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Hox regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642242/specific-expression-and-function-of-the-six3-optix-in-drosophila-serially-homologous-organs
#1
Amer Al Khatib, Natalia Siomava, Antonella Iannini, Nico Posnien, Fernando Casares
Organ size and pattern results from the integration of two positional information systems. One global, encoded by the Hox genes, links organ type with position along the main body axis. Within specific organs, local information is conveyed by signaling molecules that regulate organ growth and pattern. The mesothoracic (T2) wing and the metathoracic (T3) haltere of Drosophila represent a paradigmatic example of this coordination. The Hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx), expressed in the developing T3, selects haltere identity by, among other processes, modulating the production and signaling efficiency of Dpp, a BMP2-like molecule that acts as a major regulator of size and pattern...
June 22, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621427/adhfe1-a-novel-enzyme-involved-in-retinoic-acid-dependent-hox-activation
#2
Yehuda Shabtai, Natalie Shukrun, Abraham Fainsod
Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is a central pathway regulating anterior-posterior patterning of the embryo through its targets, the Hox genes. RA is produced by two sequential oxidations from vitamin A (retinol) and this biosynthesis has to be regulated temporally, spatially and quantitatively. Mining Xenopus embryonic expression databases identified a novel component of the RA metabolic network, ADHFe1. Using Xenopus laevis embryos as our experimental system we determined the temporal and spatial pattern of AdhFe1 expression...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614722/quantitative-analysis-of-the-dna-methylation-sensitivity-of-transcription-factor-complexes
#3
Judith F Kribelbauer, Oleg Laptenko, Siying Chen, Gabriella D Martini, William A Freed-Pastor, Carol Prives, Richard S Mann, Harmen J Bussemaker
Although DNA modifications play an important role in gene regulation, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We developed EpiSELEX-seq to probe the sensitivity of transcription factor binding to DNA modification in vitro using massively parallel sequencing. Feature-based modeling quantifies the effect of cytosine methylation ((5)mC) on binding free energy in a position-specific manner. Application to the human bZIP proteins ATF4 and C/EBPβ and three different Pbx-Hox complexes shows that (5)mCpG can both increase and decrease affinity, depending on where the modification occurs within the protein-DNA interface...
June 13, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609438/peg3-control-on-the-mammalian-msl-complex
#4
An Ye, Hana Kim, Joomyeong Kim
Peg3 (paternally expressed gene 3) encodes a DNA-binding protein that functions as a transcriptional repressor. Recent studies revealed that PEG3 binds to Msl1 (male-specific lethal 1) and Msl3, the two main components of the MSL complex. In the current study, we investigated potential roles of Peg3 in controlling its downstream genes through H4K16ac, the histone modification by the MSL complex. According to the results, complete removal of PEG3 resulted in up-regulation of Msl1 and Msl3, and subsequently an increase in the global levels of H4K16ac, confirming PEG3 as a transcriptional repressor for MSL during mammalian development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605223/homeobox-c10-inhibits-the-osteogenic-differentiation-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#5
Guoqing Li, Nannan Han, Haoqing Yang, Liping Wang, Xiao Lin, Shu Diao, Juan Du, Rui Dong, Songlin Wang, Zhipeng Fan
PURPOSE: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a reliable cell source for tissue regeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the directed differentiation of MSCs remain unclear which impedes potential clinical applications. Recent studies have discovered that HOX genes are involved in the differentiation regulation of MSCs and bone formation. In this study, we investigate the HOXC10 function in the osteogenic differentiation potential of MSCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were used in this study...
June 12, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604694/a-mutant-o-glcnacase-enriches-drosophila-developmental-regulators
#6
Nithya Selvan, Ritchie Williamson, Daniel Mariappa, David G Campbell, Robert Gourlay, Andrew T Ferenbach, Tonia Aristotelous, Iva Hopkins-Navratilova, Matthias Trost, Daan M F van Aalten
Protein O-GlcNAcylation is a reversible post-translational modification of serines and threonines on nucleocytoplasmic proteins. It is cycled by the enzymes O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAc hydrolase (O-GlcNAcase or OGA). Genetic approaches in model organisms have revealed that protein O-GlcNAcylation is essential for early embryogenesis. The Drosophila melanogaster gene supersex combs (sxc), which encodes OGT, is a polycomb gene, whose null mutants display homeotic transformations and die at the pharate adult stage...
June 12, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584089/dynamic-regulation-of-nanog-and-stem-cell-signaling-pathways-by-hoxa1-during-early-neuro-ectodermal-differentiation-of-es-cells
#7
Bony De Kumar, Hugo J Parker, Mark E Parrish, Jeffrey J Lange, Brian D Slaughter, Jay R Unruh, Ariel Paulson, Robb Krumlauf
Homeobox a1 (Hoxa1) is one of the most rapidly induced genes in ES cell differentiation and it is the earliest expressed Hox gene in the mouse embryo. In this study, we used genomic approaches to identify Hoxa1-bound regions during early stages of ES cell differentiation into the neuro-ectoderm. Within 2 h of retinoic acid treatment, Hoxa1 is rapidly recruited to target sites that are associated with genes involved in regulation of pluripotency, and these genes display early changes in expression. The pattern of occupancy of Hoxa1 is dynamic and changes over time...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553126/rna-binding-protein-hur-promotes-bladder-cancer-progression-by-competitively-binding-to-the-long-noncoding-hotair-with-mir-1
#8
Dapeng Yu, Chao Zhang, Junqing Gui
The elevated expressions of RNA-binding protein HuR and long noncoding HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) are observed in numerous cancers. And HuR often exerts its promotive effects on tumorigenesis via binding to AU-rich elements in target transcripts and thus regulating the expression of target transcripts. However, the roles and related mechanisms of HuR/HOTAIR in bladder cancer progression have never been formally tested. Here, we found that the expression level of HuR was higher in clinical bladder cancer samples than in normal adjacent samples, mirroring that of HOTAIR, and their expression showed strong correlation...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546992/identification-of-transcription-factors-potentially-involved-in-human-adipogenesis-in%C3%A2-vitro
#9
Melvin Anyasi Ambele, Michael Sean Pepper
BACKGROUND: Increased adiposity in humans leads to obesity, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. We previously conducted an extensive unbiased in vitro transcriptomic analysis of adipogenesis, using human adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs). Here, we have applied computational methods to these data to identify transcription factors (TFs) that constitute the upstream gene regulatory networks potentially, driving adipocyte formation in human ASCs...
May 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541373/the-histone-acetylation-mediated-by-gcn5-regulates-the-hoxc11-gene-expression-in-mefs
#10
Ji Hoon Oh, Ji-Yeon Lee, Kyoung-Ah Kong, Jie Min Kim, Myoung Hee Kim
Hox genes are responsible for encoding transcription factors that are essential for anterior-posterior body patterning at early stages of embryogenesis. However, detailed mechanisms of Hox genes are yet to be defined. Protein kinase B alpha (Akt1) was previously identified as a possible upstream regulator of Hox genes. Furthermore, the Hoxc11 gene has been upregulated in Akt1 null (Akt1-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), while repressed in wild-type MEFs. In this study, we propose to investigate the role of Gcn5, a histone acetyltransferase, in the regulation of Hoxc11 expression in MEFs...
May 24, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534516/transcriptional-and-posttranscriptional-regulation-of-hoxa13-by-lncrna-hottip-facilitates-tumorigenesis-and-metastasis-in-esophageal-squamous-carcinoma-cells
#11
C Lin, Y Wang, Y Wang, S Zhang, L Yu, C Guo, H Xu
The long non-coding RNA, HOTTIP, has an important role in tumorigenesis. It is known that HOTTIP regulates HOX gene family; however, its regulatory mechanism in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the role of HOTTIP in ESCC and observed that HOTTIP/HOXA13 was upregulated in ESCC and promoted cell proliferation and metastasis in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, harboring a miR-30b-binding site, HOTTIP as a molecular sponge mainly regulated miR-30b level in the nucleus and modulated the repression of HOXA13 mediated by miR-30b in the cytoplasm, resulting in the positive HOTTIP/HOXA13 correlation...
May 22, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529621/hoxa5-and-p53-cooperate-to-suppress-lung-cancer-cell-invasion-and-serve-as-good-prognostic-factors-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#12
Chi-Jen Chang, Yen-Lin Chen, Chia-Hung Hsieh, Ya-Jung Liu, Sung-Liang Yu, Jeremy J W Chen, Chi-Chung Wang
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide and tumor metastasis is the major cause of cancer-related death. Our previous study suggested that Homeobox A5 (HOXA5) could inhibit lung cancer cell invasion via regulating cytoskeletal remodeling and involved in tumor metastasis. Recently, consensus HOX binding sites was found in the p53 gene promoter region. However, whether the HOXA5 could cooperate with p53 and contribute the inhibition of lung cancer cell invasion is still unclear. The aim of the current study is to elucidate the correlation of HOXA5 and p53 in tumor invasion and its prognostic influence in lung cancer patient specimens...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515451/hoxa7-hoxa9-and-hoxa10-are-differentially-expressed-in-clival-and-sacral-chordomas
#13
Daniela Jäger, Thomas F E Barth, Silke Brüderlein, Angelika Scheuerle, Beate Rinner, Adrian von Witzleben, André Lechel, Patrick Meyer, Regine Mayer-Steinacker, Alexandra von Baer, Markus Schultheiss, Christian R Wirtz, Peter Möller, Kevin Mellert
Chordomas are rare tumours of the bone arising along the spine from clivus to sacrum. We compared three chordoma cell lines of the clivus region including the newly established clivus chordoma cell line, U-CH14, with nine chordoma cell lines originating from sacral primaries by morphology, on genomic and expression levels and with patient samples from our chordoma tissue bank. Clinically, chordomas of the clivus were generally smaller in size at presentation and patients with sacral chordomas had more metastases and more often recurrent disease...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487406/set1a-compass-and-shadow-enhancers-in-the-regulation-of-homeotic-gene-expression
#14
Kaixiang Cao, Clayton K Collings, Stacy A Marshall, Marc A Morgan, Emily J Rendleman, Lu Wang, Christie C Sze, Tianjiao Sun, Elizabeth T Bartom, Ali Shilatifard
The homeotic (Hox) genes are highly conserved in metazoans, where they are required for various processes in development, and misregulation of their expression is associated with human cancer. In the developing embryo, Hox genes are activated sequentially in time and space according to their genomic position within Hox gene clusters. Accumulating evidence implicates both enhancer elements and noncoding RNAs in controlling this spatiotemporal expression of Hox genes, but disentangling their relative contributions is challenging...
April 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484075/twist1-wdr5-hottip-regulates-hoxa9-chromatin-to-facilitate-prostate-cancer-metastasis
#15
Reem Malek, Rajendra P Gajula, Russell D Williams, Belinda Nghiem, Brian W Simons, Katriana Nugent, Hailun Wang, Kekoa Taparra, Ghali Lemtiri-Chlieh, Arum R Yoon, Lawrence True, Steven S An, Theodore L DeWeese, Ashley E Ross, Edward M Schaeffer, Kenneth J Pienta, Paula J Hurley, Colm Morrissey, Phuoc T Tran
TWIST1 is a transcription factor critical for development that can promote prostate cancer metastasis. During embryonic development, TWIST1 and HOXA9 are coexpressed in mouse prostate and then silenced postnatally. Here we report that TWIST1 and HOXA9 coexpression are reactivated in mouse and human primary prostate tumors and are further enriched in human metastases, correlating with survival. TWIST1 formed a complex with WDR5 and the lncRNA Hottip/HOTTIP, members of the MLL/COMPASS-like H3K4 methylases, which regulate chromatin in the Hox/HOX cluster during development...
May 8, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476883/the-long-non-coding-rna-hotair-enhances-pancreatic-cancer-resistance-to-tnf-related-apoptosis-inducing-ligand
#16
Shan-Zhong Yang, Fei Xu, Tong Zhou, Xinyang Zhao, Jay M McDonald, Yabing Chen
Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm with a high mortality rate. Therapeutic agents that activate TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis have shown promising efficacy, but many pancreatic cancers are resistant to TRAIL therapy. Epigenetic regulation plays important roles in tumor pathogenesis and resistance, and a recent study indicated that the long non-coding RNA HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. However, the role of HOTAIR in pancreatic cancer resistance to anticancer agents is unknown...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468905/pervasive-behavioural-effects-of-microrna-regulation-in-drosophila
#17
Joao Picao-Osorio, Ines Lago-Baldaia, Pedro Patraquim, Claudio R Alonso
The effects of microRNA (miRNA) regulation on the genetic programs underlying behaviour remain largely unexplored. Despite this, recent work in Drosophila shows that mutation of a single miRNA locus (miR-iab4/iab8) affects the capacity of the larva to correct its orientation if turned upside-down (self-righting, SR) suggesting that other miRNAs might also be involved in behavioural control. Here we explore this possibility studying early larval SR behaviour in a collection of eighty-one Drosophila miRNA mutants covering almost the entire miRNA complement of the late embryo...
May 3, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464221/overexpression-of-hoxa4-and-hoxa9-genes-promotes-self-renewal-and-contributes-to-colon-cancer-stem-cell-overpopulation
#18
Seema Bhatlekar, Vignesh Viswanathan, Jeremy Z Fields, Bruce M Boman
Because HOX genes encode master regulatory transcription factors that regulate stem cells (SCs) during development and aberrant expression of HOX genes occurs in various cancers, our goal was to determine if dysregulation of HOX genes is involved in the SC origin of colorectal cancer (CRC). We previously reported that HOXA4 and HOXD10 are expressed in the colonic SC niche and are overexpressed in CRC. HOX gene expression was studied in SCs from human colon tissue and CRC cells (CSCs) using qPCR and immunostaining...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462489/role-of-maml1-and-meis1-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-depth-of-invasion
#19
Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan, Meysam Moghbeli
Homeobox (HOX) transcription factors and NOTCH signaling pathway are critical regulators of stem cell functions, cell fate in development and homeostasis of gastrointestinal tissues. In the present study, we analyzed cross talk between NOTCH pathway and HOX genes through assessment of probable correlation betweenMAML1 and MEIS1 as the main transcription factor of NOTCH pathway and enhancer of HOX transcriptional machinery, respectively in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Fifty one ESCC cases were enrolled to assess the levels of Meis1 and Maml1 mRNA expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
May 1, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456906/the-epigenomic-landscape-in-osteoarthritis
#20
REVIEW
Tommie C Simon, Matlock A Jeffries
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epigenomics has emerged as a key player in our rapidly evolving understanding of osteoarthritis. Historical studies implicated epigenetic alterations, particularly DNA methylation, in OA pathogenesis; however, recent technological advances have resulted in numerous epigenome-wide studies examining in detail epigenetic modifications in OA. The purpose of this article is to introduce basic concepts in epigenetics and their recent applications to the study of osteoarthritis development and progression...
June 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
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