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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331918/dna-damage-in-marine-rock-oyster-saccostrea-cucullata-exposed-to-environmentally-available-pahs-and-heavy-metals-along-the-arabian-sea-coast
#1
Subhodeep Sarker, Deepti Vashistha, Munmun Saha Sarker, A Sarkar
Molecular biomarkers are used world wide for quick assessment of the immediate effect of environmental pollution on marine ecosystems. Recently, we evaluated oxidative stress responses of marine rock oyster, Saccostrea cucullata impacted due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulated in their tissues at a few sampling sites along the coast of Goa around the region of the Arabian sea coast, India (Sarkar et al., 2017). Using a combination of partial alkaline unwinding and comet assays, we now report a comprehensive study on the impairment of DNA integrity (DI) in S...
January 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331896/environmentally-available-hexavalent-chromium-in-soils-and-sediments-impacted-by-dispersed-fly-ash-in-sarigkiol-basin-northern-greece
#2
Nerantzis Kazakis, Nikolaos Kantiranis, Kyriaki Kalaitzidou, Efthimia Kaprara, Manassis Mitrakas, Robert Frei, George Vargemezis, Dimitrios Vogiatzis, Anastasios Zouboulis, Anestis Filippidis
Hexavalent chromium is one of the most toxic and carcinogenic species known and can be released into the environment from several sources. In Sarigkiol basin (N Greece) the presence of Cr(VI) in soil, sediments and groundwater may originate from both natural (ophiolitic rocks and their weathering products) and anthropogenic (dispersed fly ash produced from lignite power plants) sources. In this study, the distribution of contents and origin of environmentally available Cr(VI) in soils, sediments, regoliths and fly ash of Sarigkiol basin is presented...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331229/hominin-raw-material-procurement-in-the-oldowan-acheulean-transition-at-olduvai-gorge
#3
Lindsay J McHenry, Ignacio de la Torre
The lithic assemblages at the Oldowan-Acheulean transition in Bed II of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, represent a wide variety of raw materials reflecting both the diversity of volcanic, metamorphic, and sedimentary source materials available in the Olduvai basin and surroundings and the preferences of the tool-makers. A geochemical and petrographic systematic analysis of lava-derived archaeological stone tools, combined with textural and mineralogical characterization of quartzite, chert, and other metamorphic and sedimentary raw materials from two Middle and Upper Bed II sites, has enabled us to produce a comprehensive dataset and characterization of the rocks employed by Olduvai hominins, which is used here to establish a referential framework for future studies on Early Stone Age raw material provenancing...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330304/efficient-prion-disease-transmission-through-common-environmental-materials
#4
Sandra Pritzkow, Rodrigo Morales, Adam Lyon, Luis Concha-Marambio, Akihiko Urayama, Claudio Soto
Prion diseases are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases associated with a protein-based infectious agent, termed prion. Compelling evidence suggests that natural transmission of prion diseases is mediated by environmental contamination with infectious prions. We hypothesized that several natural and man-made materials, commonly found in the environments of wild and captive animals, can bind prions and may act as vectors for disease transmission. To test our hypothesis, we exposed surfaces composed of various common environmental materials (i...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330087/comparing-the-antipredator-behaviour-of-two-sympatric-but-not-syntopic-liolaemus-lizards
#5
Javiera Constanzo-Chávez, Mario Penna, Antonieta Labra
The microhabitat preferences of prey animals can modulate how they perceive predation risk, and therefore, their antipredator behaviour. We tested under standardized conditions how microhabitat preferences of two Liolaemus lizards affected their responses when confronted with two types of ambush predators (raptor vs. snake), under two levels of predation risk (low vs. high). These lizard species are sympatric, but not syntopic; L. chiliensis basks on bushes, a complex microhabitat that may provide protection against visual predators, while L...
January 9, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330086/learning-profitable-habitat-types-by-juvenile-crayfish
#6
Taylor M Johnson, Adam L Crane
Habitat selection is fundamentally important to animal ecology, and animals that can learn about habitats can increase the probability of avoiding detection by predators or quickly finding food. Here, we tested whether juveniles of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, can learn preference for habitat types based on experience with food availability. Crayfish were housed in arenas with two habitat types, half leaf habitat and half rock habitat. Over several days, crayfish were fed consistently in one of the habitat types...
January 9, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329594/modelling-the-structure-of-a-cerna-theoretical-bipartite-microrna-mrna-interaction-network-regulating-intestinal-epithelial-cellular-pathways-using-r-programming
#7
J M Robinson, W A Henderson
OBJECTIVE: We report a method using functional-molecular databases and network modelling to identify hypothetical mRNA-miRNA interaction networks regulating intestinal epithelial barrier function. The model forms a data-analysis component of our cell culture experiments, which produce RNA expression data from Nanostring Technologies nCounter® system. The epithelial tight-junction (TJ) and actin cytoskeleton interact as molecular components of the intestinal epithelial barrier. Upstream regulation of TJ-cytoskeleton interaction is effected by the Rac/Rock/Rho signaling pathway and other associated pathways which may be activated or suppressed by extracellular signaling from growth factors, hormones, and immune receptors...
January 12, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329546/whole-genome-sequencing-of-genotype-vi-newcastle-disease-viruses-from-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissues-from-wild-pigeons-reveals-continuous-evolution-and-previously-unrecognized-genetic-diversity-in-the-u-s
#8
Ying He, Tonya L Taylor, Kiril M Dimitrov, Salman L Butt, James B Stanton, Iryna V Goraichuk, Heather Fenton, Rebecca Poulson, Jian Zhang, Corrie C Brown, Hon S Ip, Marcos Isidoro-Ayza, Claudio L Afonso
BACKGROUND: Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) are highly contagious and cause disease in both wild birds and poultry. A pigeon-adapted variant of genotype VI NDV, often termed pigeon paramyxovirus 1, is commonly isolated from columbids in the United States and worldwide. Complete genomic characterization of these genotype VI viruses circulating in wild columbids in the United States is limited, and due to the genetic variability of the virus, failure of rapid diagnostic detection has been reported...
January 12, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329319/comparative-analysis-of-uranium-bioassociation-with-halophilic-bacteria-and-archaea
#9
Miriam Bader, Katharina Müller, Harald Foerstendorf, Matthias Schmidt, Karen Simmons, Juliet S Swanson, Donald T Reed, Thorsten Stumpf, Andrea Cherkouk
Rock salt represents a potential host rock formation for the final disposal of radioactive waste. The interactions between indigenous microorganisms and radionuclides, e.g. uranium, need to be investigated to better predict the influence of microorganisms on the safety assessment of the repository. Hence, the association process of uranium with two microorganisms isolated from rock salt was comparatively studied. Brachybacterium sp. G1, which was isolated from the German salt dome Gorleben, and Halobacterium noricense DSM15987T, were selected as examples of a moderately halophilic bacterium and an extremely halophilic archaeon, respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328891/dysplasia-should-not-be-ignored-in-lichenoid-mucositis
#10
L D Rock, D M Laronde, I Lin, M P Rosin, B Chan, B Shariati, L Zhang
Oral lichen planus is categorized as a potentially malignant condition by the World Health Organization; however, some argue that only lichen planus with dysplasia have malignant potential. Many pathologists call lichen planus with dysplasia "dysplasia with lichenoid mucositis (LM)" or "LM with dysplasia." Previous research has shown that certain high-risk patterns of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in dysplastic lesions are associated with significantly increased cancer risk. However, LM without dysplasia lacks such molecular patterns, supporting the hypothesis that LM, by itself, is not potentially malignant and that only those with dysplasia have malignant potential...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328178/determination-of-toxic-and-essential-metals-in-rock-and-sea-salts-using-pulsed-nanosecond-laser-induced-breakdown-spectroscopy
#11
I Rehan, M Zubair Khan, K Rehan, A Mateen, M Aamar Farooque, S Sultana, Z Farooq
A spectrometer based on pulsed nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was employed for the quantitative determination of heavy and essential metals in salts from various sources available in Pakistan. Six salt samples were collected from sea salt and rock salt. Toxic metals (Cu, Cd, and Ni) and other microessentials (Fe, Ca, Co, Mg, Mn, S, and Zn) were investigated from the recorded spectra. The detection system was calibrated using a parametric dependence study. The quantitative analyses were accomplished under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium and optically thin plasma...
January 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328058/behaviour-of-niobium-during-early-earth-s-differentiation-insights-from-its-local-structure-and-oxidation-state-in-silicate-melts-at-high-pressure
#12
Chrystele Sanloup, Benjamin Cochain, Charlotte de Grouchy, Konstantin Glazyrin, Zuzana Konopkova, Hanns-Peter Liermann, Innokenty Kantor, Raffaella Torchio, O Mathon, Tetsuo Irifune
Niobium (Nb) is one of the key trace elements used to understand Earth's formation and differentiation, and is remarkable for its deficiency relative to tantalum in terrestrial rocks compared to the building chondritic blocks. In this context, the local environment of Nb in silica-rich melts and glasses is studied by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at high pressure (P) up to 9.3 GPa and 1350 K using resistive-heating diamond-anvil cells. Nb is slightly less oxidized in the melt (intermediate valence between +4 and +5) than in the glass (+5), an effect evidenced from the shift of the Nb-edge towards lower energies...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326037/experimental-uptake-and-depuration-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-in-southern-rock-lobster-jasus-edwardsii
#13
Thomas Madigan, Navreet Malhi, Jessica Tan, Catherine McLeod, Ian Stewart, Tim Harwood, Grant Mann, Alison Turnbull
In October 2012, paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) were detected in the hepatopancreas of Southern Rock Lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) collected from the east coast of Tasmania, Australia. This resulted in the first commercial closure in Australia for this species. Questions were raised on how the toxins were transferred to the lobsters, how long the toxins would persist, whether PST-contaminated hepatopancreas posed a risk to human health, and what management strategies could be applied. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PST-contaminated mussels are a potential vector enabling toxin accumulation in J...
January 8, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325821/dna-vaccine-encoding-myristoylated-membrane-protein-mmp-of-rock-bream-iridovirus-rbiv-induces-protective-immunity-in-rock-bream-oplegnathus-fasciatus
#14
Myung-Hwa Jung, Chamilani Nikapitiya, Sung-Ju Jung
Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) causes severe mass mortalities in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) in Korea. In this study, we investigated the potential of viral membrane protein to induce antiviral status protecting rock bream against RBIV infection. We found that fish administered with ORF008L (myristoylated membrane protein, MMP) vaccine exhibited significantly higher levels of survival compared to ORF007L (major capsid protein, MCP). Moreover, ORF008L-based DNA vaccinated fish showed significant protection at 4 and 8 weeks post vaccination (wpv) than non-vaccinated fish after infected with RBIV (6...
January 8, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324210/between-the-rock-and-hard-place-the-evaluation-of-a-patient-with-a-history-of-cancer-for-solid-organ-transplantation
#15
Thomas G Gross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323050/long-non-coding-rna-nonmmug014387-promotes-schwann-cell-proliferation-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#16
Bin Pan, Zhong-Ju Shi, Jia-Yin Yan, Jia-He Li, Shi-Qing Feng
Schwann cells play a critical role in peripheral nerve regeneration through dedifferentiation and proliferation. In a previous study, we performed microarray analysis of the sciatic nerve after injury. Accordingly, we predicted that long non-coding RNA NONMMUG014387 may promote Schwann cell proliferation after peripheral nerve injury, as bioinformatic analysis revealed that the target gene of NONMMUG014387 was collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (Cthrc1). Cthrc1 may promote cell proliferation in a variety of cells by activating Wnt/PCP signaling...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322054/spatial-distribution-of-medically-important-scorpions-in-north-west-of-iran
#17
Mulood Mohammadi Bavani, Javad Rafinejad, Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd, Mohammad Ali Oshaghi, Shahrokh Navidpour, Farrokh Dabiri, Mehdi Badakhshan, Esmaeil Ghorbani, Masoomeh Bagheri
Background: Scorpions are one of the most important medical arthropods in Iran. This study aimed to determine the fauna, spatial distribution and some morphological characteristics of these venomous arthropods in the study area. Methods: Scorpions were collected using Ultra Violet light, rock rolling and digging methods in West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan, and Ardabil Provinces during 2015-2016. The specimens were preserved in 75% ethyl alcohol and transferred to the laboratory for species identification and morphological studies...
September 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321871/leaf-trait-variations-associated-with-habitat-affinity-of-tropical-karst-tree-species
#18
Nalaka Geekiyanage, Uromi Manage Goodale, Kunfang Cao, Kaoru Kitajima
Karst hills, that is, jagged topography created by dissolution of limestone and other soluble rocks, are distributed extensively in tropical forest regions, including southern parts of China. They are characterized by a sharp mosaic of water and nutrient availability, from exposed hilltops with poor soil development to valleys with occasional flooding, to which trees show species-specific distributions. Here we report the relationship of leaf functional traits to habitat preference of tropical karst trees. We described leaf traits of 19 tropical tree species in a seasonal karst rainforest in Guangxi Province, China, 12 species in situ and 13 ex situ in a non-karst arboretum, which served as a common garden, with six species sampled in both...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319181/the-small-gtpase-rhoa-regulates-the-limk1-2-cofilin-pathway-to-modulate-cytoskeletal-dynamics-in-oocyte-meiosis
#19
Xing Duan, Yu Zhang, Kun-Lin Chen, Hao-Lin Zhang, Lan-Lan Wu, Hong-Lin Liu, Zhen-Bo Wang, Shao-Chen Sun
LIM kinases (LIMK1/2) are LIM domain-containing serine/threonine/tyrosine kinases that mediate multiple cellular processes in mitosis. In the present study, we explored the functional roles and potential signaling pathway of LIMK1/2 during mouse oocyte meiosis. Disruption of LIMK1/2 activity and expression significantly decreased oocyte polar body extrusion. Live-cell imaging revealed that spindle migration was disturbed after both LIMK1 and LIMK2 knock down, and this might be due to aberrant distribution of actin filaments in the oocyte cytoplasm and cortex...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317747/radiation-characteristics-of-natural-gamma-ray-from-coal-and-gangue-for-recognition-in-top-coal-caving
#20
Ningbo Zhang, Changyou Liu
Recognition of coal and gangue (roof rock) is a key technology to realize fully mechanized top coal caving automated mining. This paper proposes to detect the instantaneous refuse content of drawn coal and gangue mixture during top coal caving by using natural gamma-ray technology. The generating environment of coal and rock seams, the distribution characteristics of natural gamma ray from coal and roof-rock and the principle of coal-gangue recognition using natural gamma-ray method were analyzed. The natural gamma ray radiation characteristics of coal and roof-rock seams from seven different typical coal mine areas who has thick coal seams in China have been researched, and a connection between radiation intensity and refuse content was set up...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
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