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Ruiting Lin, Siyuan Xia, Changliang Shan, Dong Chen, Yijie Liu, Xue Gao, Mei Wang, Hee-Bum Kang, Yaozhu Pan, Shuangping Liu, Young Rock Chung, Omar Abdel-Wahab, Taha Merghoub, Michael Rossi, Ragini R Kudchadkar, David H Lawson, Fadlo R Khuri, Sagar Lonial, Jing Chen
Dietary supplements such as vitamins and minerals are widely used in the hope of improving health but may have unidentified risks and side effects. In particular, a pathogenic link between dietary supplements and specific oncogenes remains unknown. Here we report that chondroitin-4-sulfate (CHSA), a natural glycosaminoglycan approved as a dietary supplement used for osteoarthritis, selectively promotes the tumor growth potential of BRAF V600E-expressing human melanoma cells in patient- and cell line-derived xenograft mice and confers resistance to BRAF inhibitors...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
Xin Zhang, Lei Peng, Zhao-Peng Ni, Tian-Xiao Ni, Yi-Liang Huang, Yang Zhou
Experimental research was conducted to study the fire resistance of steel tubular columns used in prefabricated and modular construction. In order to achieve high-efficient prefabrication and fast on-site installation, membrane protections using board products and thermal insulation blankets are adopted as the favorable protection method. Three protected tubular columns were tested in a full-scale column furnace with axial load applied. The study variables were different membranes, including fiber reinforced calcium silicate (FRCS) boards, rock wool and aluminum silica (Fiberfrax) insulations...
March 16, 2018: Materials
Bryan Markinson, Mahmoud Ghannoum, Tate Winter, Anthony Rycerz, Fernando Rock, Aditya K Gupta
Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail primarily caused by the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The topical-based treatment of onychomycosis remains a challenge because of the difficulty associated with penetrating the dense, protective structure of the keratinized nail plate. Tavaborole is a novel small-molecule antifungal agent recently approved in the United States for the topical treatment of toenail onychomycosis. The low molecular weight, slight water solubility, and boron chemistry of tavaborole maximize nail penetration after topical application, allowing for effective targeting of the infection in the nail bed...
January 2018: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Y Ni, Y Qin, Z Fang, Z Zhang
PURPOSE: Dysfunction or death of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is a common pathogenesis of various types of retinal degenerative diseases. Recent reports indicated that ROCK pathway inhibitors regulate cell proliferation or apoptosis in a cell-type-dependent manner. Here, we aim to investigate the effect of ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 on the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in vitro. METHODS: Cell proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed by CCK-8 and flow cytometry respectively...
March 16, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
Alison S Brooks, John E Yellen, Richard Potts, Anna K Behrensmeyer, Alan L Deino, David E Leslie, Stanley H Ambrose, Jeffrey R Ferguson, Francesco d'Errico, Andrew M Zipkin, Scott Whittaker, Jeffrey Post, Elizabeth G Veatch, Kimberly Foecke, Jennifer B Clark
Previous research suggests that the complex symbolic, technological, and socio-economic behaviors that typify Homo sapiens had roots in the middle Pleistocene <200 ka, but data bearing on human behavioral origins are limited. We present a series of excavated Middle Stone Age sites from the Olorgesailie Basin, southern Kenya, dated ≥295 to ~320 ka by40 Ar/39 Ar and U-Series methods. Hominins at these sites made prepared cores and points, exploited iron-rich rocks to obtain red pigment, and procured stone tool materials from ≥25-50 km distance...
March 15, 2018: Science
Ines Marek, Robert Becker, Fabian B Fahlbusch, Carlos Menendez-Castro, Wolfgang Rascher, Christoph Daniel, Gudrun Volkert, Andrea Hartner
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Healing of mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis involves degradation of excess extracellular matrix, resolution of hypercellularity by apoptosis and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Integrin receptors participate in the regulation of phagocytosis. In mice deficient for alpha8 integrin (Itga8-/-) healing of glomerulonephritis is delayed. As Itga8 is abundant in mesangial cells (MC) which are non-professional phagocytes, we hypothesized that Itga8 facilitates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and matrix components by MC...
March 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
V Moreno, J Bach, M Zarroca, Ll Font, C Roqué, R Linares
Radon levels in the soil and groundwater in the North Maladeta Fault area (located in the Aran Valley sector, Central Pyrenees) are analysed from both geological and radiation protection perspectives. This area is characterized by the presence of two important normal faults: the North Maladeta fault (NMF) and the Tredós Fault (TF). Two primary aspects make this study interesting: (i) the NMF shows geomorphic evidence of neotectonic activity and (ii) the presence of a thermal spa, Banhs de Tredós, which exploits one of the several natural springs of the area and needs to be evaluated for radiation dosing from radon according to the European regulation on basic safety standards for protection against ionizing radiation...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Pouyan Ebrahimi, Javier Vilcáez
This research aimed to elucidate the effect of brine salinity and guar gum on the sorption and transport of Ba in dolomite rocks collected from the Arbuckle formation in Oklahoma, USA. Guar gum represents the most important organic additive used in viscosified fracturing fluids, and Ba constitutes the most common and abundant heavy metal found in unconventional oil and gas (UOG) wastewater. Batch experiments conducted using powdered dolomite rocks (500-600 μm particle size) revealed that at brine salinities of UOG wastewater, chloro-complexation reactions between Ba and Cl ions and pH changes that results from dolomite dissolution are the controlling factors of Ba sorption on dolomite...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Jereme W Gaeta, Tyler D Ahrenstorff, James S Diana, William W Fetzer, Thomas S Jones, Zach J Lawson, Michael C McInerny, Victor J Santucci, M Jake Vander Zanden
Body size governs predator-prey interactions, which in turn structure populations, communities, and food webs. Understanding predator-prey size relationships is valuable from a theoretical perspective, in basic research, and for management applications. However, predator-prey size data are limited and costly to acquire. We quantified predator-prey total length and mass relationships for several freshwater piscivorous taxa: crappie (Pomoxis spp.), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), northern pike (Esox lucius), rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and walleye (Sander vitreus)...
2018: PloS One
Verónica M Negrón-Pérez, Luana Teixeira Rodrigues, Gisele Zoccal Mingoti, Peter J Hansen
Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinases (ROCK1 and ROCK2) are activated by binding to RHO GTPases and phosphorylate a variety of downstream targets including actinomyosin. In the mouse embryo, ROCK signaling acts to promote formation of trophectoderm (TE) and inhibit formation of the inner cell mass (ICM) by polarizing outer cells of the embryo to inactivate Hippo signaling (Kono et al., 2014; Mihajlović and Bruce, 2016). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 15, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Tetsuo Irifune, Tomohiro Ohuchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Nature
Nicholas T Bacon, Greg A Ryan, Jonathan E Wingo, Mark T Richardson, Tracey Pangallo, Phillip A Bishop
The purpose was to determine if pull-up performance was affected by the use of chalk (100% magnesium carbonate) during open-handed and pinch grip weight-assisted pull-ups (WAPU) in recreationally-trained rock climbers. Furthermore, the reliability of open-handed and pinch grip WAPU was also investigated. Recreationally-active volunteers (n = 9) completed six counterbalanced trials. Participants used chalk during four trials to determine the reliability (test-retest) of the open-handed and pinch grips. While two of the six trials were used to determine if open-handed and pinch grip WAPU performance was affected without using chalk...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Sheng-Yong Luo, Qing-Hua Xu, Gong Peng, Zhi-Wu Chen
Objectives: Total flavones from Rhododendron simsii Planch. (TFR) are the effective part extracted from the flowers of Rhododendron simsii Planch. and have obvious protective effects against cerebral ischemic or myocardial injuries in rabbits and rats. However, their mechanism of cardioprotection is still unrevealed. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of TFR on myocardial I/R injury and the underlying mechanism. Methods: TFR groups were treated by gavage once a day for 3 days at a dose of 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg, respectively, and then the model of myocardial I/R injury was established...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Shigeru Kinoshita, Noriko Koizumi, Morio Ueno, Naoki Okumura, Kojiro Imai, Hiroshi Tanaka, Yuji Yamamoto, Takahiro Nakamura, Tsutomu Inatomi, John Bush, Munetoyo Toda, Michio Hagiya, Isao Yokota, Satoshi Teramukai, Chie Sotozono, Junji Hamuro
BACKGROUND: Corneal endothelial cell (CEC) disorders, such as Fuchs's endothelial corneal dystrophy, induce abnormal corneal hydration and result in corneal haziness and vision loss known as bullous keratopathy. We investigated whether injection of cultured human CECs supplemented with a rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor into the anterior chamber could increase CEC density. METHODS: We performed an uncontrolled, single-group study involving 11 persons who had received a diagnosis of bullous keratopathy and had no detectable CECs...
March 15, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Kylie D Rock, Heather B Patisaul
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders on the rise, it is imperative to identify and understand the mechanisms by which environmental contaminants can impact the developing brain and heighten risk. Here, we report on recent findings regarding novel mechanisms of developmental neurotoxicity and highlight chemicals of concern, beyond traditionally defined neurotoxicants. RECENT FINDINGS: The perinatal window represents a critical and extremely vulnerable period of time during which chemical insult can alter the morphological and functional trajectory of the developing brain...
March 13, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Julien Daubriac, Shiwei Han, Jelena Grahovac, Eve Smith, Abdel Hosein, Marguerite Buchanan, Mark Basik, Yves Boucher
Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) can remodel the extracellular matrix to promote cancer cell invasion, but the paracrine signaling between CAFs and cancer cells that regulates tumor cell migration remains to be identified. To determine how the interaction between CAFs and cancer cells modulates the invasiveness of cancer cells, we developed a 3-dimensional co-culture model composed of breast cancer (BC) MDA-MB-231 cell spheroids embedded in a collagen gel with and without CAFs. We found that the crosstalk between CAFs and cancer cells promotes invasion by stimulating the scattering of MDA-MB-231 cells, which was dependent on RhoA/ROCK/phospho MLC signaling in cancer cells but independent of RhoA in CAFs...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Indrani Mukherjee, Ross R Large, Ross Corkrey, Leonid V Danyushevsky
The period 1800 to 800 Ma ("Boring Billion") is believed to mark a delay in the evolution of complex life, primarily due to low levels of oxygen in the atmosphere. Earlier studies highlight the remarkably flat C, Cr isotopes and low trace element trends during the so-called stasis, caused by prolonged nutrient, climatic, atmospheric and tectonic stability. In contrast, we suggest a first-order variability of bio-essential trace element availability in the oceans by combining systematic sampling of the Proterozoic rock record with sensitive geochemical analyses of marine pyrite by LA-ICP-MS technique...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Richard T Amison, Shirin Jamshidi, Khondaker M Rahman, Clive P Page, Simon C Pitchford
Platelet P2Y1 receptor signaling via RhoGTPases is necessary for platelet-dependent leukocyte recruitment, where no platelet aggregation is observed. We investigated signaling cascades involved in distinct P2Y1 -dependent platelet activities in vitro, using specific inhibitors for phospholipase C (PLC) (U73122, to inhibit the canonical pathway), and RhoGTPases: Rac1 (NSC23766) and RhoA (ROCK inhibitor GSK429286). Human platelet rich plasma (for platelet aggregation) or isolated washed platelets (for chemotaxis assays) was treated with U73122, GSK429286 or NSC23766 prior to stimulation with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or the P2Y1 specific agonist MRS2365...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Radhouan El Zrelli, Lotfi Rabaoui, Nabil Daghbouj, Heithem Abda, Sylvie Castet, Claudie Josse, Pieter van Beek, Marc Souhaut, Sylvain Michel, Nejla Bejaoui, Pierre Courjault-Radé
Since the establishment of the coastal industrial complex in Gabes city (Gulf of Gabes, SE Tunisia), hundred million tons of untreated phosphogypsum have been discharged in the open sea causing serious environmental problems. To better understand the dynamic and behavior of phosphate/phosphogypsum contaminants from raw ores to marine environment, a chemical, organic, mineralogical, and morphological characterization of phosphate rock and phosphogypsum was conducted using several sophisticated techniques. The chemical analysis showed that phosphate and phosphogypsum contain high loads of trace elements and that the transfer factors of pollutants varied from 5...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
T Michael De Silva, Mary L Modrick, Fabrice Dabertrand, Frank M Faraci
Vascular aging fundamentally contributes to large and small vessel disease. Despite the importance of such changes for brain function, mechanisms that mediate such changes are poorly defined. We explored mechanisms that underlie changes with age, testing the hypothesis that ROCK (Rho kinase) plays an important role. In C57BL/6 mice, baseline diameters of isolated pressurized parenchymal arterioles were similar in adult (4-5 month) and old mice (22±1 month; ≈15±1 µm). Endothelium-dependent dilation was impaired in old mice compared with adults in a pathway-specific manner...
March 12, 2018: Hypertension
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