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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143980/white-matter-maturation-during-12-months-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#1
K Krakauer, M Nordentoft, B Y Glenthøj, J M Raghava, D Nordholm, L Randers, L B Glenthøj, B H Ebdrup, E Rostrup
OBJECTIVE: The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of psychosis suggests that disrupted white matter (WM) maturation underlies disease onset. In this longitudinal study, we investigated WM connectivity and compared WM changes between individuals at ultra-high-risk for psychosis (UHR) and healthy controls (HCs). METHOD: Thirty UHR individuals and 23 HCs underwent MR diffusion tensor imaging before and after 12 months of non-manualized standard care. Positive and negative symptoms and level of functioning were assessed...
November 16, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141511/a-multimodal-mri-study-of-recovery-of-consciousness-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-preliminary-results
#2
Ang Yang, Xue Hong Xiao, Zhong Hua Liu, Zhi Long Wan, Ze Yan Wang
Accurate and reliable assessment of the conscious state of patients with severe TBI is vital for their future management. The purpose of the present study is to find an effective and accurate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method for predicting recovery of consciousness in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Multimodal MR techniques, including structural MRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), were used to evaluate brain damage in 58 patients with severe TBI...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140731/recovery-of-an-injured-cingulum-concurrent-with-improvement-of-short-term-memory-in-a-patient-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Sung Ho Jang, Seong Ho Kim, Jeong Pyo Seo
OBJECTIVES: We reported on a patient with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) who showed recovery of an injured cingulum concurrent with improvement of short-term memory, which was demonstrated on follow-up diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). METHODS: A 55-year-old male patient suffered head trauma resulting from falling from approximately 2 m while working at a construction site. The patient showed mild memory impairment (especially short-term memory impairment) at 3 months after onset: Memory Assessment Scale (global memory: 95 (37%ile), short-term memory: 75 (5%ile), verbal memory: 80 (9%ile) and visual memory: 112 (79%ile))...
November 15, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137029/neural-reorganization-between-injured-cingula-and-the-brainstem-cholinergic-nuclei-in-a-patient-with-cerebral-concussion-a-case-report
#4
Sung Ho Jang, Young Hyeon Kwon
RATIONALE: We report on a patient who showed neural reorganization between injured cingula and the brainstem cholinergic nuclei following cerebral concussion. PATIENT CONCERNS: The main concern of the patient is memory impairment. DIAGNOSES: Cerebral concussion. OUTCOMES: When she visited our hospital at 2 years after onset, cognitive function was evaluated using 2 scales; the Wechsler Intelligence Scale, and the Seoul neuropsychological screening battery: total IQ 97, verbal immediate recall 5...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132048/brain-white-matter-structure-and-language-ability-in-preschool-aged-children
#5
Matthew Walton, Deborah Dewey, Catherine Lebel
Brain alterations are associated with reading and language difficulties in older children, but little research has investigated relationships between early language skills and brain white matter structure during the preschool period. We studied 68 children aged 3.0-5.6 years who underwent diffusion tensor imaging and participated in assessments of Phonological Processing and Speeded Naming. Tract-based spatial statistics and tractography revealed relationships between Phonological Processing and diffusion parameters in bilateral ventral white matter pathways and the corpus callosum...
November 10, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131075/the-cerebellar-cerebral-microstructure-is-disrupted-at-multiple-sites-in-very-preterm-infants-with-cerebellar-haemorrhage
#6
Vera Neubauer, Tanja Djurdjevic, Elke Griesmaier, Marlene Biermayr, Elke Ruth Gizewski, Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have prompted reconsideration of the anatomical correlates of adverse outcomes in preterm infants. The importance of the contribution made by the cerebellum is now increasingly appreciated. The effect of cerebellar haemorrhage (CBH) on the microstructure of the cerebellar-cerebral circuit is largely unexplored. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of CBH on the microstructure of cerebellar-cerebral connections in preterm infants aged <32 gestational weeks...
November 9, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130824/longitudinal-structural-and-functional-differences-between-proportional-and-poor-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#7
Adrian G Guggisberg, Pierre Nicolo, Leonardo G Cohen, Armin Schnider, Ethan R Buch
BACKGROUND: Evolution of motor function during the first months after stroke is stereotypically bifurcated, consisting of either recovery to about 70% of maximum possible improvement ("proportional recovery, PROP") or in little to no improvement ("poor recovery, POOR"). There is currently no evidence that any rehabilitation treatment will prevent POOR and favor PROP. OBJECTIVE: To perform a longitudinal and multimodal assessment of functional and structural changes in brain organization associated with PROP...
November 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130404/differences-in-neural-pathways-are-related-to-the-short-or-long-term-benefits-of-constraint-induced-movement-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-stroke-and-hemiparesis-a-pilot-cohort-study
#8
Takashi Takebayashi, Kohei Marumoto, Kayoko Takahashi, Kazuhisa Domen
Background No previous studies have determined how the post-stroke integrity of non-corticospinal neural pathways relates to the efficacy of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT). Objectives We aimed to clarify the relationship between several non-corticospinal neural pathway integrities and the short- and long-term benefits of CIMT. Methods This was a pilot cohort study (UMIN registration number: R00027136UMIN000023566), for which we enrolled 13 patients with chronic stroke and hemiparesis who had undergone CIMT...
November 13, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129521/diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-a-patient-with-adult-onset-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#9
Hidehiro Ishikawa, Atsushi Niwa, Masaru Asahi, Keita Matsuura, Satoshi Masuzugawa, Yo Niida, Masayuki Maeda, Mineo Kondo, Hidekazu Tomimoto
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1 or TSC2 is mutated in most TSC patients. TSC2 mutations are more frequently associated with worse outcomes, earlier age at seizure onset, more severe intellectual disability, and higher tuber load than TSC1. The degree of white matter involvement is thought to be associated with the severity of neurological impairment. At present, genotype-phenotype correlations and relationship between tuber burden and neurological disability in TSC are debatable. We presented a 43-year-old patient with TSC2 mutation, whose symptom was only incomplete quadrantic visual field deficit in spite of multiple brain tubers...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128446/disrupted-focal-white-matter-integrity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-voxel-based-meta-analysis-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-studies
#10
Xin Di, Azeezat Azeez, Xiaobo Li, Emad Haque, Bharat B Biswal
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a mental disorder that has long been considered to result from brain underconnectivity. However, volumetric analysis of structural MRI data has failed to find consistent white matter alterations in patients with ASD. The present study aims to examine whether there are consistent focal white matter alterations as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in individuals with ASD compared with typically developing (TD) individuals. METHOD: Coordinate-based meta-analysis was performed on 14 studies that reported fractional anisotropy (FA) alterations between individuals with ASD and TD individuals...
November 8, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127272/structural-integrity-of-normal-appearing-white-matter-and-sex-specific-outcomes-after-acute-ischemic-stroke
#11
Mark R Etherton, Ona Wu, Pedro Cougo, Anne-Katrin Giese, Lisa Cloonan, Kaitlin M Fitzpatrick, Allison S Kanakis, Gregoire Boulouis, Hasan H Karadeli, Arne Lauer, Jonathan Rosand, Karen L Furie, Natalia S Rost
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Women have worse poststroke outcomes than men. We evaluated sex-specific clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of white matter in association with functional recovery after acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of acute ischemic stroke patients with admission brain MRI and 3- to 6-month modified Rankin Scale score. White matter hyperintensity and acute infarct volume were quantified on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion tensor imaging MRI, respectively...
November 10, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126888/single-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-produces-progressive-pathology-with-ongoing-contralateral-white-matter-damage-one-year-after-injury
#12
Francesca Pischiutta, Edoardo Micotti, Jennifer R Hay, Ines Marongiu, Eliana Sammali, Daniele Tolomeo, Gloria Vegliante, Nino Stocchetti, Gianluigi Forloni, Maria-Grazia De Simoni, William Stewart, Elisa R Zanier
There is increasing recognition that traumatic brain injury (TBI) may initiate long-term neurodegenerative processes, particularly chronic traumatic encephalopathy. However, insight into the mechanisms transforming an initial biomechanical injury into a neurodegenerative process remain elusive, partly as a consequence of the paucity of informative pre-clinical models. This study shows the functional, whole brain imaging and neuropathological consequences at up to one year survival from single severe TBI by controlled cortical impact in mice...
November 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126882/the-role-of-mri-dti-in-predicting-pain-related-to-endometriosis-a-preliminary-study
#13
Maria Grazia Porpora, Valeria Vinci, Corrado De Vito, Giuseppe Migliara, Emanuela Anastasi, Adele Ticino, Serena Resta, Carlo Catalano, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici, Lucia Manganaro
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sacral nerve root features by the means of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Diffusion Tensor Imaging (MRI-DTI) tractography in women with endometriosis and /or adenomyosis and to analyze the correlation between DTI abnormalities, pain symptoms, and endometriotic lesions found at surgery. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, observational study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2) SETTING: University hospital PATIENTS: 76 women with clinical suspicion of endometriosis ...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126704/decreased-neurite-density-within-frontostriatal-networks-is-associated-with-executive-dysfunction-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#14
Anny Reyes, Vedang S Uttarwar, Yu-Hsuan A Chang, Akshara R Balachandra, Chris J Pung, Donald J Hagler, Briana M Paul, Carrie R McDonald
OBJECTIVE: Executive dysfunction is observed in a sizable number of patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The frontostriatal network has been proposed to play a significant role in executive functioning, however, because of the complex architecture of these tracts, it is difficult to generate measures of fiber tract microstructure using standard diffusion tensor imaging. To examine the association between frontostriatal network compromise and executive dysfunction in TLE, we applied an advanced, multishell diffusion model, restriction spectrum imaging (RSI), that isolates measures of intraaxonal diffusion and may provide better estimates of fiber tract compromise in TLE...
November 8, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126669/what-can-dti-tell-about-early-cognitive-impairment-differentiation-between-mci-subtypes-and-healthy-controls-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#15
Gyula Gyebnár, Ádám Szabó, Enikő Sirály, Zsuzsanna Fodor, Anna Sákovics, Pál Salacz, Zoltán Hidasi, Éva Csibri, Gábor Rudas, Lajos R Kozák, Gábor Csukly
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) gained a lot of interest recently, especially that the conversion rate to Alzheimer Disease (AD) in the amnestic subtype (aMCI) is higher than in the non-amnestic subtype (naMCI). We aimed to determine whether and how diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) using the diffusion tensor model (DTI) can differentiate MCI subtypes from healthy subjects. High resolution 3D T1W and DWI images of patients (aMCI, n = 18; naMCI, n = 20; according to Petersen criteria) and controls (n = 27) were acquired at 3T and processed using ExploreDTI and SPM...
October 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126604/zonal-variation-of-mri-measurable-parameters-classifies-cartilage-degradation
#16
Allison K M Fleck, Uwe Kruger, Kyrsten Carlson, Caitlin Waltz, Scott A McCallum, X Lucas Lu, Leo Q Wan
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease resulting in the deterioration of articular cartilage, a tissue with minimal ability to self-repair. Early diagnosis of OA with non-invasive imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could provide an opportunity to intervene and slow or reverse this degeneration process. This study examines the classification of degradation states using MRI measurements. Enzymatic degradation was used to specifically target proteoglycans alone, collagen alone and both cartilage components sequentially...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125694/impaired-long-contact-white-matter-fibers-integrity-is-related-to-depression-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Jia-Yong Wu, Yang Zhang, Wen-Bo Wu, Gang Hu, Yun Xu
AIMS: Depression is one of the most common nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). But the pathogenesis is still unclear. Studies have shown that depression in PD is closely related to the white matter abnormalities, but the number of studies is still very small and lack of whole brain white matter lesions study. METHODS: In this study, we investigated whole brain white matter integrity in 31 depressed PD patients and 37 nondepressed PD patients by diffusion tensor imaging...
November 10, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123476/multi-scale-computational-models-for-electrical-brain-stimulation
#18
REVIEW
Hyeon Seo, Sung C Jun
Electrical brain stimulation (EBS) is an appealing method to treat neurological disorders. To achieve optimal stimulation effects and a better understanding of the underlying brain mechanisms, neuroscientists have proposed computational modeling studies for a decade. Recently, multi-scale models that combine a volume conductor head model and multi-compartmental models of cortical neurons have been developed to predict stimulation effects on the macroscopic and microscopic levels more precisely. As the need for better computational models continues to increase, we overview here recent multi-scale modeling studies; we focused on approaches that coupled a simplified or high-resolution volume conductor head model and multi-compartmental models of cortical neurons, and constructed realistic fiber models using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121259/exercise-ameliorates-neurocognitive-impairments-in-a-translational-model-of-pediatric-radiotherapy
#19
Iman Sahnoune, Taeko Inoue, Shelli R Kesler, Shaefali P Rodgers, Omaima M Sabek, Steen E Pedersen, Janice A Zawaski, Katharine H Nelson, M Douglas Ris, J Leigh Leasure, M Waleed Gaber
Background: While CRT is an effective treatment, healthy areas surrounding irradiation sites are negatively affected. Frontal lobe functions involving attention, processing speed and inhibition control are impaired. These deficits appear months to years after CRT and impair quality-of-life. Exercise has been shown to rejuvenate the brain and aid in recovery post-injury through its effects on neurogenesis and cognition. Methods: We developed a juvenile rodent CRT model that reproduces neurocognitive deficits...
November 7, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120940/bilateral-hemispheric-changes-and-language-outcomes-in-chronic-left-hemisphere-stroke
#20
Won Min Lee, Sunghyon Kyeong, Eun Young Park, Hee Seung Yang, Hyunkoo Kang, Dae Hyun Kim
The role of the right hemisphere in recovery of language function after left hemisphere stroke remains unclear. This prospective study aimed to determine the relationship between bilateral hemispheric changes and severity of aphasia in patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke. Twenty-three patients with left hemisphere stroke with aphasia and 10 healthy control patients underwent high-resolution T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging. Patients with aphasia were assessed using the Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery, and severity of aphasia was quantified in terms of aphasia quotient; patients were classified into two groups - the mild-to-moderate and severe groups - on the basis of severity of aphasia...
November 8, 2017: Neuroreport
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