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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776704/cerebellar-peduncle-injury-predicts-motor-impairments-in-preterm-infants-a-quantitative-tractography-study-at-term-equivalent-age
#1
Tatsuji Hasegawa, Kei Yamada, Takenori Tozawa, Tomohiro Chiyonobu, Sachiko Tokuda, Akira Nishimura, Hajime Hosoi, Masafumi Morimoto
PURPOSE: Cerebellar injury is well established as an important finding in preterm infants with cerebral palsy (CP). In this study, we investigated associations between injury to the cerebellar peduncles and motor impairments in preterm infants using quantitative tractography at term-equivalent age, which represents an early phase before the onset of motor impairments. METHODS: We studied 64 preterm infants who were born at <33 weeks gestational age. These infants were divided into three groups: CP, Non-CP (defined as infants with periventricular leukomalacia but having normal motor function), and a Normal group...
May 15, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775133/preservation-of-electrophysiological-functional-connectivity-after-partial-corpus-callosotomy-case-report
#2
Kaitlyn Casimo, Fabio Grassia, Sandra L Poliachik, Edward Novotny, Andrew Poliakov, Jeffrey G Ojemann
Prior studies of functional connectivity following callosotomy have disagreed in the observed effects on interhemispheric functional connectivity. These connectivity studies, in multiple electrophysiological methods and functional MRI, have found conflicting reductions in connectivity or patterns resembling typical individuals. The authors examined a case of partial anterior corpus callosum connection, where pairs of bilateral electrocorticographic electrodes had been placed over homologous regions in the left and right hemispheres...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774379/-agenesis-of-the-corpus-callosum
#3
REVIEW
J M Lieb, F J Ahlhelm
CLINICAL ISSUE: Agenesis of the corpus callosum is reported to have an incidence of about 1:4000 live births. In 30-45% of cases, genetic etiologies can be identified, e. g., 10% chromosomal anomalies and 20-35% genetic syndromes. Environmental factors like fetal alcohol syndrome are also known to be prone to callosal agenesis. Callosal agenesis can be complete or partial and can be isolated or associated with other central nervous system (CNS) anomalies (e. g., cortical developmental disorders, callosal lipoma, intracranial cysts) or extra-CNS anomalies (e...
May 17, 2018: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773299/diffusion-mri-in-acute-nervous-system-injury
#4
Matthew D Budde, Nathan P Skinner
Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and related techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are uniquely sensitive to the microstructure of the brain and spinal cord. In the acute aftermath of nervous system injury, for example, DWI reveals changes caused by injury that remains invisible on other MRI contrasts such as T2 -weighted imaging. This ability has led to a demonstrated clinical utility in cerebral ischemia. However, despite strong promise in preclinical models and research settings, DWI has not been as readily adopted for other acute injuries such as traumatic spinal cord, brain, or peripheral nerve injury...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772956/lumbar-muscle-structure-predicts-operational-postures-in-active-duty-marines
#5
David B Berry, Bahar Shahidi, Ana E Rodríguez-Soto, Jan M Hughes-Austin, Karen R Kelly, Samuel R Ward
Study Design Cross-sectional. Background The relationship between lumbar spine posture and muscle structure is not well understood. Objectives Investigate the predictive capacity of muscle structure on lumbar spine posture in active duty Marines. Methods Fouty-three Marines were scanned using an upright magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner while standing unloaded and standing, sitting, and prone on elbows with body armor. Cobb, horizontal, and sacral angles were measured. Marines were then scanned unloaded in supine using a supine MRI scanner...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770735/the-diagnostic-value-of-using-combined-mr-diffusion-parameters-to-differentiate-between-low-and-high-grade-meningioma
#6
Kerim Aslan, Hediye Pinar Gunbey, Leman Tomak, Lutfi Incesu
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether the combined use of MR diffusion parameters [Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD)] could provide a more accurate diagnosis in differentiating between low-grade and atypical/anaplastic (high-grade) meningioma. METHODS: Pathologically proven 45 meningioma patients [32 low-grade, 13 high-grade (11 atypical and 2 anaplastic)] who had received DTI before surgery were assessed retrospectively by 2 independent observers...
May 17, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769375/baseline-nawm-structural-integrity-and-cbf-predict-periventricular-wmh-expansion-over-time
#7
Nutta-On Promjunyakul, Hiroko H Dodge, David Lahna, Erin L Boespflug, Jeffrey A Kaye, William D Rooney, Lisa C Silbert
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe and compare baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) and microstructural characteristics of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) within the vulnerable periventricular white matter hyperintensity (PVWMH) penumbra region in predicting white matter hyperintensity (WMH) growth over time. METHODS: Fifty-two patients, aged 82.8 years, underwent serial brain MRI, including pulsed arterial spin labeling and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). New WMH and persistent NAWM voxels in relation to WMH penumbra at follow-up were identified...
May 16, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768273/subcaudate-tractotomy-white-matter-anatomy-and-variability-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#8
Kartik D Bhatia, Luke A Henderson, Eugene Hsu, Mark Yim
BACKGROUND: Subcaudate tractotomy is a functional ablative procedure performed for treatment-resistant psychiatric disease, targeting the white matter tracts ventral to the head of the caudate nucleus. The white matter anatomy of this region has extensive interindividual variability, and this is thought to impact upon the treatment response to ablative and deep brain stimulation procedures. OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess in detail the white matter tract anatomy and topographic variability underlying subcaudate tractotomy...
May 16, 2018: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766355/early-functional-mri-activation-predicts-motor-outcome-after-ischemic-stroke-a-longitudinal-multimodal-study
#9
Juan Du, Fang Yang, Zhiqiang Zhang, Jingze Hu, Qiang Xu, Jianping Hu, Fanyong Zeng, Guangming Lu, Xinfeng Liu
An accurate prediction of long term outcome after stroke is urgently required to provide early individualized neurorehabilitation. This study aimed to examine the added value of early neuroimaging measures and identify the best approaches for predicting motor outcome after stroke. This prospective study involved 34 first-ever ischemic stroke patients (time since stroke: 1-14 days) with upper limb impairment. All patients underwent baseline multimodal assessments that included clinical (age, motor impairment), neurophysiological (motor-evoked potentials, MEP) and neuroimaging (diffusion tensor imaging and motor task-based fMRI) measures, and also underwent reassessment 3 months after stroke...
May 15, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765059/postnatal-microstructural-developmental-trajectory-of-corpus-callosum-subregions-and-relationship-to-clinical-factors-in-very-preterm-infants
#10
Radhika Teli, Margaret Hay, Alexa Hershey, Manoj Kumar, Han Yin, Nehal A Parikh
Our objectives were to define the microstructural developmental trajectory of six corpus callosum subregions and identify perinatal clinical factors that influence early development of these subregions in very preterm infants. We performed a longitudinal cohort study of very preterm infants (32 weeks gestational age or younger) (N = 36) who underwent structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging serially at four time points - before 32, 32, 38, and 52 weeks postmenstrual age. We divided the corpus callosum into six subregions, performed probabilistic tractography, and used linear mixed effects models to evaluate the influence of antecedent clinical factors on its microstructural growth trajectory...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765024/diffusion-markers-of-dendritic-density-and-arborization-in-gray-matter-predict-differences-in-intelligence
#11
Erhan Genç, Christoph Fraenz, Caroline Schlüter, Patrick Friedrich, Rüdiger Hossiep, Manuel C Voelkle, Josef M Ling, Onur Güntürkün, Rex E Jung
Previous research has demonstrated that individuals with higher intelligence are more likely to have larger gray matter volume in brain areas predominantly located in parieto-frontal regions. These findings were usually interpreted to mean that individuals with more cortical brain volume possess more neurons and thus exhibit more computational capacity during reasoning. In addition, neuroimaging studies have shown that intelligent individuals, despite their larger brains, tend to exhibit lower rates of brain activity during reasoning...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764568/-effect-of-early-application-of-recombinant-human-erythropoietin-on-white-matter-development-in-preterm-infants
#12
Shu-Shuo Yang, Fa-Lin Xu, Hui-Qing Cheng, Hao-Ran Xu, Lin Yang, Jing-Yue Xing, Lin Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of early application of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) on white matter development in preterm infants using fractional anisotropy (FA) of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: A total of 81 preterm infants with gestational age &le;32 weeks, birth weight <1 500 g, and hospitalization within 24 hours after birth were randomly divided into rhEPO group (42 infants) and control group (39 infants)...
May 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764033/-the-combined-application-of-magnetic-resonance-dti-and-3d-pcasl-in-differential-diagnosis-of-hyper-acute-and-acute-ischemic-cerebral-infarction
#13
Z Y Dai, F Chen, L Z Yao, C S Dong, H C Shi, P L Pan, Y Liu, Z P Zhang
Objective: To explore the clinical value of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) combined with 3D pseudo continuous arterial spin labeling (3D-pcASL) perfusion imaging in differential diagnosis of hyper-acute and acute ischemic cerebral infarction. Methods: A total of 42 patients with confirmed unilateral ischemic cerebral infarction from February 2015 to October 2017 of Affiliated Yancheng Hospital of Southeast University Medical College were collected. DTI and 3D-pcASL images of hyper-acute (14 patients, group A) and acute (28 patients, group B) ischemic cerebral infarction were retrospectively analyzed...
May 8, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763453/anisotropic-conductivity-tensor-imaging-for-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-using-magnetic-resonance-diffusion-tensor-imaging-mr-dti
#14
Mun Bae Lee, Hyung Joong Kim, Eung Je Woo, Oh In Kwon
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a widely used non-invasive brain stimulation technique by applying low-frequency weak direct current via electrodes attached on the head. The tDCS using a fixed current between 1 and 2 mA has relied on computational modelings to achieve optimal stimulation effects. Recently, by measuring the tDCS current induced magnetic field using an MRI scanner, the internal current pathway has been successfully recovered. However, up to now, there is no technique to visualize electrical properties including the electrical anisotropic conductivity, effective extracellular ion-concentration, and electric field using only the tDCS current in-vivo...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761954/-research-on-brain-white-matter-network-in-cerebral-palsy-infant
#15
Jun Li, Cheng Yang, Yuanjun Wang, Shengdong Nie
Present study used diffusion tensor image and tractography to construct brain white matter networks of 15 cerebral palsy infants and 30 healthy infants that matched for age and gender. After white matter network analysis, we found that both cerebral palsy and healthy infants had a small-world topology in white matter network, but cerebral palsy infants exhibited abnormal topological organization: increased shortest path length but decreased normalize clustering coefficient, global efficiency and local efficiency...
October 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761414/spatially-resolved-kinetics-of-skeletal-muscle-exercise-response-and-recovery-with-multiple-echo-diffusion-tensor-imaging-mediti-a-feasibility-study
#16
E E Sigmund, S H Baete, K Patel, D Wang, D Stoffel, R Otazo, P Parasoglou, J Bencardino
OBJECTIVES: We describe measurement of skeletal muscle kinetics with multiple echo diffusion tensor imaging (MEDITI). This approach allows characterization of the microstructural dynamics in healthy and pathologic muscle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a Siemens 3-T Skyra scanner, MEDITI was used to collect dynamic DTI with a combination of rapid diffusion encoding, radial imaging, and compressed sensing reconstruction in a multi-compartment agarose gel rotation phantom and within in vivo calf muscle...
May 14, 2018: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761003/the-asymmetry-of-neural-symptoms-in-wilson-s-disease-patients-detecting-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging-resting-state-functional-mri-and-susceptibility-weighted-imaging
#17
Xiang-Xue Zhou, Xun-Hua Li, Ding-Bang Chen, Chao Wu, Li Feng, Jian-Ping Chu, Zhi-Yun Yang, Xin-Bei Li, Haolin Qin, Gui-Dian Li, Hai-Wei Huang, Ying-Ying Liang, Xiu-Ling Liang
Objective: To investigate the cause of the motor asymmetry in Wilson's disease (WD) patients using functional MRI. Methods: Fifty patients with WD and 20 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Neurological symptoms were scored using the modified Young Scale. All study subjects underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) of the brain. Six regions of interest (ROI) were chosen. Fiber volumes between ROIs on DTI, corrected phase (CP) values on SWI, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), and regional homogeneity (REHO) values on rs-fMRI were determined...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760644/an-algorithm-for-preclinical-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Tapan K Khan
Almost all Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutic trials have failed in recent years. One of the main reasons for failure is due to designing the disease-modifying clinical trials at the advanced stage of the disease when irreversible brain damage has already occurred. Diagnosis of the preclinical stage of AD and therapeutic intervention at this phase, with a perfect target, are key points to slowing the progression of the disease. Various AD biomarkers hold enormous promise for identifying individuals with preclinical AD and predicting the development of AD dementia in the future, but no single AD biomarker has the capability to distinguish the AD preclinical stage...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758374/age-and-alzheimer-s-pathology-disrupt-default-mode-network-functioning-via-alterations-in-white-matter-microstructure-but-not-hyperintensities
#19
Christopher A Brown, Yang Jiang, Charles D Smith, Brian T Gold
The default mode network (DMN) comprises defined brain regions contributing to internally-directed thought processes. Reductions in task-induced deactivation in the DMN have been associated with increasing age and poorer executive task performance, but factors underlying these functional changes remain unclear. We investigated contributions of white matter (WM) microstructure, WM hyperintensities (WMH) and Alzheimer's pathology to age-related alterations in DMN function. Thirty-five cognitively normal older adults and 29 younger adults underwent working memory task fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging...
April 19, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758101/model-based-reconstruction-for-simultaneous-multislice-and-parallel-imaging-accelerated-multishot-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#20
Zijing Dong, Erpeng Dai, Fuyixue Wang, Zhe Zhang, Xiaodong Ma, Chun Yuan, Hua Guo
PURPOSE: Multishot interleaved echo-planar imaging (iEPI) can achieve higher image resolution than single-shot EPI for diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI), but its application is limited by the prolonged acquisition time. To reduce the acquisition time, a novel model-based reconstruction for simultaneous multislice (SMS) and parallel imaging (PI) accelerated iEPI DTI is proposed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DTI datasets acquired by iEPI with SMS and PI acceleration can be regarded as 3D k-space data, which is undersampled along both the slice and phase encoding directions...
May 14, 2018: Medical Physics
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