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Drosophila Hox

Zhaojun Cao, Yue Yin, Xuan Sun, Jun Han, Qing Peng Sun, Min Lu, Jinbao Pan, Weixiang Wang
Ash1 is a known H3K36-specific histone demethylase that is required for normal Hox gene expression and fertility in Drosophila and mammals. However, little is known about the expression and function of the fungal ortholog of Ash1 in phytopathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Here we report that MoKMT2H, an Ash1-like protein, is required for conidium germination and virulence in rice. We obtained MoKMT2H null mutant (ΔMoKMT2H) using a target gene replacement strategy. In the ΔMoKMT2H null mutants, global histone methyltransferase modifications (H3K4me3, H3K9me3, H3K27me3, and H3K36me2/3) of the genome were unaffected...
2016: BioMed Research International
Ralf Janssen
This paper summarizes our current knowledge on the expression and assumed function of Drosophila and (other) arthropod segmentation gene orthologs in Onychophora, a closely related outgroup to Arthropoda. This includes orthologs of the so-called Drosophila segmentation gene cascade including the Hox genes, as well as other genetic factors and pathways involved in non-drosophilid arthropods. Open questions about and around the topic are addressed, such as the definition of segments in onychophorans, the unclear regulation of conserved expression patterns downstream of non-conserved factors, and the potential role of mesodermal patterning in onychophoran segmentation...
October 7, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Zhibo Ma, Mo Li, Sharmila Roy, Kevin J Liu, Matthew L Romine, Derrick C Lane, Sapna K Patel, Haini N Cai
The three-dimensional (3D) organization of the eukaryotic genome is critical for its proper function. Evidence suggests that extensive chromatin loops form the building blocks of the genomic architecture, separating genes and gene clusters into distinct functional domains. These loops are anchored in part by a special type of DNA elements called chromatin boundary elements (CBEs). CBEs were originally found to insulate neighboring genes by blocking influences of transcriptional enhancers or the spread of silent chromatin...
August 26, 2016: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
Arya Zandvakili, Brian Gebelein
Metazoans encode clusters of paralogous Hox genes that are critical for proper development of the body plan. However, there are a number of unresolved issues regarding how paralogous Hox factors achieve specificity to control distinct cell fates. First, how do Hox paralogs, which have very similar DNA binding preferences in vitro, drive different transcriptional programs in vivo? Second, the number of potential Hox binding sites within the genome is vast compared to the number of sites bound. Hence, what determines where in the genome Hox factors bind? Third, what determines whether a Hox factor will activate or repress a specific target gene? Here, we review the current evidence that is beginning to shed light onto these questions...
June 2016: Journal of Developmental Biology
Daria Shlyueva, Antonio C A Meireles-Filho, Michaela Pagani, Alexander Stark
Hox homeodomain transcription factors are key regulators of animal development. They specify the identity of segments along the anterior-posterior body axis in metazoans by controlling the expression of diverse downstream targets, including transcription factors and signaling pathway components. The Drosophila melanogaster Hox factor Ultrabithorax (Ubx) directs the development of thoracic and abdominal segments and appendages, and loss of Ubx function can lead for example to the transformation of third thoracic segment appendages (e...
2016: PloS One
Hongjie Li, Yanyan Qi, Heinrich Jasper
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of metazoans is lined by a series of regionally distinct epithelia. To maintain structure and function of the GI tract, regionally diversified differentiation of somatic stem cell (SC) lineages is critical. The adult Drosophila midgut provides an accessible model to study SC regulation and specification in a regionally defined manner. SCs of the posterior midgut (PM) have been studied extensively, but the control of SCs in the middle midgut (MM) is less well understood. The MM contains a stomach-like copper cell region (CCR) that is regenerated by gastric stem cells (GSSCs) and contains acid-secreting copper cells (CCs)...
August 25, 2016: Developmental Biology
Holger Apitz, Iris Salecker
Differences in neuroepithelial patterning and neurogenesis modes contribute to area-specific diversifications of neural circuits. In the Drosophila visual system, two neuroepithelia, the outer (OPC) and inner (IPC) proliferation centers, generate neuron subtypes for four ganglia in several ways. Whereas neuroepithelial cells in the medial OPC directly convert into neuroblasts, in an IPC subdomain they generate migratory progenitors by epithelial-mesenchymal transition that mature into neuroblasts in a second proliferative zone...
July 1, 2016: Development
Naveen Prasad, Shreeharsha Tarikere, Dhanashree Khanale, Farhat Habib, L S Shashidhara
In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, the differential development of wing and haltere is dependent on the function of the Hox protein Ultrabithorax (Ubx). Here we compare Ubx-mediated regulation of wing patterning genes between the honeybee, Apis mellifera, the silkmoth, Bombyx mori and Drosophila. Orthologues of Ubx are expressed in the third thoracic segment of Apis and Bombyx, although they make functional hindwings. When over-expressed in transgenic Drosophila, Ubx derived from Apis or Bombyx could suppress wing development, suggesting evolutionary changes at the level of co-factors and/or targets of Ubx...
2016: Scientific Reports
Maria Warnefors, Britta Hartmann, Stefan Thomsen, Claudio R Alonso
Ultraconserved elements (UCEs) are discrete genomic elements conserved across large evolutionary distances. Although UCEs have been linked to multiple facets of mammalian gene regulation their extreme evolutionary conservation remains largely unexplained. Here, we apply a computational approach to investigate this question in Drosophila, exploring the molecular functions of more than 1,500 UCEs shared across the genomes of 12 Drosophila species. Our data indicate that Drosophila UCEs are hubs for gene regulatory functions and suggest that UCE sequence invariance originates from their combinatorial roles in gene control...
September 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Steven M Hrycaj, Deneen M Wellik
Hox proteins are a deeply conserved group of transcription factors originally defined for their critical roles in governing segmental identity along the antero-posterior (AP) axis in Drosophila. Over the last 30 years, numerous data generated in evolutionarily diverse taxa have clearly shown that changes in the expression patterns of these genes are closely associated with the regionalization of the AP axis, suggesting that Hox genes have played a critical role in the evolution of novel body plans within Bilateria...
2016: F1000Research
Rolf Urbach, David Jussen, Gerhard M Technau
The numbers and types of progeny cells generated by neural stem cells in the developing CNS are adapted to its region-specific functional requirements. In Drosophila, segmental units of the CNS develop from well-defined patterns of neuroblasts. Here we constructed comprehensive neuroblast maps for the three gnathal head segments. Based on the spatiotemporal pattern of neuroblast formation and the expression profiles of 46 marker genes (41 transcription factors), each neuroblast can be uniquely identified. Compared with the thoracic ground state, neuroblast numbers are progressively reduced in labial, maxillary and mandibular segments due to smaller sizes of neuroectodermal anlagen and, partially, to suppression of neuroblast formation and induction of programmed cell death by the Hox gene Deformed Neuroblast patterns are further influenced by segmental modifications in dorsoventral and proneural gene expression...
April 15, 2016: Development
Henrike Becker, Simone Renner, Gerhard M Technau, Christian Berger
During central nervous system (CNS) development neural stem cells (Neuroblasts, NBs) have to acquire an identity appropriate to their location. In thoracic and abdominal segments of Drosophila, the expression pattern of Bithorax-Complex Hox genes is known to specify the segmental identity of NBs prior to their delamination from the neuroectoderm. Compared to the thoracic, ground state segmental units in the head region are derived to different degrees, and the precise mechanism of segmental specification of NBs in this region is still unclear...
March 2016: PLoS Genetics
Gloriana V Trujillo, Dalea H Nodal, Candice V Lovato, Jill D Hendren, Lynda A Helander, TyAnna L Lovato, Rolf Bodmer, Richard M Cripps
The inflow tracts of the embryonic Drosophila cardiac tube, termed ostia, arise in its posterior three segments from cardiac cells that co-express the homeotic transcription factor Abdominal-A (abdA), the orphan nuclear receptor Seven-up (Svp), and the signaling molecule Wingless (Wg). To define the roles of these factors in inflow tract development, we assessed their function in inflow tract formation. We demonstrate, using several criteria, that abdA, svp, and wg are each critical for normal inflow tract formation...
May 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
Haluk Lacin, James W Truman
Neurogenesis in Drosophila occurs in two phases, embryonic and post-embryonic, in which the same set of neuroblasts give rise to the distinct larval and adult nervous systems, respectively. Here, we identified the embryonic neuroblast origin of the adult neuronal lineages in the ventral nervous system via lineage-specific GAL4 lines and molecular markers. Our lineage mapping revealed that neurons born late in the embryonic phase show axonal morphology and transcription factor profiles that are similar to the neurons born post-embryonically from the same neuroblast...
2016: ELife
Ilhan Akan, Dona C Love, Katryn R Harwood, Michelle R Bond, John A Hanover
Gene expression during Drosophila development is subject to regulation by the Polycomb (Pc), Trithorax (Trx), and Compass chromatin modifier complexes. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT/SXC) is essential for Pc repression suggesting that the O-GlcNAcylation of proteins plays a key role in regulating development. OGT transfers O-GlcNAc onto serine and threonine residues in intrinsically disordered domains of key transcriptional regulators; O-GlcNAcase (OGA) removes the modification. To pinpoint genomic regions that are regulated by O-GlcNAc levels, we performed ChIP-chip and microarray analysis after OGT or OGA RNAi knockdown in S2 cells...
May 6, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Devendran A Sadasivam, Der-Hwa Huang
Pluripotent stem cells often adopt a unique developmental program while retaining certain flexibility. The molecular basis of such properties remains unclear. Using differentiation of pluripotent Drosophila imaginal tissues as assays, we examined the contribution of epigenetic factors in ectopic activation of Hox genes. We found that over-expression of Trithorax H3K4 methyltransferase can induce ectopic adult appendages by selectively activating the Hox genes Ultrabithorax and Sex comb reduced in wing and leg discs, respectively...
February 2016: PLoS Genetics
Hui-Su Kim, Bo-Mi Kim, Bo-Young Lee, Sami Souissi, Heum Gi Park, Jae-Seong Lee
We report the first identification of the entire complement of the eight typical homeobox (hox) genes (lab, pb, Dfd, scr, antp, ubx, Abd-A, and Abd-B) and the ftz gene in a 192.8 kb region in the cyclopoid copepod Paracyclopina nana. A Hox3 gene ortholog was not present in the P. nana hox gene cluster, while the P. nana Dfd gene was transcribed in the opposite direction to the Daphnia pulex Dfd gene, but in the same direction as the Dfd genes of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum...
March 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Jana Friedrich, Sebastian Sorge, Fatmire Bujupi, Michael P Eichenlaub, Natalie G Schulz, Jochen Wittbrodt, Ingrid Lohmann
Feeding is an evolutionarily conserved and integral behavior that depends on the rhythmic activity of feeding muscles stimulated by specific motoneurons. However, critical molecular determinants underlying the development of the neuromuscular feeding unit are largely unknown. Here, we identify the Hox transcription factor Deformed (Dfd) as essential for feeding unit formation, from initial specification to the establishment of active synapses, by controlling stage-specific sets of target genes. Importantly, we found Dfd to control the expression of functional components of synapses, such as Ankyrin2-XL, a protein known to be critical for synaptic stability and connectivity...
February 2, 2016: Cell Reports
Ching Yew Beh, Sherif El-Sharnouby, Aikaterini Chatzipli, Steven Russell, Siew Woh Choo, Robert White
BACKGROUND: The regulation of specific target genes by transcription factors is central to our understanding of gene network control in developmental and physiological processes yet how target specificity is achieved is still poorly understood. This is well illustrated by the Hox family of transcription factors as their limited in vitro DNA-binding specificity contrasts with their clear in vivo functional specificity. RESULTS: We generated genome-wide binding profiles for three Hox proteins, Ubx, Abd-A and Abd-B, following transient expression in Drosophila Kc167 cells, revealing clear target specificity and a striking influence of chromatin accessibility...
2016: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Daniel Mariappa, Xiaowei Zheng, Marianne Schimpl, Olawale Raimi, Andrew T Ferenbach, H-Arno J Müller, Daan M F van Aalten
Post-translational modification of intracellular proteins with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) catalysed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) has been linked to regulation of diverse cellular functions. OGT possesses a C-terminal glycosyltransferase catalytic domain and N-terminal tetratricopeptide repeats that are implicated in protein-protein interactions. Drosophila OGT (DmOGT) is encoded by super sex combs (sxc), mutants of which are pupal lethal. However, it is not clear if this phenotype is caused by reduction of O-GlcNAcylation...
December 2015: Open Biology
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