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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904131/mir-31-regulates-rho-associated-kinase-myosin-light-chain-rock-mlc-pathway-and-inhibits-gastric-cancer-invasion-roles-of-rhoa
#1
Zhuo Chen, Shengnan Liu, Yuan Xia, Kejian Wu
BACKGROUND This study evaluated how the expression of miR-31 can be used to detect gastric cancer (GC) to help illuminate the role of miR-31 and RhoA in GC cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS We carried out our experiments using tissue specimens from 70 GC patients. The relative expression of miR-31 and RhoA mRNA in tissues and cells was detected by RT-PCR. The expression level of RhoA protein was detected by immunohistochemistry. GC cell line BGC-823 was transfected with six groups of vectors: blank group, NC (negative control) group, miR-31 mimics group, miR-31 mimics + RhoA group, miR-31 mimics + ROCK group, and miR-31 mimics + MLCK agonist group...
December 1, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903651/t-cells-encountering-myeloid-cells-programmed-for-amino-acid-dependent-immunosuppression-use-rictor-mtorc2-for-proliferative-checkpoint-decisions
#2
Lee-Ann Van de Velde, Chitra Subramanian, Amber M Smith, Luke Barron, Joseph E Qualls, Geoffrey Neale, Adolfo Alfonso-Pecchio, Suzanne Jackowski, Charles O Rock, Thomas A Wynn, Peter J Murray
Modulation of T cell proliferation and function by immunoregulatory myeloid cells is an essential means of preventing self-reactivity and restoring tissue homeostasis. Consumption of amino acids such as arginine and tryptophan by immunoregulatory macrophages is one pathway that suppresses local T cell proliferation. Using a reduced complexity in vitro macrophage: T cell co-culture system, we show that macrophage Arginase-1 (Arg1) is the only factor required by M2 macrophages to block T cells in G1, and this effect is mediated by L-arginine elimination rather than metabolite generation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900424/long-term-geochemical-evolution-of-lithogenic-versus-anthropogenic-distribution-of-macro-and-trace-elements-in-household-attic-dust
#3
Biljana Balabanova, Trajče Stafilov, Robert Šajn, Claudiu Tănăselia
Attic dusts were examined as historical archives of anthropogenic emissions, with the goal of elucidating the enrichment pathways associated with hydrothermal exploitation of Cu, Pb, and Zn minerals in the Bregalnica River basin in the eastern part of the Republic of Macedonia. Dust samples were collected from 84 settlements. Atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma were applied as analytical techniques for the determination of 69 element contents. Multivariate analysis was applied for the extraction of dominant geochemical markers...
November 29, 2016: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899893/raynaud-s-phenomenon-a-brief-review-of-the-underlying-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
Manal M Fardoun, Joseph Nassif, Khodr Issa, Elias Baydoun, Ali H Eid
Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is characterized by exaggerated cold-induced vasoconstriction. This augmented vasoconstriction occurs by virtue of a reflex response to cooling via the sympathetic nervous system as well as by local activation of α2C adrenoceptors (α2C-AR). In a cold-initiated, mitochondrion-mediated mechanism involving reactive oxygen species and the Rho/ROCK pathway, cytoskeletal rearrangement in vascular smooth muscle cells orchestrates the translocation of α2C-AR to the cell membrane, where this receptor readily interacts with its ligand...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899880/elbow-matching-accuracy-in-young-and-elderly-humans-under-unusual-mechanical-constraints
#5
Vera L Talis, Yuri S Levik
Experiment was carried out to study the proprioception accuracy of elderly (61-83 years old) and young (22-36 years old) subjects during contralateral elbow matching in sagittal plane. The subjects performed the task under ordinary condition and under experimental condition (matching forearm attached to the rocking cylindrical platform of low (LS), or high (HS) height, so that the elbow flexion was associated with tilting movement of the support and with backward movement of the upper arm). Control matching of young and elderly subjects does not differ significantly in terms of constant and absolute error...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899253/betulin-inhibited-cigarette-smoke-induced-copd-in-mice
#6
Ma Chunhua, Hongyan Long, Weina Zhu, Zheng Liu, Ruan Jie, Yajie Zhang, Yarui Wang
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of betulin (BE) on CS (cigarette smoke)-induced COPD in mice and explore its underlying mechanisms. 60 male ICR mice were randomly assigned to five groups: control group, model group, dexamethasone (2mg/kg) group, BE (20mg/kg) group and BE (40mg/kg) group. The COPD mice were induced by cigarette smoke exposure for 8 weeks. The result of H&E staining demonstrated that BE inhibited CS-induced pathological injury in lung tissue. Besides, BE could restore the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum and in lung, catalase (CAT) in serum and reduce the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and in lung...
November 26, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898793/increasing-soluble-phosphate-species-by-treatment-of-phosphate-rocks-with-acidic-waste
#7
Wedisson O Santos, Dean Hesterberg, Edson M Mattiello, Leonardus Vergütz, Matheus S C Barreto, Ivo R Silva, Luiz F S Souza Filho
The development of efficient fertilizers with a diminished environmental footprint will help meet the increasing demand for food and nutrients by a growing global population. Our objective was to evaluate whether an acidic mine waste (AMW) could be used beneficially by reacting it with sparingly soluble phosphate rocks (PRs) to produce more soluble P fertilizer materials. Three PRs from Brazil and Peru were reacted with different concentrations of AMW. Changes in mineralogy and P species were determined using a combination of X-ray diffraction and phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy, in addition to extractable P concentrations...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898372/gamma-radiation-induced-thermoluminescence-trace-element-and-paramagnetic-defect-of-quartz-from-the-sambagawa-metamorphic-belt-central-shikoku-japan
#8
T Chuenpee, O Nishikawa, Y Kon, K Ninagawa, S Toyoda, T Ogata, T Uchida, I Takashima
This study analyzes the Thermoluminescence (TL) emissions for five emission bands, trace element concentrations and defects in quartz grains extracted from metamorphic rocks and quartz veins in the Sambagawa metamorphic belt, central Shikoku. An emission of 500nm with 195, 245, and 320-325°C glow peaks are observed through the lowest to highest grade samples. A 450nm emission band with intense 195 and 245°C glow peaks and a 320-325°C shoulder peak is found in the higher grade samples. A 570nm emission band with a 170°C glow peak is observed in the samples derived from the lower grade zones...
November 17, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898187/tissue-engineering-acellular-scaffolds-the-significant-influence-of-physical-and-procedural-decellularization-factors
#9
F Starnecker, F Koenig, C Hagl, N Thierfelder
The importance of decellularized medical products has significantly increased during the last years. In this paper, we evaluated the effects of selected physical and procedural decellularization (DC) factors with the aim to systematically assess their influence on DC results. 72 porcine aortic walls (AW) were divided into three groups and exposed to a DC solution for 4 h and 8 h, either continuously or in repeated cycles. The AW were rocked (90bpm), whirled (10 l/min), sonicated (120W, 45 kHz) or exposed to a combination of these treatments, followed by 10 washing cycles...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898013/health-effects-due-to-radionuclides-content-of-solid-minerals-within-port-of-richards-bay-south-africa
#10
Felix B Masok, Paulus L Masiteng, Risimati D Mavunda, Peane P Maleka
This study assessed the radiological health hazards to various body organs of workers working within Transnet Precinct in Richards Bay in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa due to radionuclide content of mineral ores often stored within the facility. Thirty samples were collected from five mineral ores (rock phosphate, rutile, zircon, coal and hematite) and analyzed for (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (235)U, (232)Th, (228)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K using delayed neutron activation analysis and low energy gamma spectroscopy...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897212/groundwater-helium-anomaly-reflects-strain-change-during-the-2016-kumamoto-earthquake-in-southwest-japan
#11
Yuji Sano, Naoto Takahata, Takanori Kagoshima, Tomo Shibata, Tetsuji Onoue, Dapeng Zhao
Geochemical monitoring of groundwater and soil gas emission pointed out precursor and/or coseismic anomalies of noble gases associated with earthquakes, but there was lack of plausible physico-chemical basis. A laboratory experiment of rock fracturing and noble gas emission was conducted, but there is no quantitative connection between the laboratory results and observation in field. We report here deep groundwater helium anomalies related to the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake, which is an inland crustal earthquake with a strike-slip fault and a shallow hypocenter (10 km depth) close to highly populated areas in Southwest Japan...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895885/facing-the-spectator
#12
Jan Koenderink, Andrea van Doorn, Baingio Pinna, Robert Pepperell
We investigated the familiar phenomenon of the uncanny feeling that represented people in frontal pose invariably appear to "face you" from wherever you stand. We deploy two different methods. The stimuli include the conventional one-a flat portrait rocking back and forth about a vertical axis-augmented with two novel variations. In one alternative, the portrait frame rotates whereas the actual portrait stays motionless and fronto-parallel; in the other, we replace the (flat!) portrait with a volumetric object...
November 2016: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894406/vincristine-promotes-migration-and-invasion-of-colorectal-cancer-hct116-cells-through-rhoa-rock-myosin-light-chain-pathway
#13
X Jin, K Liu, B Jiao, X Wang, S Huang, W Ren, K Zhao
Vincristine is an antitumor vinca alkaloid isolated from vinca rosea, and is a medication used to treat a number of types of cancer. In this study, we investigated the impact of vincristine on oncogenic phenotypes of human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells. MTT assay demonstrated that vincristine showed a obviously inhibitory effect on cell growth compared to non-treated cells. However, Transwell assay showed that vincristine promoted migration and invasion of HCT116 cells in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner between 0...
October 31, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890409/geochemistry-of-arsenic-in-low-sulfide-high-carbonate-coal-waste-rock-elk-valley-british-columbia-canada
#14
Ashis Biswas, M Jim Hendry, Joseph Essilfie-Dughan
This study investigated the geochemistry of arsenic (As) in low sulfide-high carbonate coal waste rock of the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. Its abundance and mineralogical associations in waste rock of different placement periods were determined in addition to its mobilization into porewater and rock-drain effluent. The mean (5.34mg/kg; 95% confidence interval: 4.95-5.73mg/kg) As concentration in the waste rock was typical of sedimentary rock. Electron microprobe and As K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopic analyses showed the As is predominantly associated with primary pyrites in both source and freshly blasted waste rock...
November 24, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890299/monte-carlo-simulations-of-the-gamma-ray-exposure-rates-of-common-rocks
#15
Daniel A Haber, Russell L Malchow, Pamela C Burnley
Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to model the gamma ray emission and attenuation properties of common rocks. In geologic materials, (40)K, (238)U, and (232)Th are responsible for most gamma ray production. If the concentration of these radioelements and attenuation factors such as degree of water saturation are known, an estimate of the gamma-ray exposure rate can be made. The results show that there are no significant differences in gamma-ray screening between major rock types. If the total number of radionuclide atoms are held constant then the major controlling factor is density of the rock...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889761/cilostazol-suppresses-il-23-production-in-human-dendritic-cells-via-an-ampk-dependent-pathway
#16
Quanxing Shi, Zhao Yin, Peilin Liu, Bei Zhao, Zhong Zhang, Shuai Mao, Tengfei Wei, Mengmeng Rao, Liguo Zhang, Shouli Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cilostazol has been previously demonstrated to inhibit IL-23 production in human synovial macrophages via a RhoA/ROCK-dependent pathway. However, whether cilostazol affects IL-23 production in human dendritic cells remains largely unknown. The present study was designed to investigate this question and elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mo-DCs) were pretreated with or without cilostazol and then incubated with zymosan...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889467/treadmill-exercise-decreases-amyloid-%C3%AE-burden-possibly-via-activation-of-sirt-1-signaling-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Jung-Hoon Koo, Eun-Bum Kang, Yoo-Sung Oh, Dae-Seung Yang, Joon-Yong Cho
Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) correlates significantly with progressive cognitive deficits, a main symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although treadmill exercise reduces Aβ levels, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects are not fully understood. We hypothesize that treadmill exercise decreases Aβ production and alleviates cognitive deficits by activating the non-amyloidogenic pathway via SIRT-1 signaling. Treadmill exercise improved cognitive deficits and alleviated neurotoxicity. Most importantly, treadmill exercise increased SIRT-1 level, which subsequently resulted in increased ADAM-10 level by down-regulation of ROCK-1 and upregulation of RARβ, ultimately facilitating the non-amyloidogenic pathway...
November 23, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887827/groundwater-resource-vulnerability-and-spatial-variability-of-nitrate-contamination-insights-from-high-density-tubewell-monitoring-in-a-hard-rock-aquifer
#18
Sriramulu Buvaneshwari, Jean Riotte, M Sekhar, M S Mohan Kumar, Amit Kumar Sharma, Jean Louis Duprey, Stephane Audry, P R Giriraja, Yerabham Praveenkumarreddy, Hemanth Moger, Patrick Durand, Jean-Jacques Braun, Laurent Ruiz
Agriculture has been increasingly relying on groundwater irrigation for the last decades, leading to severe groundwater depletion and/or nitrate contamination. Understanding the links between nitrate concentration and groundwater resource is a prerequisite for assessing the sustainability of irrigated systems. The Berambadi catchment (ORE-BVET/Kabini Critical Zone Observatory) in Southern India is a typical example of intensive irrigated agriculture and then an ideal site to study the relative influences of land use, management practices and aquifer properties on NO3 spatial distribution in groundwater...
November 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886830/flexor-tendon-pulley-injuries-in-rock-climbers
#19
REVIEW
Elizabeth A King, John R Lien
Closed pulley ruptures are rare in the general population but occur more frequently in rock climbers due to biomechanical demands on the hand. Injuries present with pain and swelling over the affected pulley, and patients may feel or hear a pop at the time of injury. Sequential pulley ruptures are required for clinical bowstringing of the flexor tendons. Ultrasound confirms diagnosis of pulley rupture and evaluates degree of displacement of the flexor tendons. Isolated pulley ruptures frequently are treated conservatively with early functional rehabilitation...
February 2017: Hand Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886810/early-modern-human-lithic-technology-from-jerimalai-east-timor
#20
Ben Marwick, Chris Clarkson, Sue O'Connor, Sophie Collins
Jerimalai is a rock shelter in East Timor with cultural remains dated to 42,000 years ago, making it one of the oldest known sites of modern human activity in island Southeast Asia. It has special global significance for its record of early pelagic fishing and ancient shell fish hooks. It is also of regional significance for its early occupation and comparatively large assemblage of Pleistocene stone artefacts. Three major findings arise from our study of the stone artefacts. First, there is little change in lithic technology over the 42,000 year sequence, with the most noticeable change being the addition of new artefact types and raw materials in the mid-Holocene...
December 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
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