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Enteroendocrine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636167/berberine-ameliorates-collagen-induced-arthritis-in-rats-by-suppressing-th17-cell-responses-via-inducing-cortistatin-in-the-gut
#1
Mengfan Yue, Yufeng Xia, Can Shi, Chunge Guan, Yunfan Li, Rui Liu, Zhifeng Wei, Yue Dai
Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, has been reported to ameliorate various autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis by oral administration. However, its mechanism remains mysterious due to an extremely low bioavailability. The fact that berberine is easy to accumulate in gut, the largest endocrine organ in the body, attracts us to explore its anti-arthritic mechanism in view of the induction of intestinal immunosuppressive neuropeptides. In this study, berberine (200 mg/kg, i.g.) was shown to ameliorate collagen-induced arthritis in rats, which was manifested by the reduction of clinical signs and joint destruction, as well as marked down-regulation of Th17 cell frequency and IL-17 level in blood...
June 21, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625150/update-on-the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-effect-of-cholecystokinin-and-cholecystokinin-1-receptor-on-the-formation-of-cholesterol-gallstones
#2
Helen H Wang, Piero Portincasa, David Q-H Wang
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an important neuro-intestinal peptide hormone produced by the enteroendocrine I-cells in the upper part of small intestine. Protein- and fat-enriched food plays an important role in triggering CCK secretion from the intestine. Carbohydrates stimulate only small amounts of CCK release. The CCK-1 receptor (CCK-1R) is largely localized in the gallbladder, sphincter of Oddi, pancreas, small intestine, gastric mucosa, and pyloric sphincter, where it is responsible for CCK to regulate multiple digestive processes including gallbladder contraction, pancreatic secretion, small intestinal transit, and gastric emptying...
June 19, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614796/%C3%AE-synuclein-in-gut-endocrine-cells-and-its-implications-for-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Rashmi Chandra, Annie Hiniker, Yien-Ming Kuo, Robert L Nussbaum, Rodger A Liddle
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with devastating clinical manifestations. In PD, neuronal death is associated with intracellular aggregates of the neuronal protein α-synuclein known as Lewy bodies. Although the cause of sporadic PD is not well understood, abundant clinical and pathological evidence show that misfolded α-synuclein is found in enteric nerves before it appears in the brain. This suggests a model in which PD pathology originates in the gut and spreads to the central nervous system via cell-to-cell prion-like propagation, such that transfer of misfolded α-synuclein initiates misfolding of native α-synuclein in recipient cells...
June 15, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608155/pathophysiology-of-gastric-nets-role-of-gastrin-and-menin
#4
REVIEW
Sinju Sundaresan, Anthony J Kang, Juanita L Merchant
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) were initially identified as a separate entity in the early 1900s as a unique malignancy that secretes bioactive amines. GI-NETs are the most frequent type and represent a unique subset of NETs, because at least 75% of these tumors represent gastrin stimulation of the enterochromaffin-like cell located in the body of the stomach. The purpose of this review is to understand the specific role of gastrin in the generation of Gastric NETs (G-NETs)...
July 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607910/exploiting-induced-senescence-in-intestinal-organoids-to-drive-enteroendocrine-cell-expansion
#5
EDITORIAL
Robert G Ramsay, Helen E Abud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591806/quantitative-proteomics-of-intestinal-mucosa-from-male-mice-lacking-intestinal-epithelial-insulin-receptors
#6
Stina Rikke Jensen, Erwin M Schoof, Sarah E Wheeler, Henning Hvid, Jonas Ahnfelt-Rønne, Bo Falck Hansen, Erica Nishimura, Grith Skytte Olsen, Thomas Kislinger, Patricia L Brubaker
The goal of the present study was to determine whether loss of the insulin receptor alters the molecular landscape of the intestinal mucosa, using intestinal-epithelial insulin receptor knockout (IE-irKO) mice and both genetic (IRfl/fl and Villin-cre) controls. Quantitative proteomic analysis by Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) was applied to jejunal and colonic mucosa from mice fed a chow- or Western diet (WD). Jejunal mucosa from IE-irKO mice demonstrated alterations in all intestinal cell linages, Paneth, goblet, absorptive and enteroendocrine cells, whereas only goblet and absorptive cells were affected in the colon...
June 7, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580281/glucagon-like-peptide-2-promotes-gallbladder-refilling-via-a-tgr5-independent-glp-2r-dependent-pathway
#7
Bernardo Yusta, Dianne Matthews, Grace B Flock, John R Ussher, Brigitte Lavoie, Gary M Mawe, Daniel J Drucker
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) are secreted from enteroendocrine cells in response to nutrients and bile acids and control metabolism via actions on structurally-related yet distinct G protein coupled receptors. GLP-1 regulates gut motility, appetite, islet function, and glucose homeostasis, whereas GLP-2 enhances intestinal nutrient absorption. GLP-1R agonists are used to treat diabetes and obesity, and a GLP-2R agonist is approved to treat short bowel syndrome. Unexpectedly, reports of gallbladder disease have been associated with the use of both GLP-1R and GLP-2R agonists and after bariatric surgery, although the mechanisms remain unknown...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533434/lysophosphatidylinositol-induced-activation-of-the-cation-channel-trpv2-triggers-glucagon-like-peptide-1-secretion-in-enteroendocrine-l-cells
#8
Kazuki Harada, Tetsuya Kitaguchi, Taichi Kamiya, Kyaw Htet Aung, Kazuaki Nakamura, Kunihiro Ohta, Takashi Tsuboi
The lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) has crucial roles in multiple physiological processes, including insulin exocytosis from pancreatic islets. However, the role of LPI in secretion of glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a hormone that enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion, is unclear. Here, we used the murine enteroendocrine L cell line GLUTag and primary murine small intestinal cells to elucidate the mechanism of LPI-induced GLP-1 secretion. Exogenous LPI addition increased intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in GLUTag cells and induced GLP-1 secretion from both GLUTag and acutely prepared primary intestinal cells...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533229/intrinsic-regulation-of-enteroendocrine-fate-by-numb
#9
Jérémy Sallé, Louis Gervais, Benjamin Boumard, Marine Stefanutti, Katarzyna Siudeja, Allison J Bardin
How terminal cell fates are specified in dynamically renewing adult tissues is not well understood. Here we explore terminal cell fate establishment during homeostasis using the enteroendocrine cells (EEs) of the adult Drosophila midgut as a paradigm. Our data argue against the existence of local feedback signals, and we identify Numb as an intrinsic regulator of EE fate. Our data further indicate that Numb, with alpha-adaptin, acts upstream or in parallel of known regulators of EE fate to limit Notch signaling, thereby facilitating EE fate acquisition...
May 22, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523577/ffa3-activation-stimulates-duodenal-bicarbonate-secretion-and-prevents-nsaid-induced-enteropathy-via-the-glp-2-pathway-in-rats
#10
Hyder Said, Yasutada Akiba, Kazuyuki Narimatsu, Koji Maruta, Ayaka Kuri, Ken-Ichi Iwamoto, Atsukazu Kuwahara, Jonathan D Kaunitz
BACKGROUND: Therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with enteropathy in humans and experimental animals, a cause of considerable morbidity. Unlike foregut NSAID-associated mucosal lesions, most treatments for this condition are of little efficacy. We propose that the endogenously released intestinotrophic hormone glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) prevents the development of NSAID-induced enteropathy. Since the short-chain fatty acid receptor FFA3 is expressed on enteroendocrine L cells and on enteric nerves in the gastrointestinal tract, we further hypothesized that activation of FFA3 on L cells protects the mucosa from injury via GLP-2 release with enhanced duodenal HCO3(-) secretion...
May 18, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523111/discovery-of-orally-efficacious-tetrahydrobenzimidazoles-as-tgr5-agonists-for-type-2-diabetes
#11
Xuqing Zhang, Mark Wall, Zhihua Sui, Jack Kauffman, Cuifen Hou, Cailin Chen, Fuyong Du, Thomas Kirchner, Yin Liang, Dana L Johnson, William V Murray, Keith Demarest
We have discovered a novel series of tetrahydrobenzimidazoles 3 as TGR5 agonists. Initial structure-activity relationship studies with an assay that measured cAMP levels in murine enteroendocrine cells (STC-1 cells) led to the discovery of potent agonists with submicromolar EC50 values for mTGR5. Subsequent optimization through methylation of the 7-position of the core tetrahydrobenzimidazole ring resulted in the identification of potent agonists for both mTGR5 and hTGR5 (human enteroendocrine NCI-H716 cells)...
May 11, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510488/distinct-effects-of-growth-hormone-and-glutamine-on-activation-of-intestinal-stem-cells
#12
Yun Chen, Sheng-Hong Tseng, Chao-Ling Yao, Chuan Li, Ya-Hui Tsai
BACKGROUND: For patients with short bowel syndrome under parenteral nutrition support, growth hormone (GH) and glutamine (GLN) have been found to help the growth of intestinal mucosa. In this research, we studied the effects of GH and GLN on intestinal stem cells (ISCs). METHODS: The in vitro and in vivo effects of GH and/or GLN on ISCs were evaluated by observing the ability of ISCs to form organoids in a Matrigel culture system. The expression levels of stemness and differentiation markers in ISCs and organoids were assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence assay, and immunohistochemistry staining...
May 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501979/endocrine-cells-producing-peptide-hormones-in-the-intestine-of-nile-tilapia-distribution-and-effects-of-feeding-and-fasting-on-the-cell-density
#13
Raquel Tatiane Pereira, Thaiza Rodrigues de Freitas, Izabela Regina Cardoso de Oliveira, Leandro Santos Costa, Fabricio Andrés Vigliano, Priscila Vieira Rosa
Endocrine cells (ECs) act as a luminal surveillance system responding to either the presence or absence of food in the gut through the secretion of peptide hormones. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of feeding and fasting on the EC peptide-specific distribution along the intestine of Nile tilapia. We assessed the density of ECs producing gastrin (GAS), cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in nine segments of the intestine using immunohistochemistry...
May 13, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485065/heterogeneity-of-enterochromaffin-cells-within-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#14
REVIEW
S Diwakarla, L J Fothergill, J Fakhry, B Callaghan, J B Furness
Enterochromaffin cells were the first endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract to be chemically distinguished, almost 150 years ago. It is now known that the chromaffin reaction of these cells was due to their content of the reactive aromatic amine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, also known as serotonin). They have commonly been thought to be a special class of gut endocrine cells (enteroendocrine cells) that are distinct from the enteroendocrine cells that contain peptide hormones. The study by Martin et al...
June 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484425/protein-digestion-derived-peptides-and-the-peripheral-regulation-of-food-intake
#15
REVIEW
Juliette Caron, Dorothée Domenger, Pascal Dhulster, Rozenn Ravallec, Benoit Cudennec
The gut plays a central role in energy homeostasis. Food intake regulation strongly relies on the gut-brain axis, and numerous studies have pointed out the significant role played by gut hormones released from enteroendocrine cells. It is well known that digestive products of dietary protein possess a high satiating effect compared to carbohydrates and fat. Nevertheless, the processes occurring in the gut during protein digestion involved in the short-term regulation of food intake are still not totally unraveled...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483523/effect-of-essential-amino-acids-on-enteroids-methionine-deprivation-suppresses-proliferation-and-affects-differentiation-in-enteroid-stem-cells
#16
Yuki Saito, Ken Iwatsuki, Hikaru Hanyu, Natsuki Maruyama, Eitaro Aihara, Miki Tadaishi, Makoto Shimizu, Kazuo Kobayashi-Hattori
We investigated the effects of essential amino acids on intestinal stem cell proliferation and differentiation using murine small intestinal organoids (enteroids) from the jejunum. By selectively removing individual essential amino acids from culture medium, we found that 24 h of methionine (Met) deprivation markedly suppressed cell proliferation in enteroids. This effect was rescued when enteroids cultured in Met deprivation media for 12 h were transferred to complete medium, suggesting that Met plays an important role in enteroid cell proliferation...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475172/keratins-regulate-colonic-epithelial-cell-differentiation-through-the-notch1-signalling-pathway
#17
Iris A K Lähdeniemi, Julia O Misiorek, Christian J M Antila, Sebastian K-J Landor, Carl-Gustaf A Stenvall, Lina E Fortelius, Linda K Bergström, Cecilia Sahlgren, Diana M Toivola
Keratins (K) are intermediate filament proteins important in stress protection and mechanical support of epithelial tissues. K8, K18 and K19 are the main colonic keratins, and K8-knockout (K8(-/-)) mice display a keratin dose-dependent hyperproliferation of colonic crypts and a colitis-phenotype. However, the impact of the loss of K8 on intestinal cell differentiation has so far been unknown. Here we show that K8 regulates Notch1 signalling activity and differentiation in the epithelium of the large intestine...
June 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448057/mixed-primary-cultures-of-murine-small-intestine-intended-for-the-study-of-gut-hormone-secretion-and-live-cell-imaging-of-enteroendocrine-cells
#18
Arianna Psichas, Gwen Tolhurst, Cheryl A Brighton, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann
The gut is the largest endocrine organ of the body, with hormone-secreting enteroendocrine cells located along the length of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Despite their physiological importance, enteroendocrine cells represent only a small fraction of the epithelial cell population and in the past, their characterization has presented a considerable challenge resulting in a reliance on cell line models. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for the isolation and culture of mixed murine small intestinal cells...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431319/response-of-plasma-glucagon-like-peptide-2-to-feeding-pattern-and-intraruminal-administration-of-volatile-fatty-acids-in-sheep
#19
M Elsabagh, Y Inabu, T Obitsu, T Sugino
Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), a gut peptide secreted by enteroendocrine L cells, has recently been identified as a key regulator of intestinal growth and absorptive function in ruminants. However, reports on GLP-2 secretion are few, and more information regarding its secretion dynamics is needed. In this study, two experiments were conducted to elucidate the daily rhythm of GLP-2 secretion in response to feeding regimen and to investigate the effect of volatile fatty acids (VFA) on GLP-2 release in sheep...
March 11, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430903/co-storage-of-enteroendocrine-hormones-evaluated-at-the-cell-and-subcellular-levels-in-male-mice
#20
Linda J Fothergill, Brid Callaghan, Billie Hunne, David M Bravo, John B Furness
Recent studies reveal complex patterns of hormone co-expression within enteroendocrine cells (EEC), contrary to the traditional view that gut hormones are expressed individually in EEC. Moreover, different hormones have been found in separate subcellular vesicles. However, detailed analysis of relative expression of multiple hormones has not been made. Subcellular studies have been confined to peptide hormones, and have not included the indolamine, 5-HT, or the neuroendocrine protein, chromogranin A (CgA). In the present work, co-expression of 5-HT, CgA, secretin, CCK, ghrelin, and GLP-1 in mouse duodenum was quantified at a cellular and subcellular level by semi-automated cell counting and quantitative vesicle measurements...
April 18, 2017: Endocrinology
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