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Arieh Zaritsky, Avinoam Rabinovitch, Chenli Liu, Conrad L Woldringh
Cell size of bacteria M is related to 3 temporal parameters: chromosome replication time C , period from replication-termination to subsequent division D , and doubling time τ . Steady-state, bacillary cells grow exponentially by extending length L only, but their constant width W is larger at shorter τ 's or longer C 's, in proportion to the number of chromosome replication positions n (= C / τ ), at least in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium . Extending C by thymine limitation of fast-growing thyA mutants result in continuous increase of M , associated with rising W , up to a limit before branching...
December 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Li-Qing Su, Yong-di Wang, Hai-Yan Chi
Objective: To investigate how curcumin affects the glucose and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) rat models, and to explore its effect on the free fatty acid (FFA) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in serum. Methods: Successfully established type 2 DM rats were divided into three groups, i.e. the normal control group, model group and curcumin group, and received the medication for consecutive 8 weeks. Thereafter, we detected the level of fasting blood glucose (FBG), and the blood glucose at 30 min, 60 min and 120 min; besides, we also carried out the insulin tolerance tests to measure the levels of fasting serum insulin (FINS) and blood glucose at 40 min and 90 min; additionally, we also detected the levels of TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, FFA and TNF-α in serum...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Yingfeng Deng, Zhao V Wang, Ruth Gordillo, Yi Zhu, Aktar Ali, Chen Zhang, Xiaoding Wang, Mengle Shao, Zhuzhen Zhang, Puneeth Iyengar, Rana K Gupta, Jay D Horton, Joseph A Hill, Philipp E Scherer
OBJECTIVE: The spliced transcription factor Xbp1 (Xbp1s), a transducer of the unfolded protein response (UPR), regulates lipolysis. Lipolysis is stimulated by fasting when uridine synthesis is also activated in adipocytes. METHODS: Here we have examined the regulatory role Xbp1s in stimulation of uridine biosynthesis in adipocytes and triglyceride mobilization using inducible mouse models. RESULTS: Xbp1s is a key molecule involved in adipocyte uridine biosynthesis and release by activation of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, dihydroorotase (CAD), the rate-limiting enzyme for UMP biosynthesis...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Magdalena Martinez-Losa, Tara E Tracy, Keran Ma, Laure Verret, Alexandra Clemente-Perez, Abdullah S Khan, Inma Cobos, Kaitlyn Ho, Li Gan, Lennart Mucke, Manuel Alvarez-Dolado, Jorge J Palop
Inhibitory interneurons regulate the oscillatory rhythms and network synchrony that are required for cognitive functions and disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Network dysrhythmias in AD and multiple neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with hypofunction of Nav1.1, a voltage-gated sodium channel subunit predominantly expressed in interneurons. We show that Nav1.1-overexpressing, but not wild-type, interneuron transplants derived from the embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) enhance behavior-dependent gamma oscillatory activity, reduce network hypersynchrony, and improve cognitive functions in human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP)-transgenic mice, which simulate key aspects of AD...
March 15, 2018: Neuron
M Migda, M S Migda, B Migda, E Wender-Ozegowska
Metabolic syndrome (MS) and obesity is an important risk factor for fetal complications like excessive fetal growth manifested by large for gestational age (LGA) and macrosomia, which is a consequence of metabolic disturbances present in the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of this prospective observational study is to analyze the relationship between the first trimester biochemical and anthropometric parameters of fetuses with the incidence of their macrosomia and LGA so to early predict such complications in women with symptoms of MS...
December 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
María E Alea-Reyes, Oriol Penon, Paula García Calavia, María J Marín, David A Russell, Lluïsa Pérez-García
HYPOTHESIS: Metalloporphyrins are extensively investigated for their ability to form reactive oxygen species and as potent photosensitisers for use in photodynamic therapy. However, their hydrophobicity generally causes solubility issues concerning in vivo delivery due to lack of distribution and low clearance from the body. Immobilising porphyrins on carriers, such as gold nanoparticles (GNP), can overcome some of these drawbacks. The mode of assembling the porphyrins to the carrier influences the properties of the resulting drug delivery systems...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
P Nishy, Renuka Saroja
Water quality has emerged as a fast-developing research area. Regular assessment of research activity is necessary for the successful R&D promotion. Water quality research work carried out in different countries increased over the years, and the USA ranked first in productivity while India stands in the seventh position in quantity and occupies the ninth position in quality of the research output. India observes a steady growth in the water quality research. Four thousand six hundred sixteen articles from India assessed from the aspect of citations received distributions of source countries, institutes, journals, impact factor, words in the title, author keywords...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
R Roussel, R Ritzel, E Boëlle-Le Corfec, B Balkau, J Rosenstock
AIMS: To explore comparative glycaemic control and hypoglycaemia incidence with insulin degludec 100U/mL (IDeg) or insulin glargine 300U/mL (Gla-300) versus glargine 100U/mL (Gla-100) in trial-level meta-analyses of phase 3a clinical trials including people with type-2 diabetes. METHODS: Meta-analyses of HbA1c , fasting plasma glucose (FPG), average 24h self-measured plasma glucose (SMPG), pre-breakfast SMPG and hypoglycaemia incidence and rate, using data from the BEGIN (IDeg) and EDITION (Gla-300) insulin development programmes, were performed...
February 19, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism
Alexandra J Townsend, Francesco Saccon, Vasco Giovagnetti, Sam Wilson, Petra Ungerer, Alexander V Ruban
Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll fluorescence is the process by which excess light energy is harmlessly dissipated within the photosynthetic membrane. The fastest component of NPQ, known as energy-dependent quenching (qE), occurs within minutes, but the site and mechanism of qE remain of great debate. Here, the chlorophyll fluorescence of Arabidopsis thaliana wild type (WT) plants was compared to mutants lacking all minor antenna complexes (NoM). Upon illumination, NoM exhibits altered chlorophyll fluorescence quenching induction (i...
March 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Qingwei Zuo, Ru Zhao, Jia Liu, Qian Zhao, Lingyun Zhu, Bensi Zhang, Junlong Bi, Guishu Yang, Jianping Liu, Gefen Yin
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) causes acute enteric disease and yellowish watery diarrhea, making piglets fast dehydration to death. PED threatens pig industry and leads to substantial economic losses. After the first reports, PED in Yunnan province, China was again identified in 2013 during an epidemiological survey, with follow-up data showing an overall positive rate of 17.47% during 2013-2017, lower than that in other provinces in China. The complete S gene of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is 4149-4158 bp long...
March 13, 2018: Virus Research
H Fan, S Li, M Lu, G Yin, X Yang, T Lan, L Dai, X Chen, J Li, Y Zhang, A Sirajuddin, P Kellman, A E Arai, S Zhao
AIM: To evaluate the image quality and diagnostic agreement with a head-to-head comparison of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images acquired by the motion-corrected (MOCO) balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) phase sensitivity inversion recovery (PSIR) and conventional segmented fast low angle shot (FLASH) PSIR methods15,16 in a patient cohort with a wide spectrum of cardiovascular disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 59 consecutive patients, signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of the normal myocardium (NM), LGE, and blood pool (BP) were pair-wise compared between the two different sequences...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Line Engelbrechtsen, Yuvaraj Mahendran, Anna Jonsson, Anette Prior Gjesing, Peter E Weeke, Marit E Jørgensen, Kristine Færch, Daniel R Witte, Jens J Holst, Torben Jørgensen, Niels Grarup, Oluf Pedersen, Henrik Vestergaard, Signe Torekov, Jørgen K Kanters, Torben Hansen
BACKGROUND: Patients with long QT syndrome due to rare loss-of-function mutations in the human ether-á-go-go-related gene (hERG) have prolonged QT interval, risk of arrhythmias, increased secretion of insulin and incretins and impaired glucagon response to hypoglycemia. This is caused by a dysfunctional Kv11.1 voltage-gated potassium channel. Based on these findings in patients with rare variants in hERG, we hypothesized that common variants in hERG may also lead to alterations in glucose homeostasis...
March 16, 2018: BMC Genetics
Giovanni Montani, Mariachiara Rizzo, Nakia Carlevaro
We analyze an axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamics configuration, describing the morphology of a purely differentially rotating thin plasma disk, in which linear and nonlinear perturbations are triggered associated with microscopic magnetic structures. We study the evolution of the nonstationary correction in the limit in which the corotation condition (i.e., the dependence of the disk angular velocity on the magnetic flux function) is preserved and the poloidal velocity components are neglected. The main feature we address here is the influence of ideal (finite electron inertia) and collisional (resistivity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity) effects on the behavior of the flux function perturbation and of the associated small-scale modifications in the disk...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Yiming Zhang, Mandan Liu, Qingwei Liu
Clustering, as an essential part in an hierarchy protocol that can prolong the network lifetime, is influenced by the cluster head selection and clustering scheme. A new clustering algorithm called clustering by fast search and finding of density peaks (CFSFDP) based on local density and distance is implementable and efficient. In this paper, we combine this clustering algorithm with a hierarchy protocol in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, energy consumption in each round is unbalanced only considering these two variables during the clustering phase, which leads to the early death of the first node...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Ognjen Perišić
Physical interactions between proteins are often difficult to decipher. The aim of this paper is to present an algorithm that is designed to recognize binding patches and supporting structural scaffolds of interacting heterodimer proteins using the Gaussian Network Model (GNM). The recognition is based on the (self) adjustable identification of kinetically hot residues and their connection to possible binding scaffolds. The kinetically hot residues are residues with the lowest entropy, i.e., the highest contribution to the weighted sum of the fastest modes per chain extracted via GNM...
March 16, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Galia Spectre, Fariborz Mobarrez, Ragnhild Stålesen, Claes-Göran Östenson, David Varon, Håkan Wallen, Paul Hjemdahl
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with prothrombotic alterations, and postprandial hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular complications. We therefore investigated whether a standardized mixed meal alters circulating microparticles (MPs) and their procoagulant activity in DM patients. Patients with DM type 1 (T1DM, n = 11) and type 2 (T2DM; n = 9) were studied before and 90 min after a standardized meal (without premeal insulin). MPs in plasma derived from platelets (PMPs), endothelial cells (EMPs), or monocytes (MMPs) were measured by flow cytometry...
March 16, 2018: Platelets
Lu-Lu Zhang, Ji-Qing Wang, Xue-Lin Yang, Gan Liang, Tao Li, Peng-Lin Yu, Di Ma
Layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM333) is successfully coated by fast ionic conductor LiTi2(PO4)3 (LTP) via wet chemical method. The effects of LTP on the physicochemical properties and electrochemical performance are studied. The results reveal that a highly layered structure of NCM333 can be well maintained with less cation mixing after LTP coating. LTP about 5 nm thickness is coated on the surface of NCM333. Such LTP coating layer can effectively suppress the side reactions between NCM333 and electrolyte but will not hinder the lithium ion transmission...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Cyndya A Shibao, Jorge E Celedonio, Robyn Tamboli, Reem Sidani, Latisha Love-Gregory, Terri Pietka, Yanhua Xiong, Yan Wei, Naji N Abumrad, Nada A Abumrad, Charles Robb Flynn
Context: Abnormal fatty acid (FA) metabolism contributes to diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The FA receptor CD36 has been linked to risk of metabolic syndrome. In rodents CD36 regulates various aspects of fat metabolism but whether it has similar actions in humans is unknown. We examined impact of a coding single-nucleotide polymorphism in CD36 on post-prandial hormone and bile acid (BA) responses. Objective: To examine if the minor allele (G) of coding CD36 variant rs3211938 (G/T) which reduces CD36 level by approximately 50% influences hormonal responses to a high-fat meal (HFM)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Floriane Rudwill, Donal O'Gorman, Etienne Lefai, Isabelle Chery, Alexandre Zahariev, Sylvie Normand, Allan F Pagano, Angèle Chopard, Anthony Damiot, Claire Laurens, Leanne Hodson, Emmanuelle Canet-Soulas, Martina Heer, Petra Frings Meuthen, Judith Buehlmeier, Natalie Baecker, Laure Meiller, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Stéphane Blanc, Chantal Simon, Audrey Bergouignan
Context: The effects of energy balanced bed-rest on metabolic flexibility has not been thoroughly examined. Objective: We investigated the effects of 21-days bed-rest, with and without whey protein supplementation, on metabolic flexibility while maintaining energy balance. We further hypothesized protein supplementation mitigates metabolic inflexibility by preventing muscle atrophy. Design & Setting: Randomized cross-over longitudinal study conducted at the German Aerospace Center, Cologne, Germany...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Berc Kalanyan, William A Kimes, Ryan Beams, Stephan J Stranick, Elias Garratt, Irina Kalish, Albert V Davydov, Ravindra K Kanjolia, James E Maslar
High volume manufacturing of devices based on transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) ultra-thin films will require deposition techniques that are capable of reproducible wafer-scale growth with monolayer control. To date, TMD growth efforts have largely relied upon sublimation and transport of solid precursors with minimal control over vapor phase flux and gas-phase chemistry, which are critical for scaling up laboratory processes to manufacturing settings. To address these issues, we report a new pulsed metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) route for MoS2 film growth in a research-grade single-wafer reactor...
August 8, 2017: Chemistry of Materials: a Publication of the American Chemical Society
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