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John F Ouyang, Ryan P A Bettens
Many-body effects are required for an accurate description of both structure and dynamics of large chemical systems. However, there are numerous such interactions to consider and it is not obvious which ones are significant. We provide a general and fast method for establishing which small set of three- and four-body interactions are important. This is achieved by estimating the maximum many-body effects, $\epsilon_\mathrm{max}$, that can arise in a given arrangement of bodies. Through careful analysis of $\epsilon_\mathrm{max}$ we find two overall causes for significant many-body interactions...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
E Lepiarczyk, A Dudek, J Kaleczyc, M Majewski, W Markiewicz, P Radziszewski, A Bossowska
Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is used as experimental drug therapy for a range of neurogenic urinary bladder disorders. The present study investigated the chemical coding of caudal mesenteric ganglion (CaMG) neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder after intravesical RTX instillation. The CaMG neurons were visualized with retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB) and their chemical profile was disclosed with double-labelling immunohistochemistry using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM), calbindin (CB), galanin (GAL) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Jie Zhou, Yong Zou, Shuguang Guan, Zonghua Liu, S Boccaletti
Networks whose structure of connections evolves in time constitute a big challenge in the study of synchronization, in particular when the time scales for the evolution of the graph topology are comparable with (or even longer than) those pertinent to the units' dynamics. We here focus on networks with a slow-switching structure, and show that the necessary conditions for synchronization, i.e. the conditions for which synchronization is locally stable, are determined by the time average of the largest Lyapunov exponents of transverse modes of the switching topologies...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
J D Thiessen, E Shams, G Stortz, G Schellenberg, D Bishop, M S Khan, P Kozlowski, F Retière, V Sossi, C J Thompson, A L Goertzen
A full-ring PET insert consisting of 16 PET detector modules was designed and constructed to fit within the 114 mm diameter gradient bore of a Bruker 7 T MRI. The individual detector modules contain two silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays, dual-layer offset LYSO crystal arrays, and high-definition multimedia interface (HDMI) cables for both signal and power transmission. Several different RF shielding configurations were assessed prior to construction of a fully assembled PET insert using a combination of carbon fibre and copper foil for RF shielding...
November 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Amy C Arnold, Emily M Garland, Jorge E Celedonio, Satish R Raj, Naji N Abumrad, Italo Biaggioni, David Robertson, James M Luther, Cyndya A Shibao
CONTEXT: Dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) deficiency is a rare genetic disorder characterized by failure to convert dopamine into norepinephrine. These patients have absence of sympathetic adrenergic function, predisposing to orthostatic hypotension. DBH deficient mice exhibit hyperinsulinemia, lower plasma glucose levels, and insulin resistance due to loss of tonic sympathetic inhibition of insulin secretion. The impact of DBH deficiency on glucose homeostasis in humans is unknown. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe the metabolic profile of an adolescent female DBH deficient patient...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Francesca Tocchioni, Chiara Tani, Laura Bartolini, Maria Moriondo, Francesco Nieddu, Patrizia Pecile, Chiara Azzari, Antonio Messineo, Marco Ghionzoli
Bacterial growth of peritoneal fluid specimens obtained during surgical procedures for acute appendicitis may be useful to optimize further antibiotic therapy in complicated cases. DNA amplification represents a fast technique to detect microbial sequences. We aimed to compare the potential of DNA amplification versus traditional bacterial growth culture highlighting advantages and drawbacks in a surgical setting. Peritoneal fluid specimens were collected during surgery from 36 children who underwent appendectomy between May and December 2012...
September 19, 2016: Pediatric Reports
Guangming Xing, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Licong Cui
BACKGROUND: Redundant hierarchical relations refer to such patterns as two paths from one concept to another, one with length one (direct) and the other with length greater than one (indirect). Each redundant relation represents a possibly unintended defect that needs to be corrected in the ontology quality assurance process. Detecting and eliminating redundant relations would help improve the results of all methods relying on the relevant ontological systems as knowledge source, such as the computation of semantic distance between concepts and for ontology matching and alignment...
2016: BioData Mining
Michael V Hull, Andrew R Jagim, Jonathan M Oliver, Mike Greenwood, Deanna R Busteed, Margaret T Jones
BACKGROUND: Limited research exists on the effect of a sports dietitian (SD) on athletes' dietary habits and nutrient periodization, which is the deliberate manipulation of macronutrient intake to match training goals. Further, the difference in dietary habits between men and women collegiate athletes has been understudied. A survey questionnaire examining dietary habits and practices was administered to athletes at two universities that employed a full time SD. Not all athletes used the SD as their primary source for nutritional guidance...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Johanne M Justesen, Ehm A Andersson, Kristine H Allin, Camilla H Sandholt, Torben Jørgensen, Allan Linneberg, Marit E Jørgensen, Torben Hansen, Oluf Pedersen, Niels Grarup
Blood concentrations of triglycerides are influenced by genetic factors, as well as a number of environmental factors including adiposity and glucose homeostasis. The aim to investigate the association between a weighted serum triglyceride genetic risk score (wGRS) and changes in fasting serum triglyceride level over five years and to test whether the effect of the wGRS was modified by 5-year changes of adiposity, insulin resistance and lifestyle factors. A total of 3,474 non-diabetic individuals from the Danish Inter99 cohort participated in both the baseline and 5-year follow-up physical examinations and had information on the wGRS comprising 39 genetic variants...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Kerem Shuval, Michal Stoklosa, Mark Pachucki, Amy L Yaroch, Jeffrey Drope, Matthew Harding
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between economic time preferences and frequency of fast food and full-service restaurant consumption among U.S. adults. METHODS: Participants included 5871U.S. adults who responded to a survey conducted in 2011 pertaining to the lifestyle behaviors of families and the social context of these behaviors. The primary independent variable was a measure of time preferences, an intertemporal choice assessing delay discounting. This was elicited via responses to preferences for an immediate dollar amount or a larger sum in 30 (30-day time horizon) or 60days (60-day time horizon)...
October 21, 2016: Preventive Medicine
G Besson, G Barragan-Jason, S J Thorpe, M Fabre-Thorpe, S Puma, M Ceccaldi, E J Barbeau
Verifying that a face is from a target person (e.g. finding someone in the crowd) is a critical ability of the human face processing system. Yet how fast this can be performed is unknown. The 'entry-level shift due to expertise' hypothesis suggests that - since humans are face experts - processing faces should be as fast - or even faster - at the individual than at superordinate levels. In contrast, the 'superordinate advantage' hypothesis suggests that faces are processed from coarse to fine, so that the opposite pattern should be observed...
October 21, 2016: Cognition
Diego L Guarin, Robert E Kearney
The mechanical properties of a joint are determined by the combination of intrinsic and reflex mechanisms. However, in some situations the reflex contributions are small so that intrinsic mechanisms play the dominant role in the control of posture and movement. The intrinsic mechanisms, characterized by the joint compliance, can be described well by a second order, linear model for small perturbations around an operating point defined by mean position and torque. However, the compliance parameters depend strongly on the operating point...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
William Chad Young, Adrian E Raftery, Ka Yee Yeung
Inferring gene regulatory networks is an important problem in systems biology. However, these networks can be hard to infer from experimental data because of the inherent variability in biological data as well as the large number of genes involved. We propose a fast, simple method for inferring regulatory relationships between genes from knockdown experiments in the NIH LINCS dataset by calculating posterior probabilities, incorporating prior information. We show that the method is able to find previously identified edges from TRANSFAC and JASPAR and discuss the merits and limitations of this approach...
December 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
M Fanjul, L Pérez, J Cerdá, M Zornoza, R Rojo, I Simal, M A García-Casillas, C Corona, D Peláez, E Molina, A Parente, S Rivas, J M Angulo, E De Tomás
BACKGROUND: Multiple approaches to the treatment of simple and complicated (gangrenous or perforated) appendicitis in children have been promoted. Our goal is to develop a new protocol for these patients that allows shorter hospital stays without increasing complications rates. METHODS: Prospective collected data of patients undergoing appendicitis treated according to the new protocol for a period of 7 months were reviewed. This protocol consists on antibiotic prophylaxis in all cases continued with triple antibiotic regimen in complicated appendicitis...
October 10, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
Huanhuan Yang, Xiangyu Cao, Fan Yang, Jun Gao, Shenheng Xu, Maokun Li, Xibi Chen, Yi Zhao, Yuejun Zheng, Sijia Li
Diverse electromagnetic (EM) responses of a programmable metasurface with a relatively large scale have been investigated, where multiple functionalities are obtained on the same surface. The unit cell in the metasurface is integrated with one PIN diode, and thus a binary coded phase is realized for a single polarization. Exploiting this anisotropic characteristic, reconfigurable polarization conversion is presented first. Then the dynamic scattering performance for two kinds of sources, i.e. a plane wave and a point source, is carefully elaborated...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Irena Stepanikova, Gabriela R Oates, Lori Brand Bateman
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the associations of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with markers of systemic inflammation in midlife by race and gender. DESIGN: Data were obtained from the Survey of Midlife in the United States, a cross-sectional, observational study of Americans 35 years old or older (White men: N = 410; White women: N = 490; Black men: N = 58; Black women: N = 117). Inflammation was measured by concentrations of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP) in fasting plasma and concentrations of E-selectin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in fasting serum...
October 24, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Fei Yan, Bin Su
Antioxidants are widely found or used in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries, thus rapid and sensitive detection of antioxidants is of great interest. The present work reports a simple and fast electrochemical method for direct analysis of antioxidants in fruit juices by modulating the permeability of mesochannels on the electrode surface. This goal was achieved by growing vertical silica mesochannel array (SMA) with a channel diameter of 2 ∼ 3 nm on the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode surface using the cylindrical micelles (CMs) as the template...
October 24, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Radu Hristu, Stefan G Stanciu, Denis E Tranca, George A Stanciu
Imaging tissue samples by polarization-resolved second harmonic generation microscopy provides both qualitative and quantitative insights into collagen organization in a label-free manner. Polarization-resolved second harmonic generation microscopy goes beyond simple intensity-based imaging by adding the laser beam polarization component and applying different quantitative metrics such as the anisotropy factor. It thus provides valuable information on collagen arrangement not available with intensity measurements alone...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
C J Lee, T T Brown, L J Cheskin, P Choi, T H Moran, L Peterson, R Matuk, K E Steele
BACKGROUND: Meal tolerance tests are frequently used to study dynamic incretin and insulin responses in the postprandial state; however, the optimal meal that is best tolerated and suited for hormonal response following surgical and medical weight loss has yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the tolerability and effectiveness of different test meals in inducing detectable changes in markers of glucose metabolism in individuals who have undergone a weight loss intervention...
December 2015: Obesity Science & Practice
Laith A Hadidi, Mohamed Mahmoud Omer
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation in Saudi Arabia is increasingly growing at a fast rate, as it hurtles towards ever increasing urban development coupled with rapid developments and expanding population. Saudi Arabia's energy demands are also rising at a faster rate. Therefore, the importance of an integrated waste management system in Saudi Arabia is increasingly rising and introducing Waste to Energy (WTE) facilities is becoming an absolute necessity. This paper analyzes the current situation of MSW management in Saudi Arabia and proposes a financial model to assess the viability of WTE investments in Saudi Arabia in order to address its waste management challenges and meet its forecasted energy demands...
October 20, 2016: Waste Management
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