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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369417/characterization-of-nlhox3-an-essential-gene-for-embryonic-development-in-nilaparvata-lugens
#1
Ze-Wei Ren, Ji-Chong Zhuo, Chuan-Xi Zhang, Dun Wang
Hox genes encode transcriptional regulatory proteins that control axial patterning in all bilaterians. The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a destructive insect pest of rice plants in Asian countries. During analysis of the N. lugens transcriptome, we identified a Hox3-like gene (NlHox3) that was highly and specifically expressed in the embryonic stage. We performed functional analysis on the gene to identify its roles in embryonic development and its potential use as a target in RNA interference (RNAi) based pest control...
January 25, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247145/distinct-subsets-of-eve-pericardial-cells-stabilise-cardiac-outflow-and-contribute-to-hox-triggered-heart-morphogenesis-in-drosophila
#2
Monika Zmojdzian, Svetlana de Joussineau, Jean Philippe Da Ponte, Krzysztof Jagla
The Drosophila heart, composed of discrete subsets of cardioblasts and pericardial cells, undergoes Hox-triggered anterior-posterior morphogenesis, leading to a functional subdivision into heart proper and aorta, with its most anterior part forming a funnel-shaped cardiac outflow. Cardioblasts differentiate into Tin-positive 'working myocytes' and Svp-expressing ostial cells. However, developmental fates and functions of heart-associated pericardial cells remain elusive. Here we show that the pericardial cells that express transcription factor Even Skipped adopt distinct fates along the anterior-posterior axis...
December 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247011/histone-demethylase-activity-of-utx-is-essential-for-viability-and-regulation-of%C3%A2-hox-gene-expression-in%C3%A2-drosophila
#3
Ömer Copur, Jürg Müller
The trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) by Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is essential for repression of Polycomb target genes. The role of enzymatic demethylation of H3K27me3 by the KDM6-family demethylases Utx, Uty and JmjD3 is however less clear. Studies in both mice and worms led to the proposal that KDM6 proteins but not their H3K27me3 demethylase activity is critical for normal development. Here, we investigated the requirement of the demethylase activity of the single KDM6 family member Utx in Drosophila We generated Drosophila expressing full-length but catalytic inactive Utx protein and found that these mutants show the same phenotypes like animals lacking Utx protein...
December 15, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180952/maintenance-of-positional-identity-of-neural-progenitors-in-the-embryonic-and-postnatal-telencephalon
#4
Ryan N Delgado, Daniel A Lim
Throughout embryonic development and into postnatal life, regionally distinct populations of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) collectively generate the many different types of neurons that underlie the complex structure and function of the adult mammalian brain. At very early stages of telencephalic development, NPCs become organized into regional domains that each produce different subsets of neurons. This positional identity of NPCs relates to the regional expression of specific, fate-determining homeodomain transcription factors...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023471/combinatorial-action-of-grainyhead-extradenticle-and-notch-in-regulating-hox-mediated-apoptosis-in-drosophila-larval-cns
#5
Risha Khandelwal, Rashmi Sipani, Sriivatsan Govinda Rajan, Raviranjan Kumar, Rohit Joshi
Hox mediated neuroblast apoptosis is a prevalent way to pattern larval central nervous system (CNS) by different Hox genes, but the mechanism of this apoptosis is not understood. Our studies with Abdominal-A (Abd-A) mediated larval neuroblast (pNB) apoptosis suggests that AbdA, its cofactor Extradenticle (Exd), a helix-loop-helix transcription factor Grainyhead (Grh), and Notch signaling transcriptionally contribute to expression of RHG family of apoptotic genes. We find that Grh, AbdA, and Exd function together at multiple motifs on the apoptotic enhancer...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927461/additional-sex-combs-interacts-with-enhancer-of-zeste-and-trithorax-and-modulates-levels-of-trimethylation-on-histone-h3k4-and-h3k27-during-transcription-of-hsp70
#6
Taosui Li, Jacob W Hodgson, Svetlana Petruk, Alexander Mazo, Hugh W Brock
BACKGROUND: Maintenance of cell fate determination requires the Polycomb group for repression; the trithorax group for gene activation; and the enhancer of trithorax and Polycomb (ETP) group for both repression and activation. Additional sex combs (Asx) is a genetically identified ETP for the Hox loci, but the molecular basis of its dual function is unclear. RESULTS: We show that in vitro, Asx binds directly to the SET domains of the histone methyltransferases (HMT) enhancer of zeste [E(z)] (H3K27me3) and Trx (H3K4me3) through a bipartite interaction site separated by 846 amino acid residues...
September 19, 2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871058/the-hox-proteins-ubx-and-abda-collaborate-with-the-transcription-pausing-factor-m1bp-to-regulate-gene-transcription
#7
Amel Zouaz, Ankush Auradkar, Marie Claire Delfini, Meiggie Macchi, Marine Barthez, Serge Ela Akoa, Leila Bastianelli, Gengqiang Xie, Wu-Min Deng, Stuart S Levine, Yacine Graba, Andrew J Saurin
In metazoans, the pausing of RNA polymerase II at the promoter (paused Pol II) has emerged as a widespread and conserved mechanism in the regulation of gene transcription. While critical in recruiting Pol II to the promoter, the role transcription factors play in transitioning paused Pol II into productive Pol II is, however, little known. By studying how Drosophila Hox transcription factors control transcription, we uncovered a molecular mechanism that increases productive transcription. We found that the Hox proteins AbdA and Ubx target gene promoters previously bound by the transcription pausing factor M1BP, containing paused Pol II and enriched with promoter-proximal Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins, yet lacking the classical H3K27me3 PcG signature...
October 2, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715417/a-hox-complex-activates-and-potentiates-the-epidermal-growth-factor-signaling-pathway-to-specify-drosophila-oenocytes
#8
Guolun Wang, Lisa Gutzwiller, David Li-Kroeger, Brian Gebelein
Hox transcription factors specify distinct cell types along the anterior-posterior axis of metazoans by regulating target genes that modulate signaling pathways. A well-established example is the induction of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) signaling by an Abdominal-A (Abd-A) Hox complex during the specification of Drosophila hepatocyte-like cells (oenocytes). Previous studies revealed that Abd-A is non-cell autonomously required to promote oenocyte fate by directly activating a gene (rhomboid) that triggers EGF secretion from sensory organ precursor (SOP) cells...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710118/correction-for-wang-et-al-comparative-analysis-of-chromatin-binding-by-sex-comb-on-midleg-scm-and-other-polycomb-group-repressors-at-a-drosophila-hox-gene
#9
Liangjun Wang, Neal Jahren, Ellen L Miller, Carrie S Ketel, Daniel R Mallin, Jeffrey A Simon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698559/repression-of-abd-b-by-polycomb-is-critical-for-cell-identity-maintenance-in-adult-drosophila-testis
#10
Shuo Zhang, Chenyu Pan, Xiangdong Lv, Wei Wu, Hao Chen, Wenqing Wu, Hailong Wu, Lei Zhang, Yun Zhao
Hox genes play a fundamental role in regulating animal development. However, less is known about their functions on homeostasis maintenance in adult stem cells. Here, we report that the repression of an important axial Hox gene, Abdominal-B (Abd-B), in cyst stem cells (CySCs) is essential for the homeostasis and cell identity maintenance in the adult Drosophila testis. Derepression of Abd-B in CySCs disrupts the proper self-renewal of both germline stem cells (GSCs) and CySCs, and leads to an excessive expansion of early stage somatic cells, which originate from both lineages...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642242/specific-expression-and-function-of-the-six3-optix-in-drosophila-serially-homologous-organs
#11
Amer Al Khatib, Natalia Siomava, Antonella Iannini, Nico Posnien, Fernando Casares
Organ size and pattern results from the integration of two positional information systems. One global information system, encoded by the Hox genes, links organ type with position along the main body axis. Within specific organs, local information is conveyed by signaling molecules that regulate organ growth and pattern. The mesothoracic (T2) wing and the metathoracic (T3) haltere of Drosophila represent a paradigmatic example of this coordination. The Hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx), expressed in the developing T3, selects haltere identity by, among other processes, modulating the production and signaling efficiency of Dpp, a BMP2-like molecule that acts as a major regulator of size and pattern...
August 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604694/a-mutant-o-glcnacase-enriches-drosophila-developmental-regulators
#12
Nithya Selvan, Ritchie Williamson, Daniel Mariappa, David G Campbell, Robert Gourlay, Andrew T Ferenbach, Tonia Aristotelous, Iva Hopkins-Navratilova, Matthias Trost, Daan M F van Aalten
Protein O-GlcNAcylation is a reversible post-translational modification of serines and threonines on nucleocytoplasmic proteins. It is cycled by the enzymes O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAc hydrolase (O-GlcNAcase or OGA). Genetic approaches in model organisms have revealed that protein O-GlcNAcylation is essential for early embryogenesis. The Drosophila melanogaster gene supersex combs (sxc), which encodes OGT, is a polycomb gene, whose null mutants display homeotic transformations and die at the pharate adult stage...
August 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468905/pervasive-behavioral-effects-of-microrna-regulation-in-drosophila
#13
Joao Picao-Osorio, Ines Lago-Baldaia, Pedro Patraquim, Claudio R Alonso
The effects of microRNA (miRNA) regulation on the genetic programs underlying behavior remain largely unexplored. Despite this, recent work in Drosophila shows that mutation of a single miRNA locus (miR-iab4/iab8) affects the capacity of the larva to correct its orientation if turned upside down (self-righting, SR), suggesting that other miRNAs might also be involved in behavioral control. Here we explore this possibility, studying early larval SR behavior in a collection of 81 Drosophila miRNA mutants covering almost the entire miRNA complement of the late embryo...
July 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414802/neuronal-cell-fate-specification-by-the-molecular-convergence-of-different-spatio-temporal-cues-on-a-common-initiator-terminal-selector-gene
#14
Johannes Stratmann, Stefan Thor
The extensive genetic regulatory flows underlying specification of different neuronal subtypes are not well understood at the molecular level. The Nplp1 neuropeptide neurons in the developing Drosophila nerve cord belong to two sub-classes; Tv1 and dAp neurons, generated by two distinct progenitors. Nplp1 neurons are specified by spatial cues; the Hox homeotic network and GATA factor grn, and temporal cues; the hb -> Kr -> Pdm -> cas -> grh temporal cascade. These spatio-temporal cues combine into two distinct codes; one for Tv1 and one for dAp neurons that activate a common terminal selector feedforward cascade of col -> ap/eya -> dimm -> Nplp1...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392108/anterior-posterior-gradient-in-neural-stem-and-daughter-cell-proliferation-governed-by-spatial-and-temporal-hox-control
#15
Ignacio Monedero Cobeta, Behzad Yaghmaeian Salmani, Stefan Thor
A readily evident feature of animal central nervous systems (CNSs), apparent in all vertebrates and many invertebrates alike, is its "wedge-like" appearance, with more cells generated in anterior than posterior regions. This wedge could conceivably be established by an antero-posterior (A-P) gradient in the number of neural progenitor cells, their proliferation behaviors, and/or programmed cell death (PCD). However, the contribution of each of these mechanisms, and the underlying genetic programs, are not well understood...
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380363/polycomb-and-hox-genes-control-jnk-induced-remodeling-of-the-segment-boundary-during-drosophila-morphogenesis
#16
Solange Roumengous, Raphaël Rousset, Stéphane Noselli
In segmented tissues, anterior and posterior compartments represent independent morphogenetic domains, which are made of distinct lineages separated by boundaries. During dorsal closure of the Drosophila embryo, specific "mixer cells" (MCs) are reprogrammed in a JNK-dependent manner to express the posterior determinant engrailed (en) and cross the segment boundary. Here, we show that JNK signaling induces de novo expression of en in the MCs through repression of Polycomb (Pc) and release of the en locus from the silencing PcG bodies...
April 4, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357140/the-noncell-autonomous-requirement-of-proboscipedia-for-growth-and-differentiation-of-the-distal-maxillary-palp-during-metamorphosis-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Anthony Percival-Smith, Gabriel Ponce, Jacob J H Pelling
The Drosophila maxillary palpus that develops during metamorphosis is composed of two elements: the proximal maxillary socket and distal maxillary palp. The HOX protein, Proboscipedia (PB), was required for development of the proximal maxillary socket and distal maxillary palp. For growth and differentiation of the distal maxillary palp, PB was required in the cells of, or close to, the maxillary socket, as well as the cells of the distal maxillary palp. Therefore, PB is required in cells outside the distal maxillary palp for the expression, by some mechanism, of a growth factor or factors that promote the growth of the distal maxillary palp...
2017: Genetics Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331962/sex-combs-reduced-scr-regulatory-region-of-drosophila-revisited
#18
Juan M Calvo-Martín, Montserrat Papaceit, Carmen Segarra
The Hox gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) is responsible for the differentiation of the labial and prothoracic segments in Drosophila. Scr is expressed in several specific tissues throughout embryonic development, following a complex path that must be coordinated by an equally complex regulatory region. Although some cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) have been identified in the Scr regulatory region (~75 kb), there has been no detailed and systematic study of the distinct regulatory elements present within this region...
August 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302795/causal-role-for-inheritance-of-h3k27me3-in-maintaining-the-off-state-of-a-drosophila-hox-gene
#19
Rory T Coleman, Gary Struhl
Many eukaryotic cells can respond to transient environmental or developmental stimuli with heritable changes in gene expression that are associated with nucleosome modifications. However, it remains uncertain whether modified nucleosomes play a causal role in transmitting such epigenetic memories, as opposed to controlling or merely reflecting transcriptional states inherited by other means. Here, we provide in vivo evidence that H3K27 trimethylated nucleosomes, once established at a repressed Drosophila HOX gene, remain heritably associated with that gene and can carry the memory of the silenced state through multiple rounds of replication, even when the capacity to copy the H3K27me3 mark to newly incorporated nucleosomes is diminished or abolished...
April 7, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231245/signalling-crosstalk-at-the-leading-edge-controls-tissue-closure-dynamics-in-the-drosophila-embryo
#20
Raphaël Rousset, Fabrice Carballès, Nadège Parassol, Sébastien Schaub, Delphine Cérézo, Stéphane Noselli
Tissue morphogenesis relies on proper differentiation of morphogenetic domains, adopting specific cell behaviours. Yet, how signalling pathways interact to determine and coordinate these domains remains poorly understood. Dorsal closure (DC) of the Drosophila embryo represents a powerful model to study epithelial cell sheet sealing. In this process, JNK (JUN N-terminal Kinase) signalling controls leading edge (LE) differentiation generating local forces and cell shape changes essential for DC. The LE represents a key morphogenetic domain in which, in addition to JNK, a number of signalling pathways converges and interacts (anterior/posterior -AP- determination; segmentation genes, such as Wnt/Wingless; TGFβ/Decapentaplegic)...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
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