbers 1-14 instead of 46-59. These errors have now been corrected in all online versions of the Article.
April 19, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669802/duodenal-l-cell-density-correlates-with-features-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-plasma-metabolites
#11
Annieke C G van Baar, Andrei Prodan, Camilla D Wahlgren, Steen S Poulsen, Filip K Knop, Albert K Groen, Jacques J Bergman, Max Nieuwdorp, Evgeni Levin
Enteroendocrine cells are essential for regulation of glucose metabolism but it is unknown whether they are associated with clinical features of metabolic syndrome and fasting plasma metabolites. Objective We aimed to identify fasting plasma metabolites that associate with duodenal L cell, K cell and delta cell densities in subjects with metabolic syndrome with ranging levels of insulin resistance. Research Design and Methods In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated L, K and delta cell density in duodenal biopsies from treatment naïve males with metabolic syndrome using machine-learning methodology...
April 18, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669745/gpr119-agonism-increases-glucagon-secretion-during-insulin-induced-hypoglycemia
#12
Nina Xiaoyan Li, Stacey Brown, Tim Kowalski, Margaret Wu, Liming Yang, Ge Dai, Aleksandr Petrov, Yuyan Ding, Tamara Dlugos, H Blair Woods, Liangsu Wang, Mark Erion, Robert Sherwin, David E Kelley
Insulin-induced hypoglycemia in diabetes is associated with impaired glucagon secretion. Here we tested whether stimulation of GPR119, a G-protein coupled receptor expressed in pancreatic islet as well as enteroendocrine cells, and previously shown to stimulate insulin and incretin secretion might enhance glucagon secretion during hypoglycemia. In the study, GPR119 agonists were applied to isolated islets or perfused pancreata perfusions to assess insulin and glucagon secretion during hypoglycemia or hyperglycemic conditions...
April 18, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656116/chromogranin-a-and-its-derived-peptides-and-their-pharmacological-effects-during-intestinal-inflammation
#13
REVIEW
Nour Eissa, Hayam Hussein, Geoffrey N Hendy, Charles N Bernstein, Jean-Eric Ghia
The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ that produces a broad range of active peptides. Mucosal changes during inflammation alter the distribution and products of enteroendocrine cells (EECs) that play a role in immune activation and regulation of gut homeostasis by mediating communication between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) typically have altered expression of chromogranin (CHG)-A (CHGA), a major soluble protein secreted by EECs that functions as a pro-hormone...
April 12, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643147/-ex-vivo-gut-culture-for-studying-differentiation-and-migration-of-small-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#14
Xiaofei Sun, Xing Fu, Min Du, Mei-Jun Zhu
Epithelial cultures are commonly used for studying gut health. However, due to the absence of mesenchymal cells and gut structure, epithelial culture systems including recently developed three-dimensional organoid culture cannot accurately represent in vivo gut development, which requires intense cross-regulation of the epithelial layer with the underlying mesenchymal tissue. In addition, organoid culture is costly. To overcome this, a new culture system was developed using mouse embryonic small intestine. Cultured intestine showed spontaneous peristalsis, indicating the maintenance of the normal gut physiological structure...
April 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627317/intestinal-cart-is-a-regulator-of-gip-and-glp-1-secretion-and-expression
#15
L Shcherbina, A Lindqvist, A-H Thorén Fischer, E Ahlqvist, E Zhang, S E Falkmer, E Renström, J Koffert, H Honka, N Wierup
Impaired incretin effect is a culprit in Type 2 Diabetes. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a regulatory peptide controlling pancreatic islet hormone secretion and beta-cell survival. Here we studied the potential expression of CART in enteroendocrine cells and examined the role of CART as a regulator of incretin secretion and expression. CART expression was found in glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)-producing K-cells and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-producing L-cells in human duodenum and jejunum and CART levels were increased 60 min after a meal in humans...
April 5, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618657/17-%C3%AE-estradiol-regulates-proglucagon-derived-peptide-secretion-in-mouse-and-human-%C3%AE-and-l-cells
#16
Sandra Handgraaf, Rodolphe Dusaulcy, Florian Visentin, Jacques Philippe, Yvan Gosmain
Clinical and experimental data indicate a beneficial effect of estrogens on energy and glucose homeostasis associated with improved insulin sensitivity and positive effects on insulin secretion. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of estrogens on proglucagon-producing cells, pancreatic α cells, and enteroendocrine L cells. The consequences of sexual hormone deprivation were evaluated in ovariectomized mice (ovx). Ovx mice exhibited impaired glucose tolerance during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT), which was associated with decreased GLP-1 intestinal and pancreatic secretion and content, an effect that was reversed by estradiol (E2) treatment...
April 5, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617641/mechanisms-of-action-and-therapeutic-application-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1
#17
REVIEW
Daniel J Drucker
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) released from gut enteroendocrine cells controls meal-related glycemic excursions through augmentation of insulin and inhibition of glucagon secretion. GLP-1 also inhibits gastric emptying and food intake, actions maximizing nutrient absorption while limiting weight gain. Here I review the circuits engaged by endogenous versus pharmacological GLP-1 action, highlighting key GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R)-positive cell types and pathways transducing metabolic and non-glycemic GLP-1 signals...
April 3, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615438/generation-of-intestinal-organoids-suitable-for-pharmacokinetic-studies-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#18
Daichi Onozato, Misaki Yamashita, Anna Nakanishi, Takumi Akagawa, Yuriko Kida, Isamu Ogawa, Tadahiro Hashita, Takahiro Iwao, Tamihide Matsunaga
Intestinal organoids morphologically resemble intestinal tissues, and are expected to be used in both regenerative medicine and drug development studies, including pharmacokinetic studies. However, the pharmacokinetic properties of these organoids remain poorly characterized. In this study, we aimed to generate pharmacokinetically functional intestinal organoids from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Human iPS cells were induced to differentiate into the hindgut and then seeded on EZSPHERE plates to generate uniform spheroids, and the floating spheroids were subsequently differentiated into intestinal organoids by using small-molecule compounds...
April 3, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580839/the-now-and-then-of-gut-brain-signaling
#19
Melanie M Kaelberer, Diego V Bohórquez
Since their very beginnings, animals had gut sensory epithelial cells. In one of the first multicellular animals, Trichoplax - a literal wandering gut - food sensing and feeding was coordinated by specialized ventral sensor cells. In mammals, including humans, gut epithelial sensor cells (a.k.a enteroendocrine cells) have been recognized for an array of neuropeptides, like ghrelin and cholecystokinin, that modulate hunger or satiety. Indeed, since first described as "clear cells" by Rudfolf Heidenhain (1868), research efforts increasingly focused on their hormone neuropeptides leading to the alphabetical classification of one cell-one hormone (e...
March 23, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579965/atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-co-product-derived-protein-hydrolysates-a-source-of-antidiabetic-peptides
#20
Pádraigín A Harnedy, Vadivel Parthsarathy, Chris M McLaughlin, Martina B O'Keeffe, Philip J Allsopp, Emeir M McSorley, Finbarr P M O'Harte, Richard J FitzGerald
Large quantities of low-value protein rich co-products, such as salmon skin and trimmings, are generated annually. These co-products can be upgraded to high-value functional ingredients. The aim of this study was to assess the antidiabetic potential of salmon skin gelatin and trimmings-derived protein hydrolysates in vitro. The gelatin hydrolysate generated with Alcalase 2.4L and Flavourzyme 500L exhibited significantly higher (p < 0.001) insulin and GLP-1 secretory activity from pancreatic BRIN-BD11 and enteroendocrine GLUTag cells, respectively, when tested at 2...
April 2018: Food Research International
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