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antifungal hematology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450209/creation-and-assessment-of-a-clinical-predictive-calculator-and-mortality-associated-with-candida-krusei-bloodstream-infections
#1
Ryan Kronen, Kevin Hsueh, Charlotte Lin, William G Powderly, Andrej Spec
Background: Candida krusei bloodstream infection (CK BSI) is associated with high mortality, but whether this is due to underlying comorbidities in affected patients or the organism itself is unknown. Identifying patient characteristics that are associated with CK BSI is crucial for clinical decision-making and prognosis. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of hospitalized patients with Candida BSI at our institution between 2002 and 2015. Data were collected on demographics, comorbidities, medications, procedures, central lines, vital signs, and laboratory values...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404266/necrotizing-fungal-gingivitis-in-a-patient-with-acute-myelogenous-leukemia-visible-yet-obscure
#2
Prajwal Boddu, Pei-Ling Chen, Priyadharsini Nagarajan, Victor G Prieto, Alex Won, Mark Chambers, Steven Kornblau
Oral fungal infections present with atypical and varied manifestations, and distinguishing them from other entities including leukemic infiltration can be diagnostically challenging. In this report, we describe a 62 year old female with acute myeloid leukemia who presented, towards the end of her second treatment cycle of decitabine in a prolonged neutropenic state, with a month of painful, necrotic-appearing marginal gingival lesions. She was duly initiated on empiric broad spectrum antifungal treatment but did not show a clinical response with the appearance of new skin lesions concerning for progressive fungemia...
January 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391334/invasive-fungal-infections-in-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-emergence-of-resistant-pathogens-and-new-antifungal-therapies
#3
Maria N Gamaletsou, Thomas J Walsh, Nikolaos V Sipsas
Invasive fungal infections caused by drug-resistant organisms, are an emerging threat to heavily immunosuppressed patients with haematological malignancies. Modern early antifungal treatment strategies, such as prophylaxis, empirical and pre-emptive therapy result in long term exposure to antifungal agents, which is a major driving force for the development of resistance. The extended use of central venous catheters, the non-linear pharmacokinetics of certain antifungal agents, neutropenia, other forms of intense immunosuppression, and drug toxicities are other contributing factors...
February 2, 2018: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373716/epidemiological-trends-of-cryptococcosis-in-italy-molecular-typing-and-susceptibility-pattern-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-isolates-collected-during-a-20-year-period
#4
Massimo Cogliati, Anna Prigitano, Maria Carmela Esposto, Luisa Romanò, Anna Grancini, Alberto Zani, Anna Maria Tortorano
In the present study clinical data and isolates from cases of cryptococcosis recorded during clinical surveys carried out in Italy from 1997 to 2016, were investigated. Molecular typing and antifungal susceptibility testing were performed in order to delineate the epidemiological trend of cryptococcosis in Italy and to define wild-type population for four different antifungal compounds. During the studied period, a total of 302 cases collected from 32 centers of 11 Italian regions were recorded. Analysis of clinical data showed a significant increase of frequency (from 7% to 38%) of cryptococcosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients primarily with hematologic malignancies and solid organ transplantations...
January 23, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371536/reduced-multidrug-susceptibility-profile-is-a-common-feature-of-opportunistic-fusarium-species-fusarium-multi-drug-resistant-pattern
#5
REVIEW
Saad J Taj-Aldeen
The resistance among various opportunistic Fusarium species to different antifungal agents has emerged as a cause of public health problems worldwide. Considering the significance of multi-drug resistant (MDR), this paper emphasizes the problems associated with MDR and the need to understand its clinical significance to combat microbial infections. The search platform PubMed/MEDLINE and a review of 32 cases revealed a common multidrug-resistant profile exists, and clinically relevant members of Fusarium are intrinsically resistant to most currently used antifungals...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371065/three-cases-of-candida-fermentati-fungemia-following-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#6
Kiyomi Morita, Akira Honda, Junji Koya, Kazuhiro Toyama, Ikeda Mahoko, Yoshiki Misawa, Shu Okugawa, Fumihiko Nakamura, Kyoji Moriya, Mineo Kurokawa
Bloodstream infection with non-Candida albicans Candida species is one of the serious complications among patients with hematological malignancies who receive long-term prophylactic antifungal agents. Here we describe three cases of Candida fermentati (C. fermentati) candidemia after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies. Case 1 is fluconazole-breakthrough C. fermentati fungemia, which was well controlled with liposomal amphotericin B. Case 2 and 3 were caspofungin-breakthrough C...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333407/the-limited-role-of-serum-galactomannan-assay-in-screening-for-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-recipients-on-micafungin-prophylaxis-a-retrospective-study
#7
Ryul Kim, Youngil Koh, Dong-Yeop Shin, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Nam Joong Kim, Sung-Soo Yoon, Myoung-Don Oh, Wan Beom Park, Inho Kim
Background: We evaluated the outcomes of serum galactomannan (GM) assay for the screening of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) recipients while on primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP). Methods: This study included patients with hematologic disorders who underwent alloHSCT from January 2013 to November 2015. Patients received routine PAP with fluconazole before 2014 and micafungin after 2014; serum GM tests were performed and retrospectively analyzed...
December 2017: Blood Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310582/identification-of-uncommon-oral-yeasts-from-cancer-patients-by-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry
#8
Narges Aslani, Ghasem Janbabaei, Mahdi Abastabar, Jacques F Meis, Mahasti Babaeian, Sadegh Khodavaisy, Teun Boekhout, Hamid Badali
BACKGROUND: Opportunistic infections due to Candida species occur frequently in cancer patients because of their inherent immunosuppression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of yeast species from the oral cavity of patients during treatment for oncological and haematological malignancies. METHODS: MALDI-TOF was performed to identify yeasts isolated from the oral cavity of 350 cancer patients. Moreover, antifungal susceptibility testing was performed in according to CLSI guidelines (M27-A3)...
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305017/potential-usefulness-of-early-potassium-supplementation-for-preventing-severe-hypokalemia-induced-by-liposomal-amphotericin-b-in-hematologic-patients-a-retrospective-study
#9
Naoto Okada, Momoyo Azuma, Masaki Imanishi, Yoshito Zamami, Yasushi Kirino, Toshimi Nakamura, Kazuhiko Teraoka, Masahiro Abe, Keisuke Ishizawa
PURPOSE: Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) is an essential antifungal agent for patients with hematologic diseases; however, the drug causes severe hypokalemia at a high frequency. Meanwhile, there is little evidence regarding the risk factors for L-AMB-induced severe hypokalemia, and the prevention protocol has not been established. The goal of this study was to identify the risk factors related to severe hypokalemia induced by L-AMB in hematologic patients. METHODS: Seventy-eight hematologic patients with a first administration of L-AMB were enrolled in the study...
January 2, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283878/occupational-cns-aspergillosis-in-an-immunocompetent-individual-a-diagnostic-challange
#10
Parul Punia, Nidhi Goel, Ishwar Singh, Uma Chaudhary
INTRODUCTION: Immunocompetent individuals are rarely affected by Aspergillus species and its prime importance lies in immunocompromised patients where it can cause disease, ranging from primarily pulmonary infections to dissemination anywhere in the body. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) occurs in patients with risk factors including prolonged neutropenia, neutrophil dysfunction, patient on cytotoxic drugs, steroid therapy, hematological malignancy, AIDS or in patients with bone marrow transplantation...
December 28, 2017: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248586/improving-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-by-the-detection-of-aspergillus-in-broncho-alveolar-lavage-fluid-comparison-of-non-culture-based-assays
#11
Hélène Guegan, Florence Robert-Gangneux, Christophe Camus, Sorya Belaz, Tony Marchand, Marion Baldeyrou, Jean-Pierre Gangneux
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate new tools to diagnose invasive aspergillosis (IA) directly from broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) samples. METHODS: All consecutive patients with suspected IA who underwent bronchoscopy with BAL were prospectively included. Mycological culture and ELISA detection of galactomannan (GM) were performed on BAL. Two in-house and two marketed PCR assays were used on BAL DNA extracts to detect Aspergillus species. Susceptibility testing was performed after culture; marketed PCR assays detected mutations in the CYP51A gene associated to resistance...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247315/development-of-a-copper-clioquinol-formulation-suitable-for-intravenous-use
#12
Moe Wehbe, Armaan K Malhotra, Malathi Anantha, Cody Lo, Wieslawa H Dragowska, Nancy Dos Santos, Marcel B Bally
Clioquinol (CQ) is an FDA-approved topical antifungal agent known to kill cancer cells. This facilitated the initiation of clinical trials in patients with refractory hematologic malignancies. These repurposing efforts were not successful; this was likely due to low intracellular levels of the drug owing to poor absorption and rapid metabolism upon oral administration. CQ forms a sparingly soluble copper complex (Cu(CQ)2) that exhibits enhanced anticancer activity in some cell lines. We have utilized a novel method to synthesize Cu(CQ)2 inside liposomes, an approach that maintains the complex suspended in solution and in a format suitable for intravenous administration...
December 16, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240266/posaconazole-oral-dose-and-plasma-levels-in-pediatric-hematology-oncology-patients
#13
Edoardo Bruno Vicenzi, Elisabetta Calore, Nunzia Decembrino, Massimo Berger, Katia Perruccio, Francesca Carraro, Sara Rossin, Maria Caterina Putti, Mariadelfina Molinaro, Gloria Tridello, Simone Cesaro
BACKGROUND: Posaconazole is a triazole with limited pharmacokinetic information in children. This study assessed the correlation between posaconazole-oral-solution daily dosage/kg/body weight and trough plasma level. METHODS: 97 hematology-oncology pediatric patients with > 1 posaconazole plasma level (PPC) assessment in the first 6 weeks after the start of posaconazole treatment were included. RESULTS: Posaconazole was used as prophylaxis in 84 of 97 (87%) patients and as therapy in 13 of 97 (13%)...
December 14, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239468/the-importance-of-risk-factors-for-the-prediction-of-patients-with-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#14
Selçuk Kaya, Eda Gençalioğlu, Mehmet Sönmez, Iftihar Köksal
OBJECTIVE: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a major challenge in the management of immunocompromised patients. Despite all the advances in diagnosis, it remains a problem. The purpose of our study was to investigate the risk factors associated with IPA seen in patients with hematological malignancies. METHOD: A total of 152 febrile neutropenia (FEN) patients with hematological malignancies aged over 18 years and receiving high-dose chemotherapy or stem cell transplant between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2012 were included in the study...
September 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230923/primary-antifungal-prophylaxis-decrease-of-invasive-fungal-disease-incidence-and-reduction-of-risk-factors-in-hematological-patients-in-a-5-year-retrospective-study
#15
Yan Li, Mingjuan Liu, Bing Zhai, Xiaoli Zhao, Lijun Wang, Honghua Li, Shuhong Wang, Haiyan Zhu, Quanshun Wang, Chunji Gao, Wenrong Huang, Li Yu
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancies. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and rationality of primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP) in a 5-year real life setting and choose an appropriate PAP strategy. METHODS: Clinical data of patients were retrospectively reviewed and IFD was diagnosed using the revised diagnostic criteria. The efficacy of PAP and the risk factors for IFD, especially the rationality of PAP, were evaluated...
December 12, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213274/natural-killer-cells-in-antifungal-immunity
#16
REVIEW
Stanislaw Schmidt, Lars Tramsen, Thomas Lehrnbecher
Invasive fungal infections are still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients such as patients suffering from hematological malignancies or patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantion. In addition, other populations such as human immunodeficiency virus-patients are at higher risk for invasive fungal infection. Despite the availability of new antifungal compounds and better supportive care measures, the fatality rate of invasive fungal infection remained unacceptably high...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203252/occurrence-and-improvement-of-renal-dysfunction-and-serum-potassium-abnormality-during-administration-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-in-patients-with-hematological-disorders-a-retrospective-analysis
#17
Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Tadakazu Kondo, Kazunai Aoki, Kouhei Yamashita, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo
Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) has the potential to cause two major adverse events, renal dysfunction and serum potassium abnormality; however, appropriate clinical management of these events remains unclear. We retrospectively analyzed data regarding 128 hematology patients who received L-AMB in our institute and examined the association between clinical characteristics and renal dysfunction or serum potassium abnormality. We found that the median weight-normalized dose of L-AMB was 2.69mg/kg and the median administration period was 16days...
November 7, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189866/-role-of-surgery-in-saprochaete-capitata-s-capitata-sepsis-in-a-patient-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#18
Jasna Radich R, Carlos Álvarez Z, Ana Valenzuela R, Felipe Castillo H, Francisco Moraga V, Jorge Castillo A
Saprochaete capitata (S. capitata) fungal sepsis is a severe condition with a clinical presentation that is similar to other yeast originated fungal sepsis. It is observed in patients with hematological malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia and neutropenia. We report a 23 year old male presenting with cough, fever and malaise. A bone marrow biopsy led to the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia. During the first cycle of chemotherapy the patient presented fever: blood cultures were positive for Klebsiella pneumoniae...
August 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172032/galactomannan-use-in-clinical-practice-providing-free-testing-is-not-the-answer
#19
Jeniffer S Dos Santos, Djuli M Hermes, Alessandro C Pasqualotto
INTRODUCTION: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a condition associated with a high mortality rate due to difficulties in performing an early diagnosis. In recent years, galactomannan (GM) detection has markedly improved the diagnosis of IA, but very little is known on how physicians deal with this test in clinical practice. METHODS: This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the indications for the use of serum GM in a large Brazilian hospital, between 2015 and 2016...
November 21, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152230/rare-fungal-infectious-agents-a-lurking-enemy
#20
REVIEW
Anna Skiada, Ioannis Pavleas, Maria Drogari-Apiranthitou
In the expanding population of immunocompromised patients and those treated in intensive care units, rare fungal infectious agents have emerged as important pathogens, causing invasive infections associated with high morbidity and mortality. These infections may present either as de novo or as breakthrough invasive infections in high-risk patients with hematologic malignancies receiving prophylactic or empirical antifungal therapy or in patients with central venous catheters. Diagnosis and treatment are challenging...
2017: F1000Research
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