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Pyelonephritis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108978/treatment-of-complicated-urinary-tract-infection-and-acute-pyelonephritis-by-short-course-intravenous-levofloxacin-750%C3%A2-mg-day-or-conventional-intravenous-oral-levofloxacin-500%C3%A2-mg-day-prospective-open-label-randomized-controlled-multicenter-non-inferiority
#1
Hong Ren, Xiao Li, Zhao-Hui Ni, Jian-Ying Niu, Bin Cao, Jie Xu, Hong Cheng, Xiao-Wen Tu, Ai-Min Ren, Ying Hu, Chang-Ying Xing, Ying-Hong Liu, Yan-Feng Li, Jun Cen, Rong Zhou, Xu-Dong Xu, Xiao-Hui Qiu, Nan Chen
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of short-course intravenous levofloxacin (LVFX) 750 mg with a conventional intravenous/oral regimen of LVFX 500 mg in patients from China with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs) and acute pyelonephritis (APN). METHODS: This was a prospective, open-label, randomized, controlled, multicenter, non-inferiority clinical trial. Patients with cUTI and APN were randomly assigned to a short-course therapy group (intravenous LVFX at750 mg/day for 5 days) or a conventional therapy group (intravenous/oral regimen of LVFX at 500 mg/day for 7-14 days)...
January 20, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101501/classical-presentation-of-acute-pyelonephritis-in-a-case-of-brucellosis
#2
Wadha Alfouzan, Sara Al-Sahali, Hawra'a Sultan, Rita Dhar
Although Brucella species is known to affect almost all organs in humans, renal involvement presenting as acute pyelonephritis remains a rare entity in brucellosis. We report the case of a female patient who presented with symptoms of fever with chills, right loin pain and dysuria in the emergency room. Blood cultures drawn at the time of admission grew Brucella spp., but no organisms were isolated from urine culture although urinalysis data was indicative of urinary tract infection. Empiric therapy with piperacillin/tazobactam plus gentamicin relieved her symptoms...
May 2016: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095017/spectrum-of-xanthogranulomatous-processes-in-the-abdomen-and-pelvis-a-pictorial-review-of-infectious-inflammatory-and-proliferative-responses
#3
Kelsey S Bourm, Christine O Menias, Kamran Ali, Kinan Alhalabi, Khaled M Elsayes
OBJECTIVE: Xanthogranulomatous (XG) processes are rare inflammatory conditions with the characteristic pathologic feature of lipid-laden macrophages or histiocyte cells. Imaging findings are nonspecific and can simulate aggressive neoplastic processes. XG processes can be caused by infection, inflammation, histolytic process, or an inherited lysosomal disorder. XG infectious processes are mainly seen in cholecystitis and pyelonephritis, but several other organs can also be involved. Histiocytic processes can be divided into Langerhans and non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis...
January 17, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091700/computed-tomography-localization-of-the-appendix-in-the-pediatric-population-relative-to-the-lumbar-spine
#4
John Davis, Albert T Roh, Matthew B Petterson, Tammy R Kopelman, Samantha L Matz, Daniel G Gridley, Mary J Connell
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used to evaluate suspected acute appendicitis. Although very effective, CT uses ionizing radiation, exposing patients to an increased risk of cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the potential for decreasing the field of view of the CT (and therefore the dose to the patient) in the evaluation of suspected acute appendicitis in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from 212 consecutive patients who underwent CT for suspected acute appendicitis...
January 14, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091422/emphysematous-pyelonephritis-treated-with-vacuum-sealing-drainage
#5
Hai-Dong Wang, Xiao-Fei Zhu, Xiao Xu, Gui-Zhong Li, Ning Liu, Feng He, Li-Bo Man
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087935/diagnosis-treatment-and-prevention-of-urinary-tract-infection
#6
Paula Pietrucha-Dilanchian, Thomas M Hooton
UTI may involve the lower or upper urinary tract and may be uncomplicated or complicated. The emphasis of this chapter is uncomplicated UTI. The diagnosis of uncomplicated cystitis (bladder infection) and pyelonephritis (kidney infection) is usually easily made based on the clinical presentation, whereas the diagnosis in patients with complicated UTI is often more complex. Thus uncomplicated cystitis is usually manifested by dysuria, frequency and/or urgency without fever, and pyelonephritis is usually manifested by fever and back pain/costovertebral angle tenderness...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076665/carbohydrate-lectin-interactions-an-unexpected-contribution-to-affinity
#7
Giulio Navarra, Pascal Zihlmann, Roman P Jakob, Katia Stangier, Roland C Preston, Said Rabbani, Martin Smiesko, Bea Wagner, Timm Maier, Beat Ernst
Uropathogenic E. coli exploit the PapG-II adhesin for infecting host cells of the kidney; moreover, the expression of PapG-II located at the tip of bacterial pili has been correlated with the onset of pyelonephritis in humans, a potentially life-threatening condition. It was envisaged that the blocking of PapG-II, and thus bacterial adhesion, embodies a viable therapeutic alternative to conventional antibiotic treatment. Within our search for potent PapG-II antagonists, we observed an increase in affinity when tetrasaccharide 1, the natural ligand of PapG-II in human kidneys, was elongated to hexasaccharide 2, although the additional Siaα(2-3)Gal extension is not in direct contact with the lectin...
January 11, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058716/long-term-follow-up-of-trigonoplasty-antireflux-operation
#8
Farzaneh Sharifiaghdas, Nastaran Mahmoudnejad, Amir H Kashi, Mehdi H Ramezani, Behzad Narouie
BACKGROUND: Open trigonoplasty antireflux operation has been associated with promising results. However, its success in controlling reflux has not been evaluated in the long term. METHODS: All patients who underwent trigonoplasty for vesicoureteral reflux by one surgeon from 2004 to 2014 were included. Preoperative evaluations included direct radionuclide cystography (DRNC) or voiding cystourethrography, urine analysis and culture and abdominal sonography. Urodynamic study and cystoscopy was performed in selected patients...
December 28, 2016: Urologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050884/eliciting-renal-tenderness-by-sonopalpation-in-diagnosing-acute-pyelonephritis
#9
Jeremy S Faust, James W Tsung
Diagnosing acute pyelonephritis relies on the combination of historical, physical, and laboratory findings. Costovertebral angle tenderness is important, although its accuracy is unknown. Point-of-care ultrasound-guided palpation (sonopalpation) may aid clinicians in localizing pain to discrete anatomic structures in cases of suspected acute pyelonephritis lacking classic features. We describe three low-to-moderate pre-test probability cases wherein maximal tenderness was elicited by renal sonopalpation, aiding in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis...
December 2017: Critical Ultrasound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043762/the-comeback-of-trimethoprim-in-france
#10
REVIEW
F Caron, V Wehrle, M Etienne
Already used in various countries, trimethoprim (TMP) was withdrawn from the French market in 1990, but should be soon available again. This article reviews the experience of TMP use around the world and its current use in Europe. Label use and guidelines only recommend the use of TMP for the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI). Compared with co-trimoxazole (Co-T), a combination of TMP and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), TMP has (a) a similar resistance rate among Escherichia coli strains (estimated between 10 and 20% in uncomplicated cystitis), (b) a similar clinical efficacy for cystitis prevention and treatment, (c) a lower toxicity (as severe toxicity adverse effects of Co-T come from its sulfonamide component), (d) limited data for the treatment of pyelonephritis and male UTIs, and (e) an important impact on the microbiota...
December 30, 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039378/haemophilus-species-as-a-urinary-tract-pathogen
#11
L Karen Diedrich, Cora L Manby
Haemophilus species, as a urinary tract pathogen, is rarely encountered. Routine urine culture pathogens are well documented to include Enterobacteriaciae, Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Candida spp. Pathogens encountered rarely in this context may include Corynebacterium ureolyticus and nonfermenting gram negative bacilli. This case study involves the finding of Haemophilus influenzae in a urine culture performed on a 4-year-old Caucasian girl and Haemophilus parinfluenzae in a 60-year-old African American man with pyelonephritis...
December 29, 2016: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032258/core-curriculum-illustration-acute-pyelonephritis
#12
Muhammad Mubashir Ramzan, Claire Kalsch Sandstrom
This is the 26th installment of a series that will highlight one case per publication issue from the bank of cases available online as part of the American Society of Emergency Radiology (ASER) educational resources. Our goal is to generate more interest in and use of our online materials. To view more cases online please visit the ASER Core Curriculum and Recommendations for Study online at: http://www.aseronline.org/curriculum/toc.htm .
December 28, 2016: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031194/azithromycin-ciprofloxacin-impregnated-urinary-catheters-avert-bacterial-colonization-biofilm-formation-and-inflammation-in-a-murine-model-of-foreign-body-associated-urinary-tract-infections-caused-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#13
Hina Saini, Anitha Vadekeetil, Sanjay Chhibber, Kusum Harjai
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a multifaceted pathogen causing a variety of biofilm-mediated infections including catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). High prevalence of CAUTIs in hospitals, their clinical manifestations like urethritis, cystitis, pyelonephritis, meningitis, urosepsis, death; and economic challenges underscore the need for management of these infections. Biomaterial modification of urinary catheters with dual drugs seems an interesting approach to combat CAUTIs by inhibiting biofilm...
December 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028578/combination-of-surgical-drainage-and-renal-artery-embolization-an-alternative-treatment-for-xanthogranulomatous-pyelonephritis
#14
Anand Upasani, Alex Barnacle, Derek Roebuck, Abraham Cherian
Conventionally, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is treated with antibiotics and drainage of abscess followed by nephrectomy for definitive treatment. Surgical excision of the affected kidney carries risk of significant complications. An alternative treatment modality is described in the form of embolization of the renal artery to devascularise the renal parenchyma and ablate the renal tissue, thus avoiding a major surgical procedure and the significant risks involved.
December 27, 2016: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018690/multiple-renal-abscesses-due-to-esbl-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-causing-acute-pyelonephritis-and-bacteremia-a-case-report-with-a-good-outcome-no-drainage-required
#15
Abdalla Khalil, Musaad Qurash, Asem Saleh, Rasha Ali, Mohamed Elwakil
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae urinary tract infections are challenging infections with increased mortality, morbidity, and failure of therapy. A 44-year-old Saudi male diabetic patient was seen at the ER of IMC Hospital with features of acute pyelonephritis: fever, burning urine, and left flank pain for three days. He was treated for cystitis at the Endocrine Clinic two weeks prior to his ER visit with nitrofurantoin and levofloxacin orally according to urine culture and sensitivity result...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994929/multimodality-imaging-findings-of-a-renal-aspergilloma
#16
Mesut Bulakçı, Merve Gülbiz Kartal, Erhan Çelenk, Sena Tunçer, Işın Kılıçaslan
BACKGROUND: Renal aspergillosis is a rare infection that usually occurs in persons with a predisposition for this condition. Its differential diagnosis includes primary and metastatic renal malignancies, pyelonephritis and secondary abscess formation, granulomatous disorders, and renal infarction. We aim to stress the role of multimodality imaging and percutaneous biopsy in the diagnosis of this condition. CASE REPORT: We present diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) findings in addition to conventional imaging modalities in a 55-year-old man with secondary renal aspergilloma...
November 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988260/myths-in-the-evaluation-and-management-of-ovarian-torsion
#17
Jennifer J Robertson, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Ovarian torsion is a rare but serious cause of pelvic pain in females. Making the diagnosis is important because misdiagnosis can lead to an ischemic ovary and subsequent infertility. OBJECTIVE: Although all emergency physicians are aware of ovarian torsion, there are several myths regarding its epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment. This article attempts to review some of these myths to improve emergency diagnosis and evaluation. DISCUSSION: Ovarian torsion is not an easy diagnosis to make and it is commonly missed...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986362/acute-focal-bacterial-nephritis-in-a-cohort-of-hospitalized-adult-patients-with-acute-pyelonephritis-assessment-of-risk-factors-and-a-predictive-model
#18
Joaquin Campos-Franco, Cristina Macia, Emilio Huelga, Carla Diaz-Louzao, Francisco Gude, Rosario Alende, Arturo Gonzalez-Quintela
BACKGROUND: Acute focal bacterial nephritis (AFBN) is a complicated form of acute pyelonephritis (APN) characterized by single or multiple areas of localised infection in the kidney without liquefaction or abscess. Studies investigating AFBN in adults are scarce. AIM: The present study was aimed at evaluating the prevalence, associated factors, and presence of atypical clinical and radiological manifestations in adult AFBN patients. Also, we developed a clinical prediction model to evaluate the probability of AFBN in patients with APN...
December 13, 2016: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974344/iliopsoas-abscess-caused-by-chronic-urolithiasis-and-pyelonephritis
#19
Ayami Kawamoto, Ryota Sato, Kuniko Takahashi, Sarah Luthe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
14, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951542/critical-analysis-of-a-series-of-early-inguinal-ureterostomies-are-they-useful-and-how-well-are-they-tolerated
#20
Aurore Bouty, Yan Lefevre, Luke Harper, Antoine Tran, Pierre Vergnes, Eric Dobremez
INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to evaluate the advantages of temporary inguinal ureterostomy in the management of neonates with uropathies and early or recurrent pyelonephritis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent ureterostomies between 1989 and 2012, with specific regards to indications and outcomes. We also performed a survey of parents to evaluate their acceptance of diversion. RESULTS: We included 18 patients (12 primary high-grade vesicoureteral reflux [VUR] and 6 primary obstructive megaureters [MUs])...
December 13, 2016: Urologia Internationalis
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