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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110243/a-biomechanical-testing-system-to-determine-micromotion-between-hip-implant-and-femur-accounting-for-deformation-of-the-hip-implant-assessment-of-the-influence-of-rigid-body-assumptions-on-micromotions-measurements
#1
Steven Leuridan, Quentin Goossens, Jorg Roosen, Leonard Pastrav, Kathleen Denis, Michiel Mulier, Wim Desmet, Jos Vander Sloten
BACKGROUND: Accurate pre-clinical evaluation of the initial stability of new cementless hip stems using in vitro micromotion measurements is an important step in the design process to assess the new stem's potential. Several measuring systems, linear variable displacement transducer-based and other, require assuming bone or implant to be rigid to obtain micromotion values or to calculate derived quantities such as relative implant tilting. METHODS: An alternative linear variable displacement transducer-based measuring system not requiring a rigid body assumption was developed in this study...
January 16, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110146/enhanced-arm-swing-alters-interlimb-coordination-during-overground-walking-in-individuals-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Ksenia I Ustinova, Joseph E Langenderfer, Nilanthy Balendra
The current study investigated interlimb coordination in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) during overground walking. The study involved 10 participants with coordination, balance, and gait abnormalities post-TBI, as well as 10 sex- and age-matched healthy control individuals. Participants walked 12m under two experimental conditions: 1) at self-selected comfortable walking speeds; and 2) with instructions to increase the amplitude and out-of-phase coordination of arm swinging. The gait was assessed with a set of spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters including the gait velocity, step length and width, double support time, lateral displacement of the center of mass, the amplitude of horizontal trunk rotation, and angular motions at shoulder and hip joints in sagittal plane...
January 19, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108780/cement-augmented-screws-in-a-cervical-two-level-corpectomy-with-anterior-titanium-mesh-cage-reconstruction-a-biomechanical-study
#3
Sebastian Hartmann, Claudius Thomé, Anja Tschugg, Johannes Paesold, Pujan Kavakebi, Werner Schmölz
STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical investigation. PURPOSE: Cervical two-level corpectomies with anterior-only instrumentation are associated with a high rate of implant-related complications. These procedures, therefore, often require an additional dorsal instrumentation to prevent screw loosening. Cement augmentation of the anterior screws in two-level corpectomies might stabilize the construct, so that a second dorsal procedure could be avoided. To evaluate the screw anchorage in cervical anterior-only procedures, an ex vivo evaluation of the range of motion (ROM) in two-level corpectomies (C4 and C5), with and without cement augmentation of the anterior screws, was carried out in this study...
January 21, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108669/developmental-differences-in-dynamic-muscle-tendon-behavior-implications-for-movement-efficiency
#4
C M Waugh, T Korff, A J Blazevich
Children perform cyclic motor tasks less efficiently than adults, however the mechanisms underlying such differences are not fully understood. One mechanism that may contribute these age-related differences is a differential contribution of muscles and tendons to a given muscle tendon unit (MTU) excursion. The aims of this study were to a) compare muscle and tendon excursion between children and adults performing vertical hopping, and b) determine if children and adults choose a hopping frequency that maximizes movement efficiency, based on the utilization of energy-saving mechanisms...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108424/clinical-and-radiological-findings-after-multilevel-cervical-total-disc-replacement-defining-radiological-changes-to-predict-surgical-outcomes
#5
Jung Hwan Lee, Sang-Ho Lee, Jun Ho Lee
OBJECTIVE: This study compared the radiological parameters between preoperation and postoperation for patients who underwent multilevel cervical total disc replacement (MCTDR) and assessed which parameters were related to successful clinical outcomes after MCTDR. METHODS: The study included a consecutive series of 24 patients who were treated with MCTDR following the diagnosis of multilevel cervical disc herniation or stenosis. Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), C2-7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), range of motion (ROM) of C2-7 segment and TDR implanted levels were evaluated at pre- and post-TDR...
January 17, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108405/defects-of-the-vertebral-endplate-implications-for-disc-degeneration-depend-on-size
#6
Uruj Zehra, Luke Flower, Katharine Robson-Brown, Michael A Adams, Patricia Dolan
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Bony vertebral endplates must be porous to allow metabolite transport into the disc, and yet strong to resist high intradiscal pressure. Endplate defects may therefore have nutritional and mechanical consequences for the disc, depending on their size and type. We hypothesise that broad, diffuse defects are more closely associated with disc decompression and degeneration than are focal Schmorl's node-type defects. PURPOSE: To determine how the size and type of endplate defects are related to decompression and degeneration in the adjacent intervertebral disc...
January 17, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107887/associations-between-positive-emotional-well-being-and-stress-induced-myocardial-ischemia-well-being-scores-predict-exercise-induced-ischemia
#7
Jacob P Feigal, Stephen H Boyle, Zainab Samad, Eric J Velazquez, Jennifer L Wilson, Richard C Becker, Redford B Williams, Cynthia M Kuhn, Thomas L Ortel, Joseph G Rogers, Christopher M O'Connor, Wei Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Depressive symptoms have been associated with myocardial ischemia induced by mental (MSIMI) and exercise (ESIMI) stress in clinically stable ischemic heart disease (IHD) patients, but the association between positive emotions and inducible ischemia is less well characterized. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between ratings of well-being and stress-induced ischemia. METHODS: Subjects were adult patients with documented IHD underwent mental and exercise stress testing for the Responses of Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment (REMIT) trial...
February 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107368/multi-channel-optical-coherence-elastography-using-relative-and-absolute-shear-wave-time-of-flight
#8
Eli Elyas, Alex Grimwood, Janine T Erler, Simon P Robinson, Thomas R Cox, Daniel Woods, Peter Clowes, Ramona De Luca, Franco Marinozzi, Jérémie Fromageau, Jeffrey C Bamber
Elastography, the imaging of elastic properties of soft tissues, is well developed for macroscopic clinical imaging of soft tissues and can provide useful information about various pathological processes which is complementary to that provided by the original modality. Scaling down of this technique should ply the field of cellular biology with valuable information with regard to elastic properties of cells and their environment. This paper evaluates the potential to develop such a tool by modifying a commercial optical coherence tomography (OCT) device to measure the speed of shear waves propagating in a three-dimensional (3D) medium...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106716/tracking-and-classification-of-in-air-hand-gesture-based-on-thermal-guided-joint-filter
#9
Seongwan Kim, Yuseok Ban, Sangyoun Lee
The research on hand gestures has attracted many image processing-related studies, as it intuitively conveys the intention of a human as it pertains to motional meaning. Various sensors have been used to exploit the advantages of different modalities for the extraction of important information conveyed by the hand gesture of a user. Although many works have focused on learning the benefits of thermal information from thermal cameras, most have focused on face recognition or human body detection, rather than hand gesture recognition...
January 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106109/center-of-mass-in-complex-networks
#10
Chuanji Fu, Yachun Gao, Shimin Cai, Hongchun Yang, Chun Yang
Network dynamics is always a big challenge in nonlinear dynamics. Although great advancements have been made in various types of complex systems, an universal theoretical framework is required. In this paper, we introduce the concept of center of 'mass' of complex networks, where 'mass' stands for node importance or centrality in contrast to that of particle systems, and further prove that the phase transition and evolutionary state of the system can be characterized by the activity of center of 'mass'. The steady states of several complex networks (gene regulatory networks and epidemic spreading systems) are then studied by analytically calculating the decoupled equation of the dynamic activity of center of 'mass', which is derived from the dynamic equation of the complex networks...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106073/high-resolution-cryo-em-structure-of-the-proteasome-in-complex-with-adp-alfx
#11
Zhanyu Ding, Zhenglin Fu, Cong Xu, Yifan Wang, Yanxing Wang, Junrui Li, Liangliang Kong, Jinhuan Chen, Na Li, Rongguang Zhang, Yao Cong
The 26S proteasome is an ATP-dependent dynamic 2.5 MDa protease that regulates numerous essential cellular functions through degradation of ubiquitinated substrates. Here we present a near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM map of the S. cerevisiae 26S proteasome in complex with ADP-AlFx. Our biochemical and structural data reveal that the proteasome-ADP-AlFx is in an activated state, displaying a distinct conformational configuration especially in the AAA-ATPase motor region. Noteworthy, this map demonstrates an asymmetric nucleotide binding pattern with four consecutive AAA-ATPase subunits bound with nucleotide...
January 20, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104592/handball-load-and-shoulder-injury-rate-a-31-week-cohort-study-of-679-elite-youth-handball-players
#12
M Møller, R O Nielsen, J Attermann, N Wedderkopp, M Lind, H Sørensen, G Myklebust
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of injury patterns, an essential step towards injury prevention, is lacking in youth handball. AIM: To investigate if an increase in handball load is associated with increased shoulder injury rates compared with a minor increase or decrease, and if an association is influenced by scapular control, isometric shoulder strength or glenohumeral range of motion (ROM). METHODS: 679 players (14-18 years) provided weekly reports on shoulder injury and handball load (training and competition hours) over 31 weeks using the SMS, phone and medical examination system...
January 19, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104245/assessing-kinematics-and-kinetics-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-rowing
#13
Adina E Draghici, Glen Picard, J Andrew Taylor, Sandra J Shefelbine
Hybrid functional electrical stimulation (FES) rowing has positive effects on cardiovascular fitness, producing significantly greater aerobic power than either upper body or FES exercise alone. However, there is minimal information on the kinematics, kinetics, and mechanical efficiency of FES-rowing in the spinal cord injured (SCI) population. This study examined the biomechanics of FES-rowing to determine how motions, forces, and aerobic demand change with increasing intensity. Six individuals with SCI and six able-bodied subjects performed a progressive aerobic capacity rowing test...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103405/altered-walking-strategy-and-increased-unsteadiness-in-participants-with-impaired-glucose-tolerance-and-type-2-diabetes-relates-to-small-fibre-neuropathy-but-not-vitamin-d-deficiency
#14
M M Almurdhi, S J Brown, F L Bowling, A J M Boulton, Maria Jeziorska, Rayaz A Malik, Neil D Reeves
AIMS: To investigate alterations in walking strategy and dynamic sway (unsteadiness) in people with impaired glucose tolerance and people with Type 2 diabetes in relation to severity of neuropathy and vitamin D levels. METHODS: A total of 20 people with Type 2 diabetes, 20 people with impaired glucose tolerance and 20 people without either Type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (control group) underwent gait analysis using a motion analysis system and force platforms, and detailed assessment of neuropathy and serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D levels...
January 19, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102958/sliding-window-prior-data-assisted-compressed-sensing-for-mri-tracking-of-lung-tumors
#15
Eugene Yip, Jihyun Yun, Keith Wachowicz, Zsolt Gabos, Satyapal Rathee, B G Fallone
PURPOSE: Hybrid magnetic resonance imaging and radiation therapy devices are capable of imaging in real-time to track intrafractional lung tumor motion during radiotherapy. Highly accelerated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods can potentially reduce system delay time and/or improves imaging spatial resolution, and provide flexibility in imaging parameters. Prior Data Assisted Compressed Sensing (PDACS) has previously been proposed as an acceleration method that combines the advantages of 2D compressed sensing and the KEYHOLE view-sharing technique...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102309/integration-of-visual-and-joint-information-to-enable-linear-reaching-motions
#16
Henry Eberle, Slawomir J Nasuto, Yoshikatsu Hayashi
A new dynamics-driven control law was developed for a robot arm, based on the feedback control law which uses the linear transformation directly from work space to joint space. This was validated using a simulation of a two-joint planar robot arm and an optimisation algorithm was used to find the optimum matrix to generate straight trajectories of the end-effector in the work space. We found that this linear matrix can be decomposed into the rotation matrix representing the orientation of the goal direction and the joint relation matrix (MJRM) representing the joint response to errors in the Cartesian work space...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102175/markerless-rat-head-motion-tracking-using-structured-light-for-brain-pet-imaging-of-unrestrained-awake-small-animals
#17
Alan Miranda, Steven Staelens, Sigrid Stroobants, Jeroen Verhaeghe
Preclinical positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in small animals is generally performed under anesthesia to immobilize the animal during scanning. More recently, for rat brain PET studies, methods to perform scans of unrestrained awake rats are being developed in order to avoid the unwanted effects of anesthesia on the brain response. Here, we investigate the use of a projected structure stereo camera to track the motion of the rat head during the PET scan. The motion information is then used to correct the PET data...
January 19, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102090/upper-extremity-movement-reliability-and-validity-of-the-kinect-version-2
#18
Lydia R Reither, Matthew H Foreman, Nicole Migotsky, Chase Haddix, Jack R Engsberg
PURPOSE: Studies have shown that marker-less motion detection systems, such as the first generation Kinect (Kinect 1), have good reliability and potential for clinical application. Studies of the second generation Kinect (Kinect 2) have shown a large range of accuracy relative to balance and joint localization; however, few studies have investigated the validity and reliability of the Kinect 2 for upper extremity motion. This investigation compared reliability and validity among the Kinect 1, Kinect 2 and a video motion capture (VMC) system for upper extremity movements...
January 19, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101944/biomechanical-implications-of-walking-with-indigenous-footwear
#19
Catherine Willems, Gaetane Stassijns, Wim Cornelis, Kristiaan D'Août
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates biomechanical implications of walking with indigenous "Kolhapuri" footwear compared to barefoot walking among a population of South Indians. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten healthy adults from South India walked barefoot and indigenously shod at voluntary speed on an artificial substrate. The experiment was repeated outside, on a natural substrate. Data were collected from (1) a heel-mounted 3D-accelerometer recording peak impact at heel contact, (2) an ankle-mounted 3D-goniometer (plantar/dorsiflexion and inversion/eversion), and (3) sEMG electrodes at the m...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100656/perceptual-attraction-in-tool-use-evidence-for-a-reliability-based-weighting-mechanism
#20
Nienke B Debats, Marc O Ernst, Herbert Heuer
Humans are well able to operate tools whereby their hand movement is linked, via a kinematic transformation, to a spatially distant object moving in a separate plane of motion. An everyday example is controlling a cursor on a computer monitor. Despite these separate reference frames, the perceived positions of the hand and the object were found to be biased towards each other. We propose that this perceptual attraction is based on the principles by which the brain integrates redundant sensory information of single objects or events, known as optimal multisensory integration...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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