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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890806/the-endocrine-disrupting-potential-of-monosodium-glutamate-msg-on-secretion-of-the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-gut-hormone-and-glp-1-receptor-interaction
#1
Maeve Shannon, Brian Green, Gary Willars, Jodie Wilson, Natalie Matthews, Joanna Lamb, Anna Gillespie, Lisa Connolly
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a suspected obesogen with epidemiological evidence positively correlating consumption to increased body mass index and higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. ELISA and high content analysis (HCA) were employed to examine the disruptive effects of MSG on the secretion of enteroendocrine hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), respectively. Following 3h MSG exposure of the enteroendocrine pGIP/neo: STC-1 cell line model (500μg/ml) significantly increased GLP-1 secretion (1...
November 24, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888281/the-actions-of-relaxin-family-peptides-on-signal-transduction-pathways-activated-by-the-relaxin-family-peptide-receptor-rxfp4
#2
Sheng Y Ang, Dana S Hutchinson, Bronwyn A Evans, Mohammed A Hossain, Nitin Patil, Ross A D Bathgate, Martina Kocan, Roger J Summers
The relaxin family peptide receptor 4 (RXFP4) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed in the colorectum with emerging roles in metabolism and appetite regulation. It is activated by its cognate ligand insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5) that is expressed in enteroendocrine L cells in the gut. Whether other evolutionarily related peptides such as relaxin-2, relaxin-3, or INSL3 activate RXFP4 signal transduction mechanisms with a pattern similar to or distinct from INSL5 is still unclear. In this study, we compare the signaling pathways activated by various relaxin family peptides to INSL5...
November 26, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873089/gut-hormone-regulation-and-secretion-via-ffa1-and-ffa4
#3
Fiona M Gribble, Eleftheria Diakogiannaki, Frank Reimann
The digestion, absorption and utilisation of dietary triglycerides are controlled by gut hormones, released from enteroendocrine cells along the length of the gastrointestinal tract. Major players in the detection of ingested lipids are the free fatty acid receptors FFA1 and FFA4, which are highly expressed on enteroendocrine cells. These receptors are activated when free fatty acids (FFA) are absorbed across the intestinal epithelium, and provide a dynamic hormonal signal indicating that lipids are arriving in the bloodstream from the gut...
November 22, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846263/nicotine-induced-effects-on-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-nachrs-ca2-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-in-stc-1-cells
#4
Jie Qian, Shobha K Mummalaneni, Reem M Alkahtani, Sunila Mahavadi, Karnam S Murthy, John R Grider, Vijay Lyall
In addition to the T2R bitter taste receptors, neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have recently been shown to be involved in the bitter taste transduction of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol. However, at present it is not clear if nAChRs are expressed in enteroendocrine cells other than beta cells of the pancreas and enterochromaffin cells, and if they play a role in the synthesis and release of neurohumoral peptides. Accordingly, we investigated the expression and functional role of nAChRs in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844204/analysis-of-enteroendocrine-cell-populations-in-the-human-colon
#5
Patricia Martins, Josiane Fakhry, Enio Chaves de Oliveira, Billie Hunne, Linda J Fothergill, Mitchell Ringuet, Débora d'Ávila Reis, Jens F Rehfeld, Brid Callaghan, John B Furness
Recent studies have shown that patterns of colocalisation of hormones in enteroendocrine cells are more complex than previously appreciated and that the patterns differ substantially between species. In this study, the human sigmoid colon is investigated by immunohistochemistry for the presence of gastrointestinal hormones and their colocalisation. The segments of colon were distant from the pathology that led to colectomy and appeared structurally normal. Only four hormones, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) and somatostatin, were common in enteroendocrine cells of the human colon...
November 14, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798332/the-noncaloric-sweetener-rebaudioside-a-stimulates-glucagon-like-peptide-1-release-and-increases-enteroendocrine-cell-numbers-in-2-dimensional-mouse-organoids-derived-from-different-locations-of-the-intestine
#6
Nikkie van der Wielen, Jean Paul Ten Klooster, Susanne Muckenschnabl, Raymond Pieters, Henk Fj Hendriks, Renger F Witkamp, Jocelijn Meijerink
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) contributes to satiety and plays a pivotal role in insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. Similar to GLP-1, peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin also influence food intake. The secretion of these hormones by enteroendocrine cells along the intestine is modulated by nutrients. Preparations from the Stevia rebaudiana plant, including rebaudioside A, are increasingly being used as noncaloric sweeteners. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of rebaudioside A on enteroendocrine cells by assessing both cell numbers as well as their secretory capacity in an organoid model...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781093/gut-chemosensing-implications-for-disease-pathogenesis
#7
REVIEW
Christopher J Berg, Jonathan D Kaunitz
The ability of humans to sense chemical signals in ingested substances is implicit in the ability to detect the five basic tastes; sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami. Of these, sweet, bitter, and umami tastes are detected by lingual G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently, these receptors were also localized to the gut mucosa. In this review, we will emphasize recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of foregut luminal chemosensing, with special emphasis on cell surface GPCRs such as the sweet and proteinaceous taste receptors (TASRs), short- and long-chain fatty acid (FA) receptors, and bile acid receptors...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779915/gpr119-a-major-enteroendocrine-sensor-of-dietary-triglyceride-metabolites-coacting-in-synergy-with-ffa1-gpr40
#8
Jeppe H Ekberg, Maria Hauge, Line V Kristensen, Andreas N Madsen, Maja S Engelstoft, Anna-Sofie Husted, Rasmus Sichlau, Kristoffer L Egerod, Pascal Timshel, Timothy J Kowalski, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reiman, Harald S Hansen, Andrew D Howard, Birgitte Holst, Thue W Schwartz
Triglycerides (TGs) are among the most efficacious stimulators of incretin secretion; however, the relative importance of FFA1 (G Protein-coupled Receptor [GPR] 40), FFA4 (GPR120), and GPR119, which all recognize TG metabolites, ie, long-chain fatty acid and 2-monoacylglycerol, respectively, is still unclear. Here, we find all 3 receptors to be highly expressed and highly enriched in fluorescence-activated cell sorting-purified GLP-1 and GIP cells isolated from transgenic reporter mice. In vivo, the TG-induced increase in plasma GIP was significantly reduced in FFA1-deficient mice (to 34%, mean of 4 experiments each with 8-10 animals), in GPR119-deficient mice (to 24%) and in FFA1/FFA4 double deficient mice (to 15%) but not in FFA4-deficient mice...
December 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779708/enteroendocrine-cells-stem-cells-and-differentiation-progenitors-in-rats-with-tnbs-induced-colitis
#9
Magdy El-Salhy, Tarek Mazzawi, Kazuo Umezawa, Odd Helge Gilja
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as well as animal models of human IBD have abnormal enteroendocrine cells. The present study aimed to identify the possible mechanisms underlying these abnormalities. For this purpose, 40 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: the control group, the group with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis with no treatment (TNBS group), the group with TNBS-induced colitis treated with 3-[(dodecylthiocarbonyl)-methyl]-glutarimide (DTCM-G; an activator protein-1 inhibitor) (DTCM-G group), and the group with TNBS-induced colitis treated with dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ; a nuclear factor-κB inhibitor) treatment (DHMEQ group)...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757760/ffa2-and-ffa3-in-metabolic-regulation
#10
Cong Tang, Stefan Offermanns
The short-chain fatty acid receptors FFA2 (GPR43) and FFA3 (GPR41) are activated by acetate, propionate, and butyrate. These ligands are produced by bacteria in the gut. In addition, the body itself can in particular produce acetate, and acetate plasma levels have been shown to be increased, e.g., in diabetic patients or during periods of starvation. FFA2 and FFA3 are both expressed by enteroendocrine cells and pancreatic β-cells. In addition, FFA2 is found on immune cells and adipocytes, whereas FFA3 is expressed by some peripheral neurons...
October 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735854/effects-of-food-components-that-activate-trpa1-receptors-on-mucosal-ion-transport-in-the-mouse-intestine
#11
Linda J Fothergill, Brid Callaghan, Leni R Rivera, TinaMarie Lieu, Daniel P Poole, Hyun-Jung Cho, David M Bravo, John B Furness
TRPA1 is a ligand-activated cation channel found in the intestine and other tissues. Components of food that stimulate TRPA1 receptors (phytonutrients) include allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde and linalool, but these may also act at other receptors. Cells lining the intestinal mucosa are immunoreactive for TRPA1 and Trpa1 mRNA occurs in mucosal extracts, suggesting that the TRPA1 receptor is the target for these agonists. However, in situ hybridisation reveals Trpa1 expression in 5-HT containing enteroendocrine cells, not enterocytes...
October 10, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729552/impaired-coordination-between-signaling-pathways-is-revealed-in-human-colorectal-cancer-using-single-cell-mass-cytometry-of-archival-tissue-blocks
#12
Alan J Simmons, Cherié R Scurrah, Eliot T McKinley, Charles A Herring, Jonathan M Irish, M Kay Washington, Robert J Coffey, Ken S Lau
Cellular heterogeneity poses a substantial challenge to understanding tissue-level phenotypes and confounds conventional bulk analyses. To analyze signaling at the single-cell level in human tissues, we applied mass cytometry using cytometry time of flight to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) normal and diseased intestinal specimens. This technique, called FFPE-DISSECT (disaggregation for intracellular signaling in single epithelial cells from tissue), is a single-cell approach to characterizing signaling states in embedded tissue samples...
October 11, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689358/allatostatin-a-signalling-in-drosophila-regulates-feeding-and-sleep-and-is-modulated-by-pdf
#13
Jiangtian Chen, Wencke Reiher, Christiane Hermann-Luibl, Azza Sellami, Paola Cognigni, Shu Kondo, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster, Jan A Veenstra, Christian Wegener
Feeding and sleep are fundamental behaviours with significant interconnections and cross-modulations. The circadian system and peptidergic signals are important components of this modulation, but still little is known about the mechanisms and networks by which they interact to regulate feeding and sleep. We show that specific thermogenetic activation of peptidergic Allatostatin A (AstA)-expressing PLP neurons and enteroendocrine cells reduces feeding and promotes sleep in the fruit fly Drosophila. The effects of AstA cell activation are mediated by AstA peptides with receptors homolog to galanin receptors subserving similar and apparently conserved functions in vertebrates...
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667315/calcium-sensing-receptor-and-transient-receptor-ankyrin-1-mediate-emesis-induction-by-deoxynivalenol-vomitoxin
#14
Wenda Wu, Hui-Ren Zhou, Steven J Bursian, Jane E Link, James J Pestka
The common foodborne mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) can negatively impact animal and human health by causing food refusal and vomiting. Gut enteroendocrine cells (EECs) secrete hormones that mediate DON's anorectic and emetic effects. In prior work utilizing a cloned EEC model, our laboratory discovered that DON-induced activation of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G-coupled protein receptor (GPCR), and transient receptor ankyrin-1 (TRPA1), a transient receptor potential (TRP) channel, drives Ca(2+)-mediated hormone secretion...
September 25, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664588/influence-of-glucagon-like-peptide-2-on-energy-homeostasis
#15
REVIEW
Sara Baldassano, Antonella Amato, Flavia Mulè
Glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a gastrointestinal hormone released from enteroendocrine L-type cells together with glucagon like peptide-1 in response to dietary nutrients. GLP-2 acts through a specific receptor, the GLP-2 receptor, mainly located in the gut and in the brain. Classically, GLP-2 is considered a trophic hormone involved in the maintenance of intestinal epithelial morphology and function. This role has been targeted for therapies promoting repair and adaptive growth of the intestinal mucosa...
December 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630114/glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-its-class-b-g-protein-coupled-receptors-a-long-march-to-therapeutic-successes
#16
REVIEW
Chris de Graaf, Dan Donnelly, Denise Wootten, Jesper Lau, Patrick M Sexton, Laurence J Miller, Jung-Mo Ahn, Jiayu Liao, Madeleine M Fletcher, Dehua Yang, Alastair J H Brown, Caihong Zhou, Jiejie Deng, Ming-Wei Wang
The glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a class B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that mediates the action of GLP-1, a peptide hormone secreted from three major tissues in humans, enteroendocrine L cells in the distal intestine, α cells in the pancreas, and the central nervous system, which exerts important actions useful in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity, including glucose homeostasis and regulation of gastric motility and food intake. Peptidic analogs of GLP-1 have been successfully developed with enhanced bioavailability and pharmacological activity...
October 2016: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617198/microbial-regulation-of-glp-1-and-l-cell-biology
#17
REVIEW
Thomas U Greiner, Fredrik Bäckhed
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota is associated with several of metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes and affects host physiology through distinct mechanisms. The microbiota produces a vast array of metabolites that signal to host cells in the intestine as well as in more distal organs. SCOPE OF REVIEW: Enteroendocrine cells acts as 'chemo sensors' of the intestinal milieu by expressing a large number of receptors, which respond to different metabolites and nutrients, and signal to host by a wide variety of hormones...
September 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609770/chemical-and-molecular-factors-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-current-knowledge-challenges-and-unanswered-questions
#18
REVIEW
Michael Camilleri, Ibironke Oduyebo, Houssam Halawi
Several chemical and molecular factors in the intestine are reported to be altered and to have a potentially significant role in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), particularly in IBS with diarrhea. These include bile acids; short-chain fatty acids; mucosal barrier proteins; mast cell products such as histamine, proteases, and tryptase; enteroendocrine cell products; and mucosal mRNAs, proteins, and microRNAs. This article reviews the current knowledge and unanswered questions in the pathobiology of the chemical and molecular factors in IBS...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597736/neuroendocrine-peptide-mechanisms-controlling-intestinal-epithelial-function
#19
Helen M Cox
Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) contain different combinations of hormones, which are released following stimulation of nutrient receptors that are selectively expressed by these cells. This chemosensation varies according to the intestinal area and species of interest, and responses to meals are rapidly modified following bariatric surgery. Such surgically-induced gastrointestinal (GI) changes highlight considerable enteroplasticity, however our understanding of even the acute physiological control and consequences of neuroendocrine peptide release is still under-developed...
September 3, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588061/dietary-guidance-and-ileal-enteroendocrine-cells-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#20
Tarek Mazzawi, Magdy El-Salhy
The enteroendocrine cells of the ileum are stimulated by the luminal contents to release specific hormones that regulate its functions. The density of ileal enteroendocrine cells is abnormal in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and the majority of patients with IBS associate their symptoms to the consumption of certain foodstuffs. The present study investigated the effect of dietary guidance on the enteroendocrine cells of the ileum in 11 patients with IBS. A total of 10 control subjects were also included...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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