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Relative motion

Gaby Aphram, Laurent De Kerchove, Stefano Mastrobuoni, Emiliano Navarra, Silvia Solari, Saadallah Tamer, Jerome Baert, Alain Poncelet, Jean Rubay, Parla Astarci, Philippe Noirhomme, Gebrine El Khoury
OBJECTIVES: Mitral valve (MV) repair is the gold standard for treatment of degenerative mitral regurgitation. A variety of surgical techniques allow surgeons to achieve a high rate of MV repair even with MV diseases of other aetiologies. However, a certain number of repairs fail over time. The aim of this study was to review our single-centre experience of MV re-repair and analyse the mode of repair failure, re-repair safety and efficiency in relation to the initial aetiology. METHODS: Between 1997 and 2015, 91 patients underwent redo MV re-repair...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Joshua M Peterson, Carolyn Chlebek, Ashley M Clough, Alexandra K Wells, Eric H Ledet
STUDY DESIGN: In vitro biomechanical testing of human cadaveric cervical and goat cervical motion segments. OBJECTIVE: To measure the effects of plate stiffness on load-sharing, instantaneous axis of rotation (IAR), and posterior element loading after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: ACDF is intended to create an environment which facilitates sufficient stability and biomechanical conditions to promote bone formation...
March 15, 2018: Spine
Yad Ram Yadav, Shailendra Ratre, Vijay Parihar, Amitesh Dubey, Mashoo N Dubey
Symptomatic ventral cervical cord compressions have been treated by anterior discectomy with fusion, anterior corpectomy and fusion, discectomy with an artificial disc, and minimally invasive techniques. There are complications associated with the fusion procedure, especially when a long segment fusion is undertaken. Partial removal of the vertebral body without fusion could help in avoiding fusion and its associated complications. We are describing the detailed surgical technique, indications, limitations, and early results of endoscopic partially corpectomy...
March 2018: Neurology India
Yashwant Singh Tanwar, Yatinder Kharbanda, Atin Jaiswal, Vikas Birla, Ramsagar Pandit
INTRODUCTION: Coronal plane distal humeral injuries are relatively rare. Numerous classification systems have been proposed as the complexity of these fractures has been realized. We in the present series of ten patients describe the surgical technique of Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Coronal plane fractures of the distal humerus with headless compression screws performed using the anterolateral approach. MATERIAL AND METHOD: It was a retrospective study, the data collected from March 2010 to 2015 was analysed and the final outcome was assessed using the DASH score...
2018: SICOT-J
Yan Zheng, Tetsuro Muraoka, Kento Nakagawa, Kouki Kato, Kazuyuki Kanosue
The relative-salience hypothesis has been proposed as a possible explanation for the stability of bimanual coordination. This explanation proceeds from a psychological viewpoint and is based on the following tenets: (1) cyclic joint motions involving two movements are conceived of as a unified event, (2) if a "single" point in each movement is seen as the most salient, the salient points of the two movements prefer to go together, and (3) in other cases, a unified event will be constrained by movement direction...
March 15, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Qianqian Wang, Jiahui Xu, Ying Li, Jumin Huang, Zebo Jiang, Yuwei Wang, Liang Liu, Elaine Lai Han Leung, Xiaojun Yao
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is able to regulate gene transcription by catalyzing the symmetrical dimethylation of arginine residue of histone, which plays a key role in tumorigenesis. Many efforts have been taken in discovering small-molecular inhibitors against PRMT5, but very few were reported and most of them were SAM-competitive. EPZ015666 is a recently reported PRMT5 inhibitor with a new binding site, which is different from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-binding pocket. This new binding site provides a new clue for the design and discovery of potent and specific PRMT5 inhibitors...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Yoichi Kaizu, Hideomi Watanabe, Takehiko Yamaji
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to provide information regarding the knowledge of mechanical principles related to the load applied to the shoulder and elbow during the pitching motion. [Subjects and Methods] The three-dimensional kinematics of body segments were measured in 19 amateur baseball players with a VICON motion capture system. The correlation between maximum shoulder internal torque, maximum elbow varus torque, and simultaneous kinematic parameters including joint angular acceleration and ball acceleration was investigated...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
John J Elias, Kerwyn C Jones, S Cyrus Rezvanifar, Joseph N Gabra, Melanie A Morscher, Andrew J Cosgarea
BACKGROUND: Continued patellar instability can occur following medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Computational simulation of function was used to investigate the influence of the lateral position of the tibial tuberosity, trochlear dysplasia and patella alta on lateral patellar tracking following MPFL reconstruction. METHODS: Multibody dynamic simulation models were developed to represent nine knees being treated for recurrent patellar instability...
March 12, 2018: Knee
E Pafong Sanjon, B Drossel, M Vogel
Silica is a network-forming liquid that shares many properties with water due to its tetrahedral structure. It undergoes a transition from a fragile to a strong liquid as the temperature is decreased, which is accompanied by a structural change to lower density and higher tetrahedral order. In order to disentangle the effects of Coulomb and van der Waals interactions on the structure and dynamics of liquid silica, we modify the bond polarity by changing the partial charges assigned to each atom. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that density, tetrahedral order, and structural relaxation times decrease when reducing bond polarity...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Beatriz A Pazmiño Betancourt, Francis W Starr, Jack F Douglas
Relaxation in glass-forming liquids occurs as a multi-stage hierarchical process involving cooperative molecular motion. First, there is a "fast" relaxation process dominated by the inertial motion of the molecules whose amplitude grows upon heating, followed by a longer time α-relaxation process involving both large-scale diffusive molecular motion and momentum diffusion. Our molecular dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained glass-forming polymer melt indicate that the fast, collective motion becomes progressively suppressed upon cooling, necessitating large-scale collective motion by molecular diffusion for the material to relax approaching the glass-transition...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Jinkyu Lee, Yongnam Song, Choongsoo S Shin
BACKGROUND: During landing, the ankle angle at initial contact (IC) exhibits relatively wide individual variation compared to the knee and hip angles. However, little is known about the effect of different IC ankle angles on energy dissipation. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between individual ankle angles at IC and energy dissipation in the lower extremity joints. METHODS: Twenty-seven adults performed single-leg landings from a 0...
March 7, 2018: Gait & Posture
Jocelyn F Hafer, Katherine A Boyer
BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with a loss of mobility and altered gait mechanics. Loss of function and mobility may be due to or exacerbated by low levels of physical activity in the aged. The mechanisms linking age-related changes in physiology, altered mobility and gait may be elucidated by examining movement coordination and coordination variability. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of age and habitual physical activity level on segment coordination and coordination variability during gait...
February 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
Myungho Lee, Gerd Bruder, Tobias Hollerer, Greg Welch
In this paper, we investigate factors and issues related to human locomotion behavior and proxemics in the presence of a real or virtual human in augmented reality (AR). First, we discuss a unique issue with current-state optical see-through head-mounted displays, namely the mismatch between a small augmented visual field and a large unaugmented periphery, and its potential impact on locomotion behavior in close proximity of virtual content. We discuss a potential simple solution based on restricting the field of view to the central region, and we present the results of a controlled human-subject study...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Ginga Kato, Yoshihiro Kuroda, Kiyoshi Kiyokawa, Haruo Takemura
Most existing locomotion devices that represent the sensation of walking target a user who is actually performing a walking motion. Here, we attempted to represent the walking sensation, especially a kinesthetic sensation and advancing feeling (the sense of moving forward) while the user remains seated. To represent the walking sensation using a relatively simple device, we focused on the force rendering and its evaluation of the longitudinal friction force applied on the sole during walking. Based on the measurement of the friction force applied on the sole during actual walking, we developed a novel friction force display that can present the friction force without the influence of body weight...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Sidney Bovet, Henrique Galvan Debarba, Bruno Herbelin, Eray Molla, Ronan Boulic
With the broad range of motion capture devices available on the market, it is now commonplace to directly control the limb movement of an avatar during immersion in a virtual environment. Here, we study how the subjective experience of embodying a full-body controlled avatar is influenced by motor alteration and self-contact mismatches. Self-contact is in particular a strong source of passive haptic feedback and we assume it to bring a clear benefit in terms of embodiment. For evaluating this hypothesis, we experimentally manipulate self-contacts and the virtual hand displacement relatively to the body...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Yumeng Li, Rumit S Kakar, Marika A Walker, Li Guan, Kathy J Simpson
The upper trunk - pelvic coordination patterns used in running are not well understood. The purposes of our study are to (a) test the running speed effect on the upper trunk - pelvis axial rotation coordination; (b) present a step-by-step guide of the relative Fourier phase algorithm as well as some further issues to consider. Twenty healthy young adults were tested under three treadmill running speeds using a 3D motion capture system. The upper trunk and pelvic segmental angles in axial rotation were calculated and the coordination was quantified using the relative Fourier phase method...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Victor Feliz Pedrinha, Juliana Melo da Silva Brandão, Oscar Faciola Pessoa, Patrícia de Almeida Rodrigues
Advances in endodontics have enabled the evolution of file manufacturing processes, improving performance beyond that of conventional files. In the present study, systems manufactured using state of the art methods and possessing special properties related to NiTi alloys ( i.e ., CM-Wire, M-Wire and R-Phase) were selected. The aim of this review was to provide a detailed analysis of the literature about the relationship between recently introduced NiTi files with different movement kinematics and shaping ability, apical extrusion of debris and dentin defects in root canal preparations...
2018: Open Dentistry Journal
Per F Nordmark, Christina Ljungberg, Roland S Johansson
Transection of the median nerve typically causes lifelong restriction of fine sensory and motor skills of the affected hand despite the best available surgical treatment. Inspired by recent findings on activity-dependent structural plasticity of the adult brain, we used voxel-based morphometry to analyze the brains of 16 right-handed adults who more than two years earlier had suffered injury to the left or right median nerve followed by microsurgical repair. Healthy individuals served as matched controls. Irrespective of side of injury, we observed gray matter reductions in left ventral and right dorsal premotor cortex, and white matter reductions in commissural pathways interconnecting those motor areas...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Robin De Roover, Wouter Crijns, Kenneth Poels, Ronald Peeters, Cédric Draulans, Karin Haustermans, Tom Depuydt
PURPOSE: Liquid fiducial markers have shown to be a promising alternative to solid gold markers in terms of imaging artifact reduction, patient comfort and compatibility with different imaging modalities. This study aims to investigate the performance of the novel BioXmark® liquid marker for state-of-the-art multi-modal imaging used in prostate cancer (PCa) radiotherapy, encompassing kV CT/CBCT, multi-parametric MRI and kV X-ray imaging. In addition, automatic detection of the liquid markers in X-ray imaging for prostate motion monitoring during treatment was investigated...
March 14, 2018: Medical Physics
Mareike Roell, Kai Roecker, Dominic Gehring, Hubert Mahler, Albert Gollhofer
The increasing interest in assessing physical demands in team sports has led to the development of multiple sports related monitoring systems. Due to technical limitations, these systems primarily could be applied to outdoor sports, whereas an equivalent indoor locomotion analysis is not established yet. Technological development of inertial measurement units (IMU) broadens the possibilities for player monitoring and enables the quantification of locomotor movements in indoor environments. The aim of the current study was to validate an IMU measuring by determining average and peak human acceleration under indoor conditions in team sport specific movements...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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