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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107623/dna-advanced-glycation-end-products-dna-ages-are-elevated-in-urine-and-tissue-in-an-animal-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#1
Richard Jaramillo, Sarah C Shuck, Yin S Chan, Xueli Liu, Steven E Bates, Punnajit P Lim, Daniel Tamae, Sandrine Lacoste, Timothy R O'Connor, John Stephen Termini
More precise identification and treatment monitoring of prediabetic/diabetic individuals will require additional biomarkers to complement existing diagnostic tests. Candidates include hyperglycemia-induced adducts such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs) of proteins, lipids, and DNA. The potential for DNA-AGEs as diabetic biomarkers was examined in a longitudinal study using the Leprdb/db animal model of metabolic syndrome. The DNA-AGE, N2-(1-carboxyethyl)-2´-deoxyguanosine (CEdG) was quantified by mass spectrometry using isotope dilution from urine and tissue of hyperglycemic and normoglycemic mice...
January 20, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107565/idermatopath-a-novel-software-tool-for-mitosis-detection-in-h-e-stained-tissue-sections-of-malignant-melanoma
#2
C Andres, B Andres-Belloni, R Hein, T Biedermann, A Schäpe, N Brieu, R Schönmeyer, M Yigitsoy, J Ring, G Schmidt, N Harder
BACKGROUND: Malignant Melanoma (MM) is characterized by a growing incidence and a high malignant potential. Beside well defined prognostic factors such as tumor thickness and ulceration, the Mitotic Rate (MR) was included in the AJCC recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of MM. In daily routine, the identification of a single mitosis can be difficult on Hematoxylin&Eosin slides alone. Several studies showed a big inter- and intra-individual variability in detecting the MR in MM even by very experienced investigators, thus raising the question for a computer assisted method...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107516/liver-amp-activated-protein-kinase-is-unnecessary-for-gluconeogenesis-but-protects-energy-state-during-nutrient-deprivation
#3
Clinton M Hasenour, D Emerson Ridley, Freyja D James, Curtis C Hughey, E Patrick Donahue, Benoit Viollet, Marc Foretz, Jamey D Young, David H Wasserman
AMPK is an energy sensor that protects cellular energy state by attenuating anabolic and promoting catabolic processes. AMPK signaling is purported to regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis and substrate oxidation; coordination of these processes is vital during nutrient deprivation or pathogenic during overnutrition. Here we directly test hepatic AMPK function in regulating metabolic fluxes that converge to produce glucose and energy in vivo. Flux analysis was applied in mice with a liver-specific deletion of AMPK (L-KO) or floxed control littermates to assess rates of hepatic glucose producing and citric acid cycle (CAC) fluxes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107043/the-impact-of-meal-timing-on-cardiometabolic-syndrome-indicators-in-shift-workers
#4
Hylton E Molzof, Michael D Wirth, James B Burch, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hebert, Russell L Johnson, Karen L Gamble
The aims of this study were to 1) compare the inflammatory potential of night- and day-shift nurses' diets with regard to time of day and work status and 2) explore how the timing of food intake during work and off-work is associated with cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) risk factors between these two groups. Female nurses (N = 17; 8 day-shift and 9 night-shift) reported food intake over 9 days. On a middle day off of work, metabolic parameters were measured after an overnight fast. Energy/macronutrient intake and inflammatory potential of dietary intake (as assessed via the Dietary Inflammatory Index(TM)) were calculated for nurses' workdays, work nights, off-work days, and off-work nights...
January 20, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107003/fast-initiating-ruthenium-based-catalysts-for-improved-activity-in-highly-e-selective-cross-metathesis
#5
Tonia S Ahmed, Robert H Grubbs
Ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalysts bearing dithiolate ligands have been recently employed to generate olefins with high E-selectivity (>99% E) but have been limited by low to moderate yields. In this report, (1)H NMR studies reveal that a major contributing factor to this low activity is the extremely low initiation rates of these catalysts with trans olefins. Introducing a 2-isopropoxy-3-phenylbenzylidene ligand in place of the conventional 2-isopropoxybenzylidene ligand resulted in catalysts that initiate rapidly under reaction conditions...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106203/analytical-form-of-the-autocorrelation-function-for-the-fluorescence-correlation-spectroscopy
#6
Robert Hołyst, Andrzej Poniewierski, Xuzhu Zhang
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) can provide information about diffusion coefficients and rate constants of chemical reactions in small systems of interacting molecules. However, the interpretation of FCS experiments depends crucially on the model of the autocorrelation function for the fluorescence intensity fluctuations. In this theoretical work, we consider a system of fluorescent molecules that diffuse and interact with massive particles, e.g. surfactant micelles. Using the general formalism of FCS, we derive a new analytical approximation of the autocorrelation function for systems in which both diffusion and a binary reaction occur...
January 20, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105832/sensitive-and-fast-humidity-sensor-based-on-a-redox-conducting-supramolecular-ionic-material-for-respiration-monitoring
#7
Hailong Yan, Li Zhang, Ping Yu, Lanqun Mao
Real-time monitoring of respiratory rate (RR) is highly important for human health, clinical diagnosis, and fundamental scientific research. Exhaled humidity-based RR monitoring has recently attracted increased attention because of its accuracy and portability. Here, we report a new design of an exhaled humidity sensor for the real-time monitoring of the RR based on a synthetic redox conducting supramolecular ionic material (SIM). The humidity-dependent conducting SIM is prepared by ionic self-assembly in aqueous solutions of electroactive 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,10-bis(3-methylimidazolium-1-yl) decane (C10(mim)2)...
January 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104918/triglycerides-glucose-index-is-a-useful-surrogate-marker-of-insulin-resistance-among-adolescents
#8
B Kang, Y Yang, E Y Lee, H K Yang, H-S Kim, S-Y Lim, J-H Lee, S-S Lee, B-K Suh, K-H Yoon
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate the association between the triglycerides/glucose index (TyG index) and the homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the prediction of insulin resistance (IR) among adolescents. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 221 Korean adolescents (168 males and 53 females aged 9-13 years) from May to June 2014 in Chung-ju city. The TyG index was calculated as ln [triglycerides (mg/dl) × fasting glucose (mg/dl)/2]...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104628/mobidb-lite-fast-and-highly-specific-consensus-prediction-of-intrinsic-disorder-in-proteins
#9
Marco Necci, Damiano Piovesan, Zsuzsanna Dosztányi, Silvio C E Tosatto
MOTIVATION: Intrinsic disorder (ID) is established as an important feature of protein sequences. Its use in proteome annotation is however hampered by the availability of many methods with similar performance at the single residue level, which have mostly not been optimized to predict long ID regions of size comparable to domains. Here, we have focused on providing a single consensus-based prediction, MobiDB-lite, optimized for highly specific (i.e. few false positive) predictions of long disorder...
January 18, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104438/safety-of-externally-stimulated-intracranial-electrodes-during-functional-mri-at-1-5t
#10
Pallab K Bhattacharyya, Jeffery Mullin, Bryan S Lee, Jorge A Gonzalez-Martinez, Stephen E Jones
Surgical resection of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) is a potential cure for medically refractory focal epilepsy. Proper identification of the EZ is essential for such resection. Synergistic application of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) simultaneously with stimulation of a single externalized intracranial stereotactic EEG (SEEG) electrode has the potential to improve identification of the EZ. While most EEG-fMRI studies use the electrodes passively to record electrical activity, it is possible to stimulate the brain using the electrodes by connecting them with conducting cables to the stimulation hardware...
January 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103917/a-fast-and-robust-protocol-for-metataxonomic-analysis-using-rnaseq-data
#11
Jeremy W Cox, Richard A Ballweg, Diana H Taft, Prakash Velayutham, David B Haslam, Aleksey Porollo
BACKGROUND: Metagenomics is a rapidly emerging field aimed to analyze microbial diversity and dynamics by studying the genomic content of the microbiota. Metataxonomics tools analyze high-throughput sequencing data, primarily from 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNAseq, to identify microorganisms and viruses within a complex mixture. With the growing demand for analysis of the functional microbiome, metatranscriptome studies attract more interest. To make metatranscriptomic data sufficient for metataxonomics, new analytical workflows are needed to deal with sparse and taxonomically less informative sequencing data...
January 19, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103478/modulation-of-fast-narrowband-oscillations-in-the-mouse-retina-and-dlgn-according-to-background-light-intensity
#12
Riccardo Storchi, Robert A Bedford, Franck P Martial, Annette E Allen, Jonathan Wynne, Marcelo A Montemurro, Rasmus S Petersen, Robert J Lucas
Background light intensity (irradiance) substantially impacts the visual code in the early visual system at synaptic and single-neuron levels, but its influence on population activity is largely unexplored. We show that fast narrowband oscillations, an important feature of population activity, systematically increase in amplitude as a function of irradiance in both anesthetized and awake, freely moving mice and at the level of the retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). Narrowband coherence increases with irradiance across large areas of the dLGN, but especially for neighboring units...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102945/learning-based-deformable-image-registration-for-infant-mr-images-in-the-first-year-of-life
#13
Shunbo Hu, Lifang Wei, Yaozong Gao, Yanrong Guo, Guorong Wu, Dinggang Shen
PURPOSE: Many brain development studies have been devoted to investigate dynamic structural and functional changes in the first year of life. To quantitatively measure brain development in such a dynamic period, accurate image registration for different infant subjects with possible large age gap is of high demand. Although many state-of-the-art image registration methods have been proposed for young and elderly brain images, very few registration methods work for infant brain images acquired in the first year of life, because of (a) large anatomical changes due to fast brain development and (b) dynamic appearance changes due to white-matter myelination...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102354/a-signature-of-renal-stress-resistance-induced-by-short-term-dietary-restriction-fasting-and-protein-restriction
#14
F Jongbloed, T C Saat, M Verweij, C Payan-Gomez, J H J Hoeijmakers, S van den Engel, C T van Oostrom, G Ambagtsheer, S Imholz, J L A Pennings, H van Steeg, J N M IJzermans, M E T Dollé, R W F de Bruin
During kidney transplantation, ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) induces oxidative stress. Short-term preoperative 30% dietary restriction (DR) and 3-day fasting protect against renal IRI. We investigated the contribution of macronutrients to this protection on both phenotypical and transcriptional levels. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed control food ad libitum, underwent two weeks of 30%DR, 3-day fasting, or received a protein-, carbohydrate- or fat-free diet for various periods of time. After completion of each diet, renal gene expression was investigated using microarrays...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101948/influence-of-the-marine-feeding-area-on-the-muscle-and-egg-fatty-acid-composition-of-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-spawners-estimated-from-the-scale-stable-isotopes
#15
J Torniainen, M J Kainz, R I Jones, M Keinänen, P J Vuorinen, M Kiljunen
Fatty acids in muscle tissue and eggs of female Atlantic salmon Salmo salar spawners were analysed to evaluate the dietary quality of their final feeding areas in the Baltic Sea. The final likely feeding area was identified by comparing stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of the outermost growth region (final annulus) of scales of returned S. salar with that of reference S. salar caught from different feeding areas. Some overlap of stable-isotope reference values among the three areas, in addition to prespawning fasting, decreased the ability of muscle tri-acylglycerols to discriminate the final likely feeding area and the area's dietary quality...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100205/a-fast-and-effective-determination-of-the-biodistribution-and-subcellular-localization-of-fluorescent-immunoliposomes-in-freshly-excised-animal-organs
#16
Felista L Tansi, Ronny Rüger, Ansgar M Kollmeier, Claudia Böhm, Roland E Kontermann, Ulf K Teichgraeber, Alfred Fahr, Ingrid Hilger
BACKGROUND: Preclinical research implementing fluorescence-based approaches is inevitable for drug discovery and technology. For example, a variety of contrast agents developed for biomedical imaging are usually evaluated in cell systems and animal models based on their conjugation to fluorescent dyes. Biodistribution studies of excised organs are often performed by macroscopic imaging, whereas the subcellular localization though vital, is often neglected or further validated by histological procedures...
January 18, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100181/gestational-diabetes-mellitus-and-retinal-microvasculature
#17
Ling-Jun Li, Michael Kramer, Robyn J Tapp, Ryan E K Man, Ngee Lek, Shirong Cai, Fabian Yap, Peter Gluckman, Kok Hian Tan, Yap Seng Chong, Jia Yu Koh, Seang Mei Saw, Yin Bun Cheung, Tien Yin Wong
BACKGROUND: Small-vessel dysfunction may be an important consequence of chronic hyperglycemia. We examined the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a state of transient hyperglycemia during pregnancy, and retinal microvascular changes in pregnant women at 26-28 weeks of pregnancy. METHODS: A total of 1136 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies were recruited during their first trimester at two major Singapore maternity hospitals in an on-going birth cohort study...
January 18, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099656/association-between-diabetes-and-tuberculosis-case-control-study
#18
Susan Martins Pereira, Gleide Santos de Araújo, Carlos Antônio de Souza Teles Santos, Maeli Gomes de Oliveira, Maurício Lima Barreto
OBJECTIVE: To test the association between diabetes and tuberculosis. METHODS: It is a case-control study, matched by age and sex. We included 323 new cases of tuberculosis with positive results for bacilloscopy. The controls were 323 respiratory symptomatic patients with negative bacilloscopy, from the same health services, such as: ambulatory cases from three referral hospitals and six basic health units responsible for the notifications of new cases of tuberculosis in Salvador, Bahia...
December 22, 2016: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099164/investigation-of-time-resolved-proton-radiography-using-x-ray-flat-panel-imaging-system
#19
Kyung-Wook Jee, Rongxiao Zhang, El Bentefour, Paul Doolan, Ethan Cascio, Gregory Sharp, Jacob Flanz, Hsiao-Ming Lu
Proton beam therapy benefits from the Bragg peak and delivers highly conformal dose distributions. However, the location of the end-of-range is subject to uncertainties related to the accuracy of the relative proton stopping power estimates and thereby the water-equivalent path length (WEPL) along the beam. To remedy the range uncertainty, an in vivo measurement of the WEPL through the patient, i.e. a proton-range radiograph, is highly desirable. Towards that goal, we have explored a novel method of proton radiography based on the time-resolved dose measured by a flat panel imager (FPI)...
January 18, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099022/molecular-weight-dependence-of-interdiffusion-and-adhesion-of-polymers-at-short-contact-times
#20
Robert Gurney, Anastase Henry, Regis Schach, Anke Lindner, Costantino Creton
The self-adhesion and subsequent debonding of thin layers of three linear and monodisperse random copolymers of styrene-butadiene (SBR) with molecular weights varying between 30 and 75 times the average molecular weight between entanglements Me was investigated using a carefully controlled tack adhesion testing device in conjunction with a fast camera setup over a range of contact times tc (10 ms to 10 s) much shorter in comparison to the terminal relaxation times of the polymers. The evolution of the stress-strain curves and debonding mechanisms with increasing contact time was examined, and the work required to debond the layers was found to be strongly dependent on molecular weight at long contact times, but not at short contact times...
January 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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