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Enteroendocrine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919867/sulfated-cholecystokinin-8-promotes-cd36-mediated-fatty-acid-uptake-into-primary-mouse-duodenal-enterocytes
#1
Claire Demenis, John McLaughlin, Craig P Smith
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an archetypal incretin hormone secreted by intestinal enteroendocrine cells (EEC) in response to ingested nutrients. The aim of this study was to determine whether CCK modulates enterocyte fatty acid uptake by primary mouse duodenal cells. Exposure of primary mouse duodenal cells to 10 pM sulfated CCK-8 caused a two fold increase in dodecanoic acid fatty acid (FA) uptake. The selective CCK A receptor antagonist loxiglumide (100 μM) completely abolished the CCK-8 induced FA uptake. The CD36 fatty acid translocase-specific inhibitor sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (1 μM) also completely inhibited CCK-8 induced FA uptake, as did treatment with 200 μM phloretin...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905106/recombinant-mouse-osteocalcin-secreted-by-lactococcus-lactis-promotes-glucagon-like-peptide-1-induction-in-stc-1-cells
#2
Fu Namai, Suguru Shigemori, Koichi Sudo, Takashi Sato, Yoshinari Yamamoto, Shireen Nigar, Tasuku Ogita, Takeshi Shimosato
An osteoblastic protein, osteocalcin (OC), exists in vivo in two forms: carboxylated OC, and uncarboxylated or low-carboxylated OC (ucOC). ucOC acts as a hormone to regulate carbon and energy metabolism. Recent studies demonstrated that ucOC exerts insulinotropic effects, mainly through the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) pathway. GLP-1 is an insulinotropic hormone secreted by enteroendocrine L cells in the small intestine. Thus, efficient delivery of ucOC to the small intestine may be a new therapeutic option for metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity...
September 13, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899900/ret-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-sustains-proliferation-and-tissue-maturation-in-intestinal-epithelia
#3
Daniel Perea, Jordi Guiu, Bruno Hudry, Chrysoula Konstantinidou, Alexandra Milona, Dafni Hadjieconomou, Thomas Carroll, Nina Hoyer, Dipa Natarajan, Jukka Kallijärvi, James A Walker, Peter Soba, Nikhil Thapar, Alan J Burns, Kim B Jensen, Irene Miguel-Aliaga
Expression of the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase is a defining feature of enteric neurons. Its importance is underscored by the effects of its mutation in Hirschsprung disease, leading to absence of gut innervation and severe gastrointestinal symptoms. We report a new and physiologically significant site of Ret expression in the intestine: the intestinal epithelium. Experiments in Drosophila indicate that Ret is expressed both by enteric neurons and adult intestinal epithelial progenitors, which require Ret to sustain their proliferation...
September 12, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898875/enteroendocrine-cells-metabolic-relays-between-microbes-and-their-host
#4
Hubert Plovier, Patrice D Cani
Gut bacteria exert a variety of metabolic functions unavailable to the host and are increasingly seen as a virtual organ located inside our gastrointestinal tract. Scattered in our intestinal epithelium, enteroendocrine cells (EECs) regulate several aspects of the host's physiology and translate signals coming from the gut microbiota through their hormonal secretions. In this chapter, we will assess the interplay between the gut microbiota and EEC and its consequences for the physiology of the host. We will first describe alterations of different populations of EEC in germ-free animals...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881871/secretory-granules-tell-almost-all-in-enteroendocrine-cells
#5
Savita Dhanvantari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873384/role-of-incretin-hormones-in-bowel-diseases
#6
Tamara Zietek, Nadine Waldschmitt, Eva Rath
Enteroendocrine cells (EEC) have been studied extensively for their ability to regulate gastrointestinal motility and insulin release by secretion of peptide hormones. In particular, the L cell-derived incretin glucagon-like peptide 1 has gained enormous attention due to its insulinotropic action and relevance in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Yet, accumulating data indicates a critical role for EEC and incretins in metabolic adaptation and in orchestrating immune responses beyond blood glucose control. EEC actively sense the lamina propria and luminal environment including the microbiota via receptors and transporters, subsequently mediating signals by secreting hormones and cytokines...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873382/development-and-anatomy-of-the-enteroendocrine-system-in-humans
#7
Carsten Posovszky
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract exhibits an enormous surface area that consists mostly of absorptive enterocytes. Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) are found scattered along the GI tract between absorptive enterocytes and other secretory cells, and comprise around 1% of the epithelial cell population. Interestingly, they develop from the same crypt stem cell as the other absorptive or secretory cells of the gut. EECs differentiate along the crypt villus axis and are renewed every 4-6 days, and hence possess a high plasticity...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873381/the-changing-concept-of-gut-endocrinology
#8
Jens F Rehfeld
Gastrointestinal hormones are released from enteroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are expressed, which make the gut the largest endocrine organ in the body. At present, it is feasible to conceive the hormones under 5 headings: the structural homology groups most hormones into 9 families, each of which is assumed to originate from a single gene. Today's hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization or differentiated maturation of the prohormone...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871231/expression-of-the-fatty-acid-receptors-gpr84-and-gpr120-and-cytodifferentiation-of-epithelial-cells-in-the-gastric-mucosa-of-mouse-pups-in-the-course-of-dietary-transition
#9
Patricia Widmayer, Soumya Kusumakshi, Franziska A Hägele, Ulrich Boehm, Heinz Breer
During weaning, the ingested food of mouse pups changes from exclusively milk to solid food. In contrast to the protein- and carbohydrate-rich solid food, high fat milk is characterized primarily by fatty acids of medium chain length particularly important for the suckling pups. Therefore, it seems conceivable that the stomach mucosa may be specialized for detecting these important nutrients during the suckling phase. Here, we analyzed the expression of the G protein coupled receptors GPR84 and GPR120 (FFAR4), which are considered to be receptors for medium and long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866808/chylomicrons-stimulate-incretin-secretion-in-mouse-and-human-cells
#10
Arianna Psichas, Pierre F Larraufie, Deborah A Goldspink, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Lipids are a potent stimulus for the secretion of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). Traditionally, this effect was thought to involve the sensing of lipid digestion products by free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) and G-protein coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) on the apical surface of enteroendocrine cells. However, recent evidence suggests that lipids may in fact be sensed basolaterally, and that fatty acid absorption and chylomicron synthesis may be a prerequisite for their stimulatory effect on gut peptide release...
September 2, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858733/quercetin-attenuates-the-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-cox-2-and-mpo-expression-in-the-small-intestine-mucosa
#11
Štefan Tóth, Zuzana Jonecová, Kristína Čurgali, Milan Maretta, Ján Šoltés, Martin Švaňa, Theodore Kalpadikis, Martin Caprnda, Mariusz Adamek, Luis Rodrigo, Peter Kruzliak
Quercetin, the active substance of tea, fruits and vegetables, exerts a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities and is considered to have potential therapeutic application. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effect of quercetin against experimental ischemia- reperfusion (IR) injury of the small intestine in rats. Quercetin was administrated intraperitoneally 30min before 1h ischemia of superior mesenteric artery with following reperfusion periods lasting 1, 4 and 24h. The male specific pathogen-free Charles River Wistar rats were used (n=45)...
August 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857318/lc-ms-based-detection-and-semi-quantitative-analysis-of-insl5-in-human-and-murine-tissues
#12
R G Kay, S Galvin, P Larraufie, F Reimann, F M Gribble
RATIONALE: Insulin Like Peptide 5 (INSL5) is a hormone produced by enteroendocrine L-cells in the colon that has recently been implicated in the control of metabolic homeostasis. However, research into its physiology has been hindered by the reported unreliability of commercially available immunoassays and additional detection assays would benefit this emerging field. METHODS: Peptides from purified murine L-cells and homogenates from both human and mouse colonic tissues were extracted by precipitating larger proteins with acetonitrile...
August 31, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854151/aging-effects-on-intestinal-homeostasis-associated-with-expansion-and-dysfunction-of-intestinal-epithelial-stem-cells
#13
Emily C Moorefield, Sarah F Andres, R Eric Blue, Laurianne Van Landeghem, Amanda T Mah, M Agostina Santoro, Shengli Ding
Intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) are critical to maintain intestinal epithelial function and homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that aging promotes IESC dysfunction using old (18-22 months) and young (2-4 month) Sox9-EGFP IESC reporter mice. Different levels of Sox9-EGFP permit analyses of active IESC (Sox9-EGFP(Low)), activatable reserve IESC and enteroendocrine cells (Sox9-EGFP(High)), Sox9-EGFP(Sublow) progenitors, and Sox9-EGFP(Negative) differentiated lineages. Crypt-villus morphology, cellular composition and apoptosis were measured by histology...
August 29, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853441/enteroendocrine-cells-sensory-sentinels-of-the-intestinal-environment-and-orchestrators-of-mucosal-immunity
#14
REVIEW
J J Worthington, F Reimann, F M Gribble
The intestinal epithelium must balance efficient absorption of nutrients with partitioning commensals and pathogens from the bodies' largest immune system. If this crucial barrier fails, inappropriate immune responses can result in inflammatory bowel disease or chronic infection. Enteroendocrine cells represent 1% of this epithelium and have classically been studied for their detection of nutrients and release of peptide hormones to mediate digestion. Intriguingly, enteroendocrine cells are the key sensors of microbial metabolites, can release cytokines in response to pathogen associated molecules and peptide hormone receptors are expressed on numerous intestinal immune cells; thus enteroendocrine cells are uniquely equipped to be crucial and novel orchestrators of intestinal inflammation...
August 30, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853300/enteroendocrine-musashi-1-and-neurogenin-3-cells-in-the-large-intestine-of-thai-and-norwegian-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#15
Magdy El-Salhy, Tanisa Patcharatrakul, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk, Trygve Hausken, Odd Helge Gilja, Sutep Gonlachanvit
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence, gender distribution and clinical presentation of IBS differ between Asian and Western countries. This study aimed at studying and comparing enteroendocrine, Musashi 1 (Msi 1) and neurogenin 3 (neurog 3) cells in Thai and Norwegian IBS patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty Thai and 61 Norwegian IBS patients as well as 20 Thai and 24 Norwegian controls were included. Biopsy samples were taken from each of the sigmoid colon and the rectum during a standard colonoscopy...
August 30, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811552/deregulation-of-transcription-factors-controlling-intestinal-epithelial-cell-differentiation-a-predisposing-factor-for-reduced-enteroendocrine-cell-number-in-morbidly-obese-individuals
#16
Bettina K Wölnerhanssen, Andrew W Moran, Galina Burdyga, Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach, Ralph Peterli, Michael Manz, Miriam Thumshirn, Kristian Daly, Christoph Beglinger, Soraya P Shirazi-Beechey
Morbidly obese patients exhibit impaired secretion of gut hormones that may contribute to the development of obesity. After bariatric surgery there is a dramatic increase in gut hormone release. In this study, gastric and duodenal tissues were endoscopically collected from lean, and morbidly obese subjects before and 3 months after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Tissue morphology, abundance of chromogranin A, gut hormones, α-defensin, mucin 2, Na(+)/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) and transcription factors, Hes1, HATH1, NeuroD1, and Ngn3, were determined...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806271/luminal-chemosensing-in-the-gastroduodenal-mucosa
#17
Izumi Kaji, Jonathan D Kaunitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We report recently published knowledge regarding gut chemosensory mechanisms focusing on nutrient-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed on gut enteroendocrine cells (EECs), tuft cells, and in afferent nerves in the gastroduodenal mucosa and submucosa. RECENT FINDINGS: Gene profiling of EECs and tuft cells have revealed expression of a variety of nutrient-sensing GPCRs. The density of EEC and tuft cells is altered by luminal environmental changes that may occur following bypass surgery or in the presence of mucosal inflammation...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803984/canagliflozin-potentiates-glp-1-secretion-and-lowers-the-peak-of-gip-secretion-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet
#18
Tohru Hira, Toshiki Koga, Kazuyo Sasaki, Hiroshi Hara
The glucose-induced secretion of incretins, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), is dependent on luminal glucose levels and transport of glucose via the sodium-glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) in the small intestine. Because GLP-1 and GIP function in decreasing and increasing the body weight, respectively, we aimed to analyze the effect of transient inhibition of SGLT1 by canagliflozin on incretin secretion in an obese rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on a high-fat high-sucrose diet for 6-7 weeks, and plasma GLP-1 and GIP levels were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)...
October 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800948/comparative-effects-of-intraduodenal-fat-and-glucose-on-the-gut-incretin-axis-in-healthy-males
#19
Tongzhi Wu, Christopher K Rayner, Linda E Watson, Karen L Jones, Michael Horowitz, Tanya J Little
BACKGROUND: The interaction of nutrients with the small intestine stimulates the secretion of numerous enteroendocrine hormones that regulate postprandial metabolism. However, differences in gastrointestinal hormonal responses between the macronutrients are incompletely understood. In the present study, we compared blood glucose and plasma hormone concentrations in response to standardised intraduodenal (ID) fat and glucose infusions in healthy humans. METHODS: In a parallel study design, 16 healthy males who received an intraduodenal fat infusion were compared with 12 healthy males who received intraduodenal glucose, both at a rate of 2kcal/min over 120min...
August 8, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764761/abnormalities-in-ileal-stem-neurogenin-3-and-enteroendocrine-cells-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#20
Magdy El-Salhy, Odd Helge Gilja
BACKGROUND: This study examined whether the densities of stem- and enteroendocrine cell progenitors are abnormal in the ileum of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and whether any abnormalities in ileal enteroendocrine cells are correlated with abnormalities in stem cells and enteroendocrine cell progenitors. METHODS: One hundred and one IBS patients covering all IBS subtypes were recruited, and 39 non-IBS subjects were included as a control group. The patients and controls underwent standard colonoscopies, during which biopsy specimens were obtained from the ileum...
August 1, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
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