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Pyelonephritis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531289/management-of-bacteriuria-in-veterans-affairs-hospitals
#1
Emily S Spivak, Muriel Burk, Rongping Zhang, Makoto M Jones, Melinda M Neuhauser, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Francesca E Cunningham
Background: Bacteriuria contributes to antibiotic overuse through treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and long durations of therapy for symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs), yet large-scale evaluations of bacteriuria management among inpatients are lacking. Methods: Inpatients with bacteriuria were classified as asymptomatic or symptomatic based on established criteria applied to data collected by manual chart review. We examined frequency of treatment of ASB, factors associated with treatment of ASB, durations of therapy, and frequency of complications including Clostridium difficile infection, readmission and all-cause mortality within 28 days of discharge...
May 20, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525662/imaging-technologies-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-acute-pyelonephritis
#2
Dmitry V Enikeev, Petr Glybochko, Yuriy Alyaev, Mikhail Enikeev, Leonid Rapoport
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing acute pyelonephritis (AP) and renal abscess. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred and seven patients with AP were followed up from 2010 throughout 2015. All the patients were divided into three groups. Group 1 included 113 (54.6%) patients with acute nonobstructive pyelonephritis; group 2 included 33 (15.9%) patients with acute obstructive pyelonephritis; and group 3 included 61 (29...
May 18, 2017: Urologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522934/xanthogranulomatous-pyelonephritis-presenting-as-a-type-iv-renal-cyst
#3
Indraneel Banerjee, Vinay Tomar, Sher Singh Yadav, Nachiket Vyas, Shyam Talreja
A 20-year-old woman presented to our outpatient clinic with a 5-week history of recurrent right lumbar back pain. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan showed a Bosniak class IV renal cyst. She was treated with radical nephrectomy. Histopathology revealed xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis.
2017: Reviews in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509126/gram-negative-sepsis-following-biopsy-of-a-transplant-recipient-with-asymptomatic-allograft-pyelonephritis
#4
Hassan Al-Khayyat, Nigel Toussaint, Steve Holt, Peter Hughes
Pyelonephritis post-renal transplantation is common and in up to 50% of cases can be asymptomatic. Transplant pyelonephritis shares a lot of histopathological features with acute cellular rejection. We present a case of asymptomatic acute graft pyelonephritis where a renal biopsy was complicated by sepsis, and discuss the difficulties in interpretation of renal histology in the setting of transplant pyelonephritis where rejection may also be a possibility, but differentiation is challenging.
May 2017: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509119/serial-sonographic-findings-during-progression-from-acute-pyelonephritis-to-renal-abscess-a-rare-case-report
#5
Masayuki Sato, Shigeru Suzuki, Sorachi Shimada, Shiho Yamamoto, Genya Taketazu, Tokuo Mukai, Mio Taketazu, Hiroshi Sakata, Junichi Oki
Renal abscess, accumulation of infective fluid in the kidney, is a rare pathology. Currently, no reports of the serial imaging changes of acute pyelonephritis (APN) progressing to renal abscess exist. We report clinical and serial sonographic findings of a patient with hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome, a primary immunodeficiency, who developed APN that progressed to renal abscess. Renal ultrasonography revealed that echogenicity of infectious lesions dramatically changed from isoechoic to hyperechoic and to hypoechoic during progression...
May 2017: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507581/long-term-outcomes-in-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease-stage-5-over-the-last-40-years
#6
Dominika Adamczuk, Maria Roszkowska-Blaim
INTRODUCTION: We evaluated outcomes in children with chronic kidney disease stage 5 (CKD 5) treated in the first pediatric dialysis unit in Poland during 1973-2012. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The retrospective analysis included 208 children with CKD 5 undergoing renal replacement therapy (RRT), stratified into four decades of treatment: 1973-1982, 1983-1992, 1993-2002, and 2003-2012. RESULTS: The most common causes of CKD 5 included glomerulonephritis in 27...
April 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507449/perirenal-fat-stranding-is-not-a-powerful-diagnostic-tool-for-acute-pyelonephritis
#7
Hirotaka Fukami, Yoichi Takeuchi, Saeko Kagaya, Yoshie Ojima, Ayako Saito, Hiroyuki Sato, Ken Matsuda, Tasuku Nagasawa
PURPOSE: Pyelonephritis, an upper urinary tract infection, is a serious infection that often requires hospitalization. However, the accurate diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis can be difficult, especially among older individuals who can present with unusual symptoms. Imaging with computed tomography (CT) is not unusual in the diagnosis of pyelonephritis, with some clinicians regarding perirenal fat stranding (PFS) as a characteristic finding. However, the sensitivity and specificity of PFS in diagnosing pyelonephritis are currently unknown...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491170/high-grade-transitional-cell-carcinoma-masquerading-as-a-xanthogranulomatous-pyelonephritis-and-perinephric-abscess
#8
Flavio V Ordones, Krishanu Das, Simon Prowse, Penelope Cohen, Nicholas R Brook
Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGPN) is an atypical long-term pyelonephritis with destruction of renal parenchyma and a long-term inflammatory infiltrate of macrophages. Reported presentations of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) are different. A 73-year-old woman presented with loin pain, prostration, and fever. Computed tomography scan revealed poor cortical enhancement of the kidney, but some of the images bore resemblance to the characteristic "bear's paw" sign, consistent with XGPN with a 7-cm perinephric collection...
June 2017: Radiology case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486675/short-course-versus-long-course-oral-antibiotic-treatment-for-infections-treated-in-outpatient-settings-a-review-of-systematic-reviews
#9
Elizabeth E Dawson-Hahn, Sharon Mickan, Igho Onakpoya, Nia Roberts, Matthew Kronman, Chris C Butler, Matthew J Thompson
Purpose.: To summarize the evidence comparing the effectiveness of short and long courses of oral antibiotics for infections treated in outpatient settings. Methods.: We identified systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials for children and adults with bacterial infections treated in outpatient settings from Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and The Database of Review of Effects. Data were extracted on the primary outcome of clinical resolution and secondary outcomes...
May 9, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479773/acute-leukemia-masquerading-as-xanthogranulomatous-pyelonephritis
#10
Sunirmal Choudhury, Susanta Kumar Das, Dilip Kumar Pal
An 82-year-old man presented with high-grade fever, left flank pain with dysuria. Urine culture revealed the growth of Escherichia coli. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography features were suggestive of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XPN) of the left kidney. Serial hemogram studies revealed markedly raised white cell count with the presence of blast cells. On further evaluation by peripheral blood smears and bone marrow biopsy studies, a background disease setting of acute prolymphocytic leukemia was diagnosed...
April 2017: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477320/controversies-regarding-management-of-vesico-ureteric-reflux
#11
Ramesh Babu, Sujit Chowdhary
The primary goal in the management of a child with urinary tract infection (UTI) is to prevent recurrence of UTI and acquired renal damage. Approximately 15% of children develop renal scarring after a first episode of febrile UTI. Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) is diagnosed in 30-40% of children imaged after first febrile UTI. The 'top-down' approach involving ultrasound and dimercaptosuccinic acid scan (DMSA) first after an appropriate interval following UTI, can help in avoiding voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG), an invasive test with higher radiation exposure...
May 6, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473396/complete-genome-sequence-of-the-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-strain-nu14
#12
Kurosh S Mehershahi, Swaine L Chen
Escherichia coli is the most common bacterium causing urinary tract infections in humans. We report here the complete genome sequence of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain NU14, a clinical pyelonephritis isolate used for studying pathogenesis.
May 4, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473093/acr-appropriateness-criteria-%C3%A2-urinary-tract%C3%A2-infection-child
#13
Boaz K Karmazyn, Adina L Alazraki, Sudha A Anupindi, Molly E Dempsey, Jonathan R Dillman, Scott R Dorfman, Matthew D Garber, Sheila G Moore, Craig A Peters, Henry E Rice, Cynthia K Rigsby, Nabile M Safdar, Stephen F Simoneaux, Andrew T Trout, Sjirk J Westra, Sandra L Wootton-Gorges, Brian D Coley
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in young children and may cause pyelonephritis and renal scarring. Long-term complications from renal scarring are low. The role of imaging is to evaluate for underlying urologic abnormalities and guide treatment. In neonates there is increased risk for underlying urologic abnormalities. Evaluation for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) may be appropriate especially in boys because of higher prevalence of VUR and to exclude posterior urethral valve. In children older than 2 months with first episode of uncomplicated UTI, there is no clear benefit of prophylactic antibiotic...
May 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467725/feasibility-morbidity-and-functional-results-of-supratrigonal-cystectomy-with-augmentation-ileocystoplasty-by-combined-robotic-assisted-laparoscopy-and-mini-laparotomy-approach
#14
François-Xavier Madec, Oussama Hedhli, Marie-Aimée Perrouin-Verbe, Amelie Levesque, Loic LE Normand, Jérôme Rigaud
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the feasibility, morbidity, learning curve and functional results of robotic supratrigonal cystectomy with augmentation ileocystoplasty (RSCAI). MATERIAL AND METHOD: RSCAI was performed in 19 patients between 2012 and 2016. Thirteen patients (66.4%) presented refractory detrusor overactivity (DO) or impaired compliance and 6 patients (31.6%) had painful bladder syndrome. A combined robotic-assisted laparoscopy and mini-laparotomy approach was performed...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464828/analysis-of-patients-with-diabetes-and-complicated-intra-abdominal-infection-or-complicated-urinary-tract-infection-in-phase-3-trials-of-ceftolozane-tazobactam
#15
Myra W Popejoy, Jianmin Long, Jennifer A Huntington
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia are associated with increased susceptibility to bacterial infections and poor treatment outcomes. This post hoc evaluation of the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) and complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) aimed to evaluate baseline characteristics, efficacy, and safety in patients with and without diabetes treated with ceftolozane/tazobactam and comparators. Ceftolozane/tazobactam is an antibacterial with potent activity against Gram-negative pathogens and is approved for the treatment of cIAI (with metronidazole) and cUTI (including pyelonephritis)...
May 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462877/-comparative-study-of-community-acute-kidney-injury-in-hiv-infected-versus-non-infected-persons-experience-of-an-internal-medicine-department-in-abidjan-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#16
Kouamé Hubert Yao, Aristophane Koffi Tanon, Adjoua Delphine Lagou, Serge Didier Konan, Séry Patrick Diopoh, Fatou Meite
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is commonly associated with HIV infection. OBJECTIVES: To describe the profile of AKI in HIV infected versus non-infected persons. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study that was carried out during the study period from January 2010 to December 2015 in the department of nephrology-internal medicine D of Treichville University Hospital (Côte d'Ivoire). RESULTS: The prevalence of HIV infection was 35...
May 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455578/-epidemiology-diagnostics-therapy-prevention-and-management-of-uncomplicated-bacterial-outpatient-acquired-urinary-tract-infections-in-adult-patients-update-2017-of-the-interdisciplinary-awmf-s3-guideline
#17
REVIEW
J Kranz, S Schmidt, C Lebert, L Schneidewind, W Vahlensieck, U Sester, R Fünfstück, S Helbig, W Hofmann, E Hummers, M Kunze, E Kniehl, K Naber, F Mandraka, B Mündner-Hensen, G Schmiemann, F M E Wagenlehner
BACKGROUND: Update of the 2010 published evidence-based S3 guideline on epidemiology, diagnostics, therapy and management of uncomplicated, bacterial, outpatient-acquired urinary tract infections in adult patients. The guideline contains current evidence for the rational use of antimicrobial substances, avoidance of inappropriate use of certain antibiotic classes and development of resistance. METHODOLOGY: The update was created under the leadership of the German Association of Urology (DGU)...
April 28, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444678/pyelonephritis-in-pregnancy-prediction-of-prolonged-hospitalization-and-maternal-morbidity-using-prognostic-scoring-systems
#18
Amy M Valent, Katie Peticca, Alexandra DiMatteo, Shimeka Banks, Ronak Shah, Lindsey Chernicky, Beth Weitz, Casey Armistead, James Hill, Craig Towers, David Lewis, Everett F Magann, Suneet P Chauhan, James W Van Hook
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443241/massive-renal-replacement-lipomatosis-with-foci-of-xanthogranulomatous-pyelonephritis-in-a-horseshoe-kidney
#19
Harutake Sawazaki, Daiji Araki, Kazunori Miyata, Keiichi Ito
Renal replacement lipomatosis (RRL) is a rare condition that occurs at the end of the spectrum of renal tissue replacement by fat. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is a granulomatous inflammation characterized by destruction of renal parenchyma and replacement by lipid-laden macrophages. We present the case of a 75-year-old man who complained of severe anemia 34 years after right nephrolithotomy. Computed tomography revealed a huge low-density mass with renal parenchyma atrophy on the right side of horseshoe kidney...
July 2017: Urology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439032/inactivation-of-transcriptional-regulators-during-within-household-evolution-of-escherichia-coli
#20
Dagmara I Kisiela, Matthew Radey, Sandip Paul, Stephen Porter, Kseniya Polukhina, Veronika Tchesnokova, Sofiya Shevchenko, Diana Chan, Maliha Aziz, Timothy J Johnson, Lance B Price, James R Johnson, Evgeni V Sokurenko
We analyzed the within-household evolution of two household-associated Escherichia coli strains from pandemic clonal group ST131-H30, using isolates recovered from five individuals within two families, each of which had a distinct strain. Family 1's strain was represented by a urine isolate from the index patient (older sister) with recurrent cystitis, and a blood isolate from her younger sister with fatal urosepsis. Family 2's strain was represented by a urine isolate from the index patient (father) with pyelonephritis and renal abscesses, blood and kidney drainage isolates from the daughter with emphysematous pyelonephritis, and urine and fecal isolates from the mother with cystitis...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
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