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perirhinal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228757/disrupted-functional-connectivity-between-perirhinal-and-parahippocampal-cortices-with-hippocampal-subfields-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Yu Sun, Yafei Wang, Jiaming Lu, Rengyuan Liu, Christopher G Schwarz, Hui Zhao, Yue Zhang, Lingyi Xu, Bin Zhu, Bing Zhang, Bing Liu, Suiren Wan, Yun Xu
Most patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease can initially present memory loss. The medial temporal lobes are the brain regions most associated with declarative memory function. As sub-components of the MTL, the perirhinal cortex, parahippocampal cortex and hippocampus have also been identified as playing important roles in memory. The functional connectivity between hippocampus subfields and perirhnial cortices as well as parahippocampal cortices among normal cognition controls (NC group, n=33), mild cognitive impairment (MCI group, n=31) and Alzheimer's disease (AD group, n=27) was investigated in this study...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192021/contributions-of-primate-prefrontal-cortex-and-medial-temporal-lobe-to-temporal-order-memory
#2
Yuji Naya, He Chen, Cen Yang, Wendy A Suzuki
Neuropsychological and neurophysiological studies have emphasized the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in maintaining information about the temporal order of events or items for upcoming actions. However, the medial temporal lobe (MTL) has also been considered critical to bind individual events or items to their temporal context in episodic memory. Here we characterize the contributions of these brain areas by comparing single-unit activity in the dorsal and ventral regions of macaque lateral PFC (d-PFC and v-PFC) with activity in MTL areas including the hippocampus (HPC), entorhinal cortex, and perirhinal cortex (PRC) as well as in area TE during the encoding phase of a temporal-order memory task...
November 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184495/polygalae-radix-extract-prevents-axonal-degeneration-and-memory-deficits-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Tomoharu Kuboyama, Keisuke Hirotsu, Tetsuya Arai, Hiroo Yamasaki, Chihiro Tohda
Memory impairments in Alzheimer's disease (AD) occur due to degenerated axons and disrupted neural networks. Since only limited recovery is possible after the destruction of neural networks, preventing axonal degeneration during the early stages of disease progression is necessary to prevent AD. Polygalae Radix (roots of Polygala tenuifolia; PR) is a traditional herbal medicine used for sedation and amnesia. In this study, we aimed to clarify and analyze the preventive effects of PR against memory deficits in a transgenic AD mouse model, 5XFAD...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175539/intact-perceptual-ability-but-impaired-familiarity-judgment-after-neonatal-perirhinal-lesions-in-rhesus-macaques
#4
Alison R Weiss, Wendi Guo, Rebecca Richardson, Jocelyne Bachevalier
The perirhinal cortex is known to support high-level perceptual abilities as well as familiarity judgments that may affect recognition memory. We tested whether poor perceptual abilities or a loss of familiarity judgment contributed to the recognition memory impairments reported earlier in monkeys with PRh lesions received in infancy (Neo-PRh) (Weiss and Bachevalier, 2016; Zeamer et al., 2015). Perceptual abilities were assessed using a version of the Visual Paired Comparison task with black&white (B&W) stimuli, and familiarity judgments were assessed using the Constant Negative task requiring repeated familiarization exposures...
October 31, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108942/how-landmark-suitability-shapes-recognition-memory-signals-for-objects-in-the-medial-temporal-lobes
#5
Chris B Martin, Jacqueline A Sullivan, Jessey Wright, Stefan Köhler
A role of perirhinal cortex (PrC) in recognition memory for objects has been well established. Contributions of parahippocampal cortex (PhC) to this function, while documented, remain less well understood. Here, we used fMRI to examine whether the organization of item-based recognition memory signals across these two structures is shaped by object category, independent of any difference in representing episodic context. Guided by research suggesting that PhC plays a critical role in processing landmarks, we focused on three categories of objects that differ from each other in their landmark suitability as confirmed with behavioral ratings (buildings > trees > aircraft)...
November 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073645/integration-of-objects-and-space-in-perception-and-memory
#6
REVIEW
Charles E Connor, James J Knierim
Distinct processing of objects and space has been an organizing principle for studying higher-level vision and medial temporal lobe memory. Here, however, we discuss how object and spatial information are in fact closely integrated in vision and memory. The ventral, object-processing visual pathway carries precise spatial information, transformed from retinotopic coordinates into relative dimensions. At the final stages of the ventral pathway, including the dorsal anterior temporal lobe (TEd), object-sensitive neurons are intermixed with neurons that process large-scale environmental space...
October 26, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067330/differential-medial-temporal-lobe-morphometric-predictors-of-item-and-relational-encoded-memories-in-healthy-individuals-and-in-individuals-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Jesus J Gomar, J Daniel Ragland, Aziz M Uluğ, Amber Sousa, Edward D Huey, Concepcion Conejero-Goldberg, Peter Davies, Terry E Goldberg
INTRODUCTION: Episodic memory processes are supported by different subregions of the medial temporal lobe (MTL). In contrast to a unitary model of memory recognition supported solely by the hippocampus, a current model suggests that item encoding engages perirhinal cortex, whereas relational encoding engages parahippocampal cortex and the hippocampus. However, this model has not been examined in the context of aging, neurodegeneration, and MTL morphometrics. METHODS: Forty-four healthy subjects (HSs) and 18 cognitively impaired subjects (nine mild cognitive impairment [MCI] and nine Alzheimer's disease [AD] patients) were assessed with the relational and item-specific encoding task (RISE) and underwent 3T magnetic resonance imaging...
June 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030298/linking-muscarinic-receptor-activation-to-ups-mediated-object-memory-destabilization-implications-for-long-term-memory-modification-and-storage
#8
Mikaela L Stiver, Jacob M Cloke, Natalie Nightingale, Julian Rizos, William S Messer, Boyer D Winters
Consolidated memories can become destabilized during reactivation, resulting in a transient state of instability, a process that has been hypothesized to underlie long-term memory updating. Consistent with this notion, relatively remote memories, which are resistant to standard destabilization procedures, are reliably destabilized when novel information (i.e., the opportunity for memory updating) is present during reactivation. We have also shown that cholinergic muscarinic receptor (mAChR) activation can similarly destabilize consolidated object memories...
October 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966591/age-related-changes-in-perirhinal-cortex-sensitivity-to-configuration-and-part-familiarity-and-connectivity-to-visual-cortex
#9
Laura Cacciamani, Erica Wager, Mary A Peterson, Paige E Scalf
The perirhinal cortex (PRC) is a medial temporal lobe (MTL) structure known to be involved in assessing whether an object is familiar (i.e., meaningful) or novel. Recent evidence shows that the PRC is sensitive to the familiarity of both whole object configurations and their parts, and suggests the PRC may modulate part familiarity responses in V2. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated age-related decline in the PRC's sensitivity to part/configuration familiarity and assessed its functional connectivity to visual cortex in young and older adults...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956946/neonatal-perirhinal-cortex-lesions-impair-monkeys-ability-to-modulate-their-emotional-responses
#10
Nathan S Ahlgrim, Jessica Raper, Emily Johnson, Jocelyne Bachevalier
The medial temporal lobe (MTL) is a collection of brain regions best known for their role in perception, memory, and emotional behavior. Within the MTL, the perirhinal cortex (PRh) plays a critical role in perceptual representation and recognition memory, although its contribution to emotional regulation is still debated. Here, rhesus monkeys with neonatal perirhinal lesions (Neo-PRh) and controls (Neo-C) were tested on the Human Intruder (HI) task at 2 months, 4.5 months, and 5 years of age to assess the role of the PRh in the development of emotional behaviors...
October 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922852/magnesium-sulfate-prevents-neurochemical-and-long-term-behavioral-consequences-of-neonatal-excitotoxic-lesions-comparison-between-male-and-female-mice
#11
Ismaël Daher, Bérénice Le Dieu-Lugon, Nathalie Dourmap, Matthieu Lecuyer, Lauriane Ramet, Cathy Gomila, Jérôme Ausseil, Stéphane Marret, Philippe Leroux, Vincent Roy, Salah El Mestikawy, Stéphanie Daumas, Bruno Gonzalez, Isabelle Leroux-Nicollet, Carine Cleren
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) administration to mothers at risk of preterm delivery is proposed as a neuroprotective strategy against neurological alterations such as cerebral palsy in newborns. However, long-term beneficial or adverse effects of MgSO4 and sex-specific sensitivity remain to be investigated. We conducted behavioral and neurochemical studies of MgSO4 effects in males and females, from the perinatal period to adolescence in a mouse model of cerebral neonatal lesion. The lesion was produced in 5-day-old (P5) pups by ibotenate intracortical injection...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890301/antibody-recognizing-4-sulfated-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans-restores-memory-in-tauopathy-induced-neurodegeneration
#12
Sujeong Yang, Sam Hilton, João Nuno Alves, Lisa M Saksida, Timothy Bussey, Russell T Matthews, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Maria Grazia Spillantini, Jessica C F Kwok, James W Fawcett
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are the main active component of perineuronal nets (PNNs). Digestion of the glycosaminoglycan chains of CSPGs with chondroitinase ABC or transgenic attenuation of PNNs leads to prolongation of object recognition memory and activation of various forms of plasticity in the adult central nervous system. The inhibitory properties of the CSPGs depend on the pattern of sulfation of their glycosaminoglycans, with chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S) being the most inhibitory form. In this study, we tested a number of candidates for functional blocking of C4S, leading to selection of an antibody, Cat316, which specifically recognizes C4S and blocks its inhibitory effects on axon growth...
November 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881444/gabaergic-inhibition-gates-excitatory-ltp-in-perirhinal-cortex
#13
Vibhakar C Kotak, Ana Mirallave, Todd M Mowery, Dan H Sanes
The perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a key region downstream of auditory cortex (ACx) that processes familiarity linked mnemonic signaling. In gerbils, ACx-driven EPSPs recorded in PRh neurons are largely shunted by GABAergic inhibition (Kotak et al., 2015, Frontiers in Neural Circuits, 9). To determine whether inhibitory shunting prevents the induction of excitatory long-term potentiation (e-LTP), we stimulated ACx-recipient PRh in a brain slice preparation using theta burst stimulation (TBS). Under control conditions, without GABA blockers, the majority of PRh neurons exhibited long-term depression...
September 7, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856235/regional-tau-deposition-and-subregion-atrophy-of-medial-temporal-structures-in-early-alzheimer-s-disease-a-combined-positron-emission-tomography-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#14
Daichi Sone, Etsuko Imabayashi, Norihide Maikusa, Nobuyuki Okamura, Shozo Furumoto, Yukitsuka Kudo, Masayo Ogawa, Harumasa Takano, Yuma Yokoi, Masuhiro Sakata, Tadashi Tsukamoto, Koichi Kato, Hiroshi Matsuda
INTRODUCTION: Molecular imaging and selective hippocampal subfield atrophy are a focus of recent Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. Here, we investigated correlations between molecular imaging and hippocampal subfields in early AD. METHODS: We investigated 18 patients with early AD and 18 healthy control subjects using (11)C-Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB) positron emission tomography (PET) and (18)F-THK5351 PET and automatic segmentation of hippocampal subfields with high-resolution T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852933/extracellular-cytosolic-aspartate-aminotransferase-promotes-axonal-growth-and-object-recognition-memory
#15
Ryo Kobayashi, Chihiro Tohda
Previous proteome analysis studies from other groups have shown that cAST might be secreted from neurons and that cAST was detected in human cerebrospinal fluid. However, none of these studies focused on its role or significance. We therefore investigated the role of extracellular cAST for neurons. cAST was detected in conditioned medium from cultured cortical neurons, but not in fresh medium. Recombinant cAST treatment of cortical neurons significantly extended axonal length. Continuous intracerebroventricular administration of recombinant cAST in normal mice for 14 days significantly enhanced object recognition ability...
December 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828966/chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-induced-by-bilateral-carotid-artery-stenosis-causes-selective-recognition-impairment-in-adult-mice
#16
Arati Patel, Alimohammad Moalem, Hank Cheng, Robin M Babadjouni, Kaleena Patel, Drew M Hodis, Deep Chandegara, Steven Cen, Shuhan He, Qinghai Liu, William J Mack
OBJECTIVES: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) can result in vascular dementia and small vessel white matter ischemic injury. These findings have previously been demonstrated in a murine experimental model of CCH secondary to bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS). This study sought to elucidate the effects of CCH on recognition memory as assessed by the novel object recognition (NOR) test and histological analysis of the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex. METHODS: Studies were performed on ten-week-old male mice using bilateral 0...
October 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821661/attenuated-activity-across-multiple-cell-types-and-reduced-monosynaptic-connectivity-in-the-aged-perirhinal-cortex
#17
Andrew P Maurer, Sara N Burke, Kamran Diba, Carol A Barnes
The perirhinal cortex (PER), which is critical for associative memory and stimulus discrimination, has been described as a wall of inhibition between the neocortex and hippocampus. With advanced age, rats show deficits on PER-dependent behavioral tasks and fewer PER principal neurons are activated by stimuli, but the role of PER interneurons in these altered circuit properties in old age has not been characterized. In the present study, PER neurons were recorded while rats traversed a circular track bidirectionally in which the track was either empty or contained eight novel objects evenly spaced around the track...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818944/conversion-of-object-identity-to-object-general-semantic-value-in-the-primate-temporal-cortex
#18
Keita Tamura, Masaki Takeda, Rieko Setsuie, Tadashi Tsubota, Toshiyuki Hirabayashi, Kentaro Miyamoto, Yasushi Miyashita
At the final stage of the ventral visual stream, perirhinal neurons encode the identity of memorized objects through learning. However, it remains elusive whether and how object percepts alone, or concomitantly a nonphysical attribute of the objects ("learned"), are decoded from perirhinal activities. By combining monkey psychophysics with optogenetic and electrical stimulations, we found a focal spot of memory neurons where both stimulations led monkeys to preferentially judge presented objects as "already seen...
August 18, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807794/flavor-and-object-recognition-memory-impairment-induced-by-excitotoxic-lesions-of-the-perirhinal-cortex
#19
E Morillas, B Gómez-Chacón, M Gallo
Recognition memory is based on the ability to assess the familiarity of a previously encountered stimulus. It can be approached using tests for different sensorial modalities. Excitotoxic lesions of the perirhinal cortex (Prh) were performed in order to assess the relevance of its integrity for object and flavor recognition memory. Object recognition memory was impaired with a 24h retention interval. Flavor neophobia attenuation was prevented on a second encounter with the tastant. These results support a role of the perirhinal cortex in mediating the transition from novel to familiar, both in object and flavor recognition memory...
August 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798130/two-areas-for-familiar-face-recognition-in-the-primate-brain
#20
Sofia M Landi, Winrich A Freiwald
Familiarity alters face recognition: Familiar faces are recognized more accurately than unfamiliar ones and under difficult viewing conditions when unfamiliar face recognition fails. The neural basis for this fundamental difference remains unknown. Using whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that personally familiar faces engage the macaque face-processing network more than unfamiliar faces. Familiar faces also recruited two hitherto unknown face areas at anatomically conserved locations within the perirhinal cortex and the temporal pole...
August 11, 2017: Science
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