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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226322/chronic-administration-of-rosa-canina-hydro-alcoholic-extract-attenuates-depressive-like-behavior-and-recognition-memory-impairment-in-diabetic-mice-a-possible-role-of-oxidative-stress
#1
Ramin Farajpour, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Nahid Ahmadian, Mohammad Farzipour, Javad Mahmoudi, Alireza Majdi
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate whether or not chronic Rosa Canina (RC) extract administration could improve recognition memory and depressive-like behaviour in diabetic mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-five (75) male Albino mice (25-30 g) were randomly divided into five groups (15 in each group). A single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of 200 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) was administered to the mice to induce diabetes. The control group received normal saline, and the diabetic groups received normal saline or 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg of RC extract for 28 days...
February 22, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223925/effects-of-intermittent-alcohol-exposure-on-emotion-and-cognition-a-potential-role-for-the-endogenous-cannabinoid-system-and-neuroinflammation
#2
Laura Sanchez-Marin, Francisco J Pavon, Juan Decara, Juan Suarez, Ana Gavito, Estela Castilla-Ortega, Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca, Antonia Serrano
Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of adolescent alcohol use that can lead to binge drinking episodes. Alcohol use is known to modulate the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in neuronal communication, neuroplasticity, neuroinflammation and behavior. Adolescent male Wistar rats were exposed to 4-week intermittent alcohol intoxication (3 g/kg injections for 4 days/week) or saline (N = 12 per group). After alcohol deprivation, adult rats were assessed for emotionality and cognition and the gene expression of the ECS and other factors related to behavior and neuroinflammation was examined in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223681/effect-of-smoking-on-cognitive-functioning-in-young-saudi-adults
#3
Shahid Bashir, Faisal Alghamd, Ahmed Alhussien, Meshal Alohali, Abdullah Alatawi, Tariq Almusned, Syed Shahid Habib
BACKGROUND Smoking is the predominant form of tobacco consumption and is growing worldwide, particularly in the younger generation in the Middle-East. We aimed to determine the effects of tobacco smoking on cognitive functions among young Saudi adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS We recruited a group of cigarette smokers (N=22) and a group of controls (non-smokers) (N=30) from apparently healthy male volunteers aged 18-29 years. Cognitive function was assessed by using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Battery (CANTAB)...
February 22, 2017: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222508/chronic-lithium-treatment-in-a-rat-model-of-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-depletion-effects-on-memory-impairment-and-neurodegeneration
#4
Francesca Gelfo, Debora Cutuli, Annalisa Nobili, Paola De Bartolo, Marcello D'Amelio, Laura Petrosini, Carlo Caltagirone
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder with multifactorial etiopathogenesis, characterized by progressive loss of memory and other cognitive functions. A fundamental neuropathological feature of AD is the early and severe brain cholinergic neurodegeneration. Lithium is a monovalent cation classically utilized in the treatment of mood disorders, but recent evidence also advances a beneficial potentiality of this compound in neurodegeneration. Interestingly, lithium acts on several processes whose alterations characterize the brain cholinergic impairment at short and long term...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222339/everyday-memory-impairment-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-caused-by-hippocampal-sclerosis
#5
Patrícia Rzezak, Ellen Marise Lima, Ana Carolina Gargaro, Erica Coimbra, Silvia de Vincentiis, Tonicarlo Rodrigues Velasco, João Pereira Leite, Geraldo F Busatto, Kette D Valente
OBJECTIVE: Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy caused by hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS) have episodic memory impairment. Memory has rarely been evaluated using an ecologic measure, even though performance on these tests is more related to patients' memory complaints. We aimed to measure everyday memory of patients with TLE-HS to age- and gender-matched controls. METHODS: We evaluated 31 patients with TLE-HS and 34 healthy controls, without epilepsy and psychiatric disorders, using the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT), Visual Reproduction (WMS-III) and Logical Memory (WMS-III)...
February 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221087/fechner-s-law-in-metacognition-a-quantitative-model-of-visual-working-memory-confidence
#6
Ronald van den Berg, Aspen H Yoo, Wei Ji Ma
Although visual working memory (VWM) has been studied extensively, it is unknown how people form confidence judgments about their memories. Peirce (1878) speculated that Fechner's law-which states that sensation is proportional to the logarithm of stimulus intensity-might apply to confidence reports. Based on this idea, we hypothesize that humans map the precision of their VWM contents to a confidence rating through Fechner's law. We incorporate this hypothesis into the best available model of VWM encoding and fit it to data from a delayed-estimation experiment...
March 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220288/social-cognition-according-to-cognitive-impairment-in-different-clinical-phenotypes-of-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Cecile Dulau, Mathilde Deloire, Helene Diaz, Aurore Saubusse, Julie Charre-Morin, Antoinette Prouteau, Bruno Brochet
The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between social cognition (SC) and cognitive impairment in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). A prospective study was conducted in 60 PwMS, 30 with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 15 with secondary progressive MS (SPMS) and 15 with primary progressive MS (PPMS), and in healthy subjects (HS). All subjects were assessed by the Bordeaux Social Cognition Evaluation Protocol (PECS-B) (facial emotion recognition, theory of mind, emotional awareness and cognitive and affective alexithymia), by a large neuropsychological battery and by questionnaires (depression and anxiety)...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220087/mental-state-understanding-in-children-with-agenesis-of-the-corpus-callosum
#8
Beatrix Lábadi, Anna M Beke
Impaired social functioning is a well-known outcome of individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum. Social deficits in nonliteral language comprehension, humor, social reasoning, and recognition of facial expression have all been documented in adults with agenesis of the corpus callosum. In the present study, we examined the emotional and mentalizing deficits that contributing to the social-cognitive development in children with isolated corpus callosum agenesia, including emotion recognition, theory of mind, executive function, working memory, and behavioral impairments as assessed by the parents...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219715/metabolic-syndrome-causes-rec-ognition-memory-impairments-and-reduced-the-hippocampal-neuronal-plasticity-in-rats
#9
Samuel Treviño, Rubén A Vázquez-Roque, Gustavo López-López, Claudia Perez-Cruz, Carolina Moran, Anhabella Handal-Silva, Enrique González-Vergara, Gonzalo Flores, Jorge Guevara, Alfonso Díaz
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a serious public health problem, which can promote neuronal alterations in cognitive regions related to memory processes and learning, such as the hippocampus. However, up to now there is no information of a regional segregation of this damage. In this study, we evaluate the MS effect on the neuronal morphology of the hippocampus by a regional segregation approach. Our results demonstrate that 90days of a high-calorie diet altered metabolic energy markers and caused memory impairments, as evaluated by the recognition of novel objects test (NORT)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219659/dementia-like-pathology-in-type-2-diabetes-a-novel-microrna-mechanism
#10
Anuradha Kalani, Pankaj Chaturvedi, Claudio Maldonado, Philip Bauer, Irving G Joshua, Suresh C Tyagi, Neetu Tyagi
Although type-2 diabetes (T2D) has been reported to increase the risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Dementia-like pathology is attributed to the accumulation of cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) which plays a role in cognitive dysfunction. However, its involvement and regulation in diabetic dementia-like pathology is not well understood. Using T2D db/db (leptin receptor knockout) mice subjected to object recognition and Y-maze behavioral tests, we determined that short-term memory was compromised and that the mice displayed abrupt spontaneous behaviour compared to db/m control mice...
February 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219295/no-blank-slates-pre-existing-schemas-about-pharmaceuticals-predict-memory-for-side-effects
#11
Monika K Heller, Sarah C E Chapman, Rob Horne
OBJECTIVES: Attribution of symptoms as medication side effects is informed by pre-existing beliefs about medicines and perceptions of personal sensitivity to their effects (pharmaceutical schemas). We tested whether (1) pharmaceutical schemas were associated with memory (recall/recognition) for side effect information (2) memory explained the attribution of a common unrelated symptom as a side effect. DESIGN: In this analogue study participants saw the patient leaflet of a fictitious asthma drug listing eight side effects...
April 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216334/crocins-the-active-constituents-of-crocus-sativus-l-counteracted-apomorphine-induced-performance-deficits-in-the-novel-object-recognition-task-but-not-novel-object-location-task-in-rats
#12
Nikolaos Pitsikas, Petros A Tarantilis
Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disease that affects nearly 1% of the population worldwide. Several lines of evidence suggest that the dopaminergic (DAergic) system might be compromised in schizophrenia. Specifically, the mixed dopamine (DA) D1/D2 receptor agonist apomorphine induces schizophrenia-like symptoms in rodents, including disruption of memory abilities. Crocins are among the active components of saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. plant) and their implication in cognition is well documented...
February 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215510/short-term-treatment-with-flumazenil-restores-long-term-object-memory-in-a-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome
#13
Damien Colas, Bayarsaikhan Chuluun, Craig C Garner, H Craig Heller
Down syndrome (DS) is a common genetic cause of intellectual disability yet no pro-cognitive drug therapies are approved for human use. Mechanistic studies in a mouse model of DS (Ts65Dn mice) demonstrate that impaired cognitive function is due to excessive neuronal inhibitory tone. These deficits are normalized by chronic, short-term low doses of GABAA receptor (GABAAR) antagonists in adult animals, but none of the compounds investigated are approved for human use. We explored the therapeutic potential of flumazenil (FLUM), a GABAAR antagonist working at the benzodiazepine binding site that has FDA approval...
February 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215288/applications-of-dynamic-systems-theory-to-cognition-and-development-new-frontiers
#14
S Perone, V R Simmering
A central goal in developmental science is to explain the emergence of new behavioral forms. Researchers consider potential sources of behavioral change depending partly on their theoretical perspective. This chapter reviews one perspective, dynamic systems theory, which emphasizes the interactions among multiple components to drive behavior and developmental change. To illustrate the central concepts of dynamic systems theory, we describe empirical and computational studies from a range of domains, including motor development, the Piagetian A-not-B task, infant visual recognition, visual working memory capacity, and language learning...
2017: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215279/about-training-and-memory-nk-cell-adaptation-to-viral-infections
#15
Q Hammer, C Romagnani
Viral infections continuously challenge and shape our immune system. Due to their fine antigen recognition ability, adaptive lymphocytes protect against pathogen reencounter by generating specific immunological memory. Innate cells such as macrophages also adapt to pathogen challenge and mount resistance to reinfection, a phenomenon termed trained immunity. As part of the innate immunity, natural killer (NK) cells can display rapid effector functions and play a crucial role in the control of viral infections, especially by the β-herpesvirus cytomegalovirus (CMV)...
2017: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214768/selective-attention-meets-spontaneous-recognition-memory-evidence-for-effects-at-retrieval
#16
Katherine C Moen, Jeremy K Miller, Marianne E Lloyd
Previous research on the effects of Divided Attention on recognition memory have shown consistent impairments during encoding but more variable effects at retrieval. The present study explored whether effects of Selective Attention at retrieval and subsequent testing were parallel to those of Divided Attention. Participants studied a list of pictures and then had a recognition memory test that included both full attention and selective attention (the to be responded to object was overlaid atop a blue outlined object) trials...
February 16, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213830/recognition-memory-for-low-and-high-frequency-filtered-emotional-faces-low-spatial-frequencies-drive-emotional-memory-enhancement-whereas-high-spatial-frequencies-drive-the-emotion-induced-recognition-bias
#17
Michaela Rohr, Johannes Tröger, Nils Michely, Alarith Uhde, Dirk Wentura
This article deals with two well-documented phenomena regarding emotional stimuli: emotional memory enhancement-that is, better long-term memory for emotional than for neutral stimuli-and the emotion-induced recognition bias-that is, a more liberal response criterion for emotional than for neutral stimuli. Studies on visual emotion perception and attention suggest that emotion-related processes can be modulated by means of spatial-frequency filtering of the presented emotional stimuli. Specifically, low spatial frequencies are assumed to play a primary role for the influence of emotion on attention and judgment...
February 17, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212388/multiple-processes-in-two-dimensional-visual-statistical-learning
#18
Eiichi Hoshino, Ken Mogi
Knowledge about the arrangement of visual elements is an important aspect of perception. This study investigates whether humans learn rules of two-dimensional abstract patterns (exemplars) generated from Reber's artificial grammar. The key question is whether the subjects can implicitly learn them without explicit instructions, and, if so, how they use the acquired knowledge to judge new patterns (probes) in relation to their finite experience of the exemplars. The analysis was conducted using dissimilarities among patterns, which are defined with n-gram probabilities and the Levenshtein distance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212177/neurocognitive-outcomes-for-acute-global-acquired-brain-injury-in-children
#19
Fenella J Kirkham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In children, acute global brain injury from traumatic brain injury (TBI) and nontraumatic coma has a substantial cost to the child, the family, and the society. There have historically been relatively few studies looking at long-term cognition and behavioural outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Long-term follow-up studies, population-based studies, and meta-analyses are now available for TBI in children as well as adults and suggest that there is a significant cognitive cost, particularly for processing speed, working memory, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in severe TBI...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210777/effects-of-biperiden-and-acute-tryptophan-depletion-and-their-combination-on-verbal-word-memory-and-eeg
#20
Laura G J M Borghans, Arjan Blokland, Anke Sambeth
BACKGROUND: Research on the neurobiological foundations of memory has shown that multiple neurotransmitters play an important role in memory processing. To study the interaction between neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and serotonin, pharmacological models can be used. In this study, we tested the effects of the muscarinic M1 antagonist biperiden, acute tryptophan depletion (ATD), and the interaction between the two on episodic memory using the verbal learning task. METHODS: The study was conducted according to a double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-way crossover design...
February 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
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