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Streptococcus mutans

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621325/the-oral-commensal-streptococcus-mitis-activates-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-in-human-oral-epithelial-cells
#1
Stian A Engen, Gro H Rørvik, Olav Schreurs, Inger Js Blix, Karl Schenck
Streptococcus mitis (S. mitis) is a pioneer commensal bacterial species colonizing many of the surfaces of the oral cavity in healthy individuals. Yet, not much information is available regarding its interaction with the host. We used examination of its transcriptional regulation in oral keratinocytes to elucidate some of its potential roles in the oral cavity. Transcription factor analysis of oral keratinocytes predicted S. mitis-mediated activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Activation and functionality of AhR was confirmed through nuclear translocation determined by immunofluorescence microscopy and real-time polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription analysis of CYP1A1, the hallmark gene for AhR activation...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621108/inhibitory-effects-of-flavonoids-from-spatholobus-suberectus-on-sortase-a-and-sortase-a-mediated-aggregation-of-streptococcus-mutans
#2
Wanki Park, Chan-Hong Ahn, Hyunjoo Cho, Chang-Kwon Kim, Jongheon Shin, Ki-Bong Oh
Seven flavonoids were isolated from Spatholobus suberectus via repetitive column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The chemical structures of these compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with values reported in the literature. Among the flavonoids tested, 7-hydroxy-6-methoxyflavanone (1) and formononetin (4) exhibited strong inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans SrtA, with IC50 values of 46.1 and 41.8 µM, respectively, but did not affect cell viability...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617874/candida-albicans-mannans-mediate-streptococcus-mutans-exoenzyme-gtfb-binding-to-modulate-cross-kingdom-biofilm-development-in-vivo
#3
Geelsu Hwang, Yuan Liu, Dongyeop Kim, Yong Li, Damian J Krysan, Hyun Koo
Candida albicans is frequently detected with heavy infection by Streptococcus mutans in plaque-biofilms from children with early-childhood caries (ECC). This cross-kingdom biofilm contains an extensive matrix of extracellular α-glucans that is produced by an exoenzyme (GtfB) secreted by S. mutans. Here, we report that mannans located on the outer surface of C. albicans cell-wall mediates GtfB binding, enhancing glucan-matrix production and modulating bacterial-fungal association within biofilms formed in vivo...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611324/comparative-evaluation-of-mangifera-indica-leaf-mouthwash-with-chlorhexidine-on-plaque-accumulation-gingival-inflammation-and-salivary-streptococcal-growth
#4
Sham S Bhat, K Sundeep Hegde, Chinchu Mathew, S Vidya Bhat, M Shyamjith
AIMS: This study aims to compare the efficacy of a mango (Mangifera indica) leaf mouthwash with chlorhexidine on plaque status, gingival status, and salivary Streptococcus mutans count. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sample of twenty children, aged 8-14 years, Mangalore Residential School, Karnataka, India, was allocated into two groups. Group A (10) and Group B (10) were given test mouthwash "mango leaf mouthwash" and chlorhexidine, respectively. The clinical trial was carried out for ½ h after rinsing and after 5 days, during which children were asked to rinse once daily, with 10 ml of the given mouthwash ½ h after tooth brushing...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609586/targeted-antimicrobial-therapy-in-the-microbiome-era
#5
REVIEW
Victoria N Stone, Ping Xu
Even though the oral microbiome is one of the most complex sites on the body it is an excellent model for narrow-spectrum antimicrobial therapy. Current research indicates disruption of the microbiome leads to a dysbiotic environment allowing for the overgrowth of pathogenic species and the onset of oral diseases. The gram-negative colonizer, Porphyromonas gingivalis has long been considered a key player in the initiation of periodontitis and Streptococcus mutans has been linked to dental caries. With antibiotic research still on the decline, new strategies are greatly needed to combat infectious diseases...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606792/improved-method-for-rapid-and-accurate-isolation-and-identification-of-streptococcus-mutans-and-streptococcus-sobrinus-from-human-plaque-samples
#6
Alissa L Villhauer, David J Lynch, David R Drake
Mutans streptococci (MS), specifically Streptococcus mutans (SM) and Streptococcus sobrinus (SS), are bacterial species frequently targeted for investigation due to their role in the etiology of dental caries. Differentiation of S. mutans and S. sobrinus is an essential part of exploring the role of these organisms in disease progression and the impact of the presence of either/both on a subject's caries experience. Of vital importance to the study of these organisms is an identification protocol that allows us to distinguish between the two species in an easy, accurate, and timely manner...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605597/bacterial-gtfb-augments-candida-albicans-accumulation-in-cross-kingdom-biofilms
#7
K Ellepola, Y Liu, T Cao, H Koo, C J Seneviratne
Streptococcus mutans is a biofilm-forming oral pathogen commonly associated with dental caries. Clinical studies have shown that S. mutans is often detected with Candida albicans in early childhood caries. Although the C. albicans presence has been shown to enhance bacterial accumulation in biofilms, the influence of S. mutans on fungal biology in this mixed-species relationship remains largely uncharacterized. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how the presence of S. mutans influences C. albicans biofilm development and coexistence...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598524/nicotine-upregulates-coaggregation-of-candida-albicans-and-streptococcus-mutans
#8
Ali Ashkanane, Grace F Gomez, John Levon, L Jack Windsor, George J Eckert, Richard L Gregory
PURPOSE: Denture stomatitis is a condition of painless inflammation of denture-bearing mucosa. Reports indicate that nicotine, the major psychoactive ingredient in tobacco, increases growth of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans in denture biofilm. The purpose of this study was to determine the in vitro effects of nicotine on coaggregation of C. albicans with S. mutans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: C. albicans strain ATCC 10231, S. mutans strain UA159 (ATTC 700610), and nicotine dilutions (ranging from 0 to 32 mg/ml) were used for this study...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591241/the-anti-caries-activity-and-toxicity-of-an-experimental-propolis-containing-varnish
#9
Mariana Passos DE Luca, Irlan Almeida Freires, Alfonso Gala-García, Vagner Rodrigues Santos, Miriam Pimenta Vale, Severino Matias de Alencar, Pedro Luiz Rosalen
We investigated the anti-caries effects of an experimental propolis varnish in vivo, and further tested its toxicity against fibroblasts. Fifty-six SPF female Wistar rats were infected with Streptococcus mutans UA159 (SM) and allocated into four groups (n = 14/group): G1, propolis varnish (15%/PV); G2, chitosan varnish (CV/vehicle); G3, gold standard (GS/Duraphat®); and G4, untreated. The animals received a single varnish application on their molars and were submitted to a high cariogenic challenge (Diet-2000, 56% sucrose, and 5% sucrose-added water, ad libitum) for 4 weeks...
June 5, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589101/recombineering-in-streptococcus-mutans-using-direct-repeat-mediated-cloning-independent-markerless-mutagenesis-dr-cimm
#10
Shan Zhang, Zhengzhong Zou, Jens Kreth, Justin Merritt
Studies of the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans have benefitted tremendously from its sophisticated genetic system. As part of our own efforts to further improve upon the S. mutans genetic toolbox, we previously reported the development of the first cloning-independent markerless mutagenesis (CIMM) system for S. mutans and illustrated how this approach could be adapted for use in many other organisms. The CIMM approach only requires overlap extension PCR (OE-PCR) protocols to assemble counterselectable allelic replacement mutagenesis constructs, and thus greatly increased the speed and efficiency with which markerless mutations could be introduced into S...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587675/bactericidal-effects-of-310%C3%A2-nm-ultraviolet-light-emitting-diode-irradiation-on-oral-bacteria
#11
Ayuko Takada, Kenji Matsushita, Satoru Horioka, Yasushi Furuichi, Yasunori Sumi
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet (UV) light is used for phototherapy in dermatology, and UVB light (around 310 nm) is effective for treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. In addition, it is known that UVC light (around 265 nm) has a bactericidal effect, but little is known about the bactericidal effect of UVB light. In this study, we examined the bactericidal effects of UVB-light emitting diode (LED) irradiation on oral bacteria to explore the possibility of using a 310 nm UVB-LED irradiation device for treatment of oral infectious diseases...
June 6, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587519/inactivation-of-a-putative-efflux-pump-lmrb-in-streptococcus-mutans-results-in-altered-biofilm-structure-and-increased-exopolysaccharide-synthesis-implications-for-biofilm-resistance
#12
Jia Liu, Jianying Zhang, Lihong Guo, Wei Zhao, Xiaoli Hu, Xi Wei
Efflux pumps are a mechanism associated with biofilm formation and resistance. There is limited information regarding efflux pumps in Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen in dental caries. The aim of this study was to investigate potential roles of a putative efflux pump (LmrB) in S. mutans biofilm formation and susceptibility. Upon lmrB inactivation and antimicrobial exposure, the biofilm structure and expression of other efflux pumps were examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and qRT-PCR...
June 7, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586050/inhibitory-capacity-of-rhus-coriaria-l-extract-and-its-major-component-methyl-gallate-on-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm-formation-by-optical-profilometry-potential-applications-for-oral-health
#13
Tomas Kacergius, Saleh Abu-Lafi, Agne Kirkliauskiene, Vika Gabe, Azmi Adawi, Mahmoud Rayan, Mutaz Qutob, Rimantas Stukas, Algirdas Utkus, Mouhammad Zeidan, Anwar Rayan
Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) bacterium is the most well recognized pathogen involved in pathogenesis of dental caries. Its virulence arises from its ability to produce a biofilm and acidogenicity, causing tooth decay. Discovery of natural products capable to inhibit biofilm formation is of high importance for developing health care products. To the best of our knowledge, in all previous scientific reports, a colorimetric assay was applied to test the effect of sumac and methyl gallate (MG) on S. mutans adherence...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585889/influence-of-the-microbiological-component-of-cariogram-%C3%A2-for-evaluating-the-risk-of-caries-in-children
#14
Kairon Ribeiro Dias, Carolina Barbosa de Andrade, Taíssa Tomaz de Almeida Wait, Raiane Cardoso Chamon, Kátia Regina Netto Dos Santos, Vera Mendes Soviero, Lucianne Cople Maia, Andréa Fonseca-Gonçalves
OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk for caries in children as determined by Cariogram(®) software (CS; Stockholm, Sweden) with and without its microbiological component and by a form based on Cariogram(®) (FBC). METHODS: Children (n = 28) aged 3-9 years were included. Data were collected clinically and from anamnesis. The salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans (SM) were evaluated. A linear regression model was used to determine which variables were predictive for each type of risk analysis...
June 6, 2017: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576061/in-vitro-efficacy-of-different-morphology-zinc-oxide-nanopowders-on-streptococcus-sobrinus-and-streptococcus-mutans
#15
Siti Khadijah Mohd Bakhori, Shahrom Mahmud, Chuo Ann Ling, Amna Hassan Sirelkhatim, Habsah Hasan, Dasmawati Mohamad, Sam'an Malik Masudi, Azman Seeni, Rosliza Abd Rahman
ZnO with two different morphologies were used to study the inhibition of Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus mutans which are closely associated with tooth cavity. Rod-like shaped ZnO-A and plate-like shaped ZnO-B were produced using a zinc boiling furnace. The nanopowders were characterized using energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to confirm the properties of the ZnO polycrystalline wurtzite structures...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576044/effects-of-dnase-i-coating-of-titanium-on-bacteria-adhesion-and-biofilm-formation
#16
Jing Ye, Can Shao, Xu Zhang, Xuyun Guo, Ping Gao, Yunzhu Cen, Shiqing Ma, Ying Liu
The removal of mature biofilm from the surface of implant has been a formidable challenge in treating implant-associated infection. Prevention of biofilm formation rather than removal of existing biofilm is a more effective approach. Immobilization of biofilm-dispersing enzymes on material surfaces is regarded as one of the most promising strategies. Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) can degrade extracellular DNA (eDNA) and then destabilize biofilm. In this study, DNase I was immobilized on a titanium (Ti) surface by using dopamine as an intermediate...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575940/ag-nanoparticle-coated-zirconia-for-antibacterial-prosthesis
#17
Risa Yamada, Kosuke Nozaki, Naohiro Horiuchi, Kimihiro Yamashita, Reina Nemoto, Hiroyuki Miura, Akiko Nagai
Bacterial adhesion to dental materials is a major cause of caries and periodontitis, necessitating the development of compounds such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which are widely employed in medicine due to their high antimicrobial activity and low cytotoxicity. The main goal of this study is the synthesis of the broad antimicrobial activity of AgNP-coated YSZ with facile methods. The bactericidal AgNPs were immobilized on the surface of YSZ and tested for bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans based on ISO 22196:2007...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571698/a-novel-antimicrobial-peptide-against-dental-caries-associated-bacteria
#18
Long Chen, Lili Jia, Qiang Zhang, Xirui Zhou, Zhuqing Liu, Bingjie Li, Zhentai Zhu, Fenwei Wang, Changyuan Yu, Qian Zhang, Feng Chen, Shi-Zhong Luo
Dental caries, a highly prevalent oral disease, is primarily caused by pathogenic bacteria infection, and most of them are anaerobic. Herein, we investigated the activity of a designed antimicrobial peptide ZXR-2, and found it showed broad-spectrum activity against a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative oral bacteria, particularly the caries-related taxa Streptococcus mutans. Time-course killing assays indicated that ZXR-2 killed most bacterial cells within 5 min at 4 × MIC. The mechanism of ZXR-2 involved disruption of cell membranes, as observed by scanning electron microscopy...
May 29, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571487/targeting-of-streptococcus-mutans-biofilms-by-a-novel-small-molecule-prevents-dental-caries-and-preserves-the-oral-microbiome
#19
S S Garcia, M S Blackledge, S Michalek, L Su, T Ptacek, P Eipers, C Morrow, E J Lefkowitz, C Melander, H Wu
Dental caries is a costly and prevalent disease characterized by the demineralization of the tooth's enamel. Disease outcome is influenced by host factors, dietary intake, cariogenic bacteria, and other microbes. The cariogenic bacterial species Streptococcus mutans metabolizes sucrose to initiate biofilm formation on the tooth surface and consequently produces lactic acid to degrade the tooth's enamel. Persistence of S. mutans biofilms in the oral cavity can lead to tooth decay. To date, no anticaries therapies that specifically target S...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571283/estimation-of-dmft-salivary-streptococcus-mutans-count-flow-rate-ph-and-salivary-total-calcium-content-in-pregnant-and-non-pregnant-women-a-prospective-study
#20
Wasim Ismail Kamate, Nupura Aniket Vibhute, Rajendra Krishna Baad
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. AIM: The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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