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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603027/plasticity-mechanisms-of-memory-consolidation-and-reconsolidation-in-the-perirhinal-cortex
#1
REVIEW
Magdalena Miranda, Pedro Bekinschtein
In this review we explore the role of the perirhinal cortex (Prh) in memory, focusing on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that have been described to happen in this structure. The Prh is part of the medial temporal lobe, but the evidences show that is has a different function than that of the hippocampus. In particular, the Prh is known to be important for object recognition memory, although it could have a role in other types of memory. However, despite the fact that object recognition tasks are widely used, information regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this type of memory in Prh is lacking...
June 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602963/brain-activity-related-to-working-memory-for-temporal-order-and-object-information
#2
Brooke M Roberts, Laura A Libby, Marika C Inhoff, Charan Ranganath
Maintaining items in an appropriate sequence is important for many daily activities; however, remarkably little is known about the neural basis of human temporal working memory. Prior work suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus, play a role in representing information about temporal order. The involvement of these areas in successful temporal working memory, however, is less clear. Additionally, it is unknown whether regions in the PFC and MTL support temporal working memory across different timescales, or at coarse or fine levels of temporal detail...
June 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587862/brain-networks-activated-to-form-object-recognition-memory
#3
Toshiyuki Tanimizu, Kyohei Kono, Satoshi Kida
Object recognition memory allows discrimination of familiar and novel objects. Previous studies have shown the importance of several brain regions for object recognition memories; however, the mechanisms underlying the consolidation of object recognition (OR) memory at the anatomic level remain unknown. Here, we analyzed the brain network for the generation of OR memory in mice by measuring the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos. We found that c-fos expression was induced in the hippocampus (CA1 and CA3 regions), insular cortex (IC), perirhinal cortex (PRh), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) when OR memory was generated, suggesting that gene expression in these brain regions contributes to the formation of OR memory...
June 3, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578804/human-anterolateral-entorhinal-cortex-volumes-are-associated-with-cognitive-decline-in-aging-prior-to-clinical-diagnosis
#4
Rosanna K Olsen, Lok-Kin Yeung, Alix Noly-Gandon, Maria C D'Angelo, Arber Kacollja, Victoria M Smith, Jennifer D Ryan, Morgan D Barense
We investigated whether older adults without subjective memory complaints, but who present with cognitive decline in the laboratory, demonstrate atrophy in medial temporal lobe (MTL) subregions associated with Alzheimer's disease. Forty community-dwelling older adults were categorized based on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) performance. Total gray/white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, and white matter hyperintensity load were quantified from whole-brain T1-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging scans, whereas hippocampal subfields and MTL cortical subregion volumes (CA1, dentate gyrus/CA2/3, subiculum, anterolateral and posteromedial entorhinal, perirhinal, and parahippocampal cortices) were quantified using high-resolution T2-weighted scans...
May 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575862/disrupted-functional-connectivity-between-perirhinal-and-parahippocampal-cortices-with-hippocampal-subfields-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Yu Sun, Yafei Wang, Jiaming Lu, Rengyuan Liu, Christopher G Schwarz, Hui Zhao, Yue Zhang, Lingyi Xu, Bin Zhu, Bing Zhang, Bing Liu, Suiren Wan, Yun Xu
Most patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease can initially present memory loss. The medial temporal lobes are the brain regions most associated with declarative memory function. As sub-components of the MTL, the perirhinal cortex, parahippocampal cortex and hippocampus have also been identified as playing important roles in memory. The functional connectivity between hippocampus subfields and perirhnial cortices as well as parahippocampal cortices among normal cognition controls (NC group, n=33), mild cognitive impairment (MCI group, n=31) and Alzheimer's disease (AD group, n=27) was investigated in this study...
May 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572767/glia-maturation-factor-and-mitochondrial-uncoupling-proteins-2-and-4-expression-in-the-temporal-cortex-of-alzheimer-s-disease-brain
#6
Ramasamy Thangavel, Duraisamy Kempuraj, Smita Zaheer, Sudhanshu Raikwar, Mohammad E Ahmed, Govindhasamy Pushpavathi Selvakumar, Shankar S Iyer, Asgar Zaheer
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of neuropathological lesions containing amyloid plaques (APs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). AD is associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the brain. We have previously demonstrated enhanced expression of the proinflammatory protein glia maturation factor (GMF) in glial cells near APs and NFTs in the AD brains. Parahippocampal gyrus consisting of entorhinal and perirhinal subdivisions of temporal cortex is the first brain region affected during AD pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548084/perirhinal-firing-patterns-are-sustained-across-large-spatial-segments-of-the-task-environment
#7
Jeroen J Bos, Martin Vinck, Laura A van Mourik-Donga, Jadin C Jackson, Menno P Witter, Cyriel M A Pennartz
Spatial navigation and memory depend on the neural coding of an organism's location. Fine-grained coding of location is thought to depend on the hippocampus. Likewise, animals benefit from knowledge parsing their environment into larger spatial segments, which are relevant for task performance. Here we investigate how such knowledge may be coded, and whether this occurs in structures in the temporal lobe, supplying cortical inputs to the hippocampus. We found that neurons in the perirhinal cortex of rats generate sustained firing patterns that discriminate large segments of the task environment...
May 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528847/independent-contributions-of-fmri-familiarity-and-novelty-effects-to-recognition-memory-and-their-stability-across-the-adult-lifespan
#8
Marianne de Chastelaine, Julia T Mattson, Tracy H Wang, Brian E Donley, Michael D Rugg
The impact of age on the neural correlates of familiarity-driven recognition memory has received relatively little attention. Here, the relationships between age, the neural correlates of familiarity, and memory performance were investigated using an associative recognition test in young, middle-aged and older participants. Test items comprised studied, rearranged (items studied on different trials) and new word pairs. fMRI 'familiarity effects' were operationalized as greater activity for studied test pairs incorrectly identified as 'rearranged' than for correctly rejected new pairs...
May 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488186/functional-organization-of-the-medial-temporal-lobe-memory-system-following-neonatal-hippocampal-lesion-in-rhesus-monkeys
#9
Loïc J Chareyron, Pamela Banta Lavenex, David G Amaral, Pierre Lavenex
Hippocampal damage in adult humans impairs episodic and semantic memory, whereas hippocampal damage early in life impairs episodic memory but leaves semantic learning relatively preserved. We have previously shown a similar behavioral dissociation in nonhuman primates. Hippocampal lesion in adult monkeys prevents allocentric spatial relational learning, whereas spatial learning persists following neonatal lesion. Here, we quantified the number of cells expressing the immediate-early gene c-fos, a marker of neuronal activity, to characterize the functional organization of the medial temporal lobe memory system following neonatal hippocampal lesion...
May 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484388/aging-impairs-hippocampal-dependent-recognition-memory-and-ltp-and-prevents-the-associated-ryr-up-regulation
#10
Alejandra Arias-Cavieres, Tatiana Adasme, Gina Sánchez, Pablo Muñoz, Cecilia Hidalgo
Recognition memory comprises recollection judgment and familiarity, two different processes that engage the hippocampus and the perirhinal cortex, respectively. Previous studies have shown that aged rodents display defective recognition memory and alterations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. We report here that young rats efficiently performed at short-term (5 min) and long-term (24 h) hippocampus-associated object-location tasks and perirhinal cortex-related novel-object recognition tasks. In contrast, aged rats successfully performed the object-location and the novel-object recognition tasks only at short-term...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473640/anterolateral-entorhinal-cortex-volume-predicted-by-altered-intra-item-configural-processing
#11
Lok-Kin Yeung, Rosanna K Olsen, Hannah E P Bild-Enkin, Maria C D'Angelo, Arber Kacollja, Douglas A McQuiggan, Anna Keshabyan, Jennifer D Ryan, Morgan D Barense
Recent functional imaging studies have proposed that the human entorhinal cortex is subdivided into functionally distinct anterolateral (alERC) and posteromedial (pmERC) subregions. The alERC overlaps with regions that are affected earliest by Alzheimer's disease pathology, yet its cognitive function remains poorly understood. Previous human fMRI studies have focused on its role in object memory, but rodent studies on the putatively homologous lateral entorhinal cortex suggest that it also plays an important role in representing spatial properties of objects...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456521/visual-integration-enhances-associative-memory-equally-for-young-and-older-adults-without-reducing-hippocampal-encoding-activation
#12
Molly Memel, Lee Ryan
The ability to remember associations between previously unrelated pieces of information is often impaired in older adults (Naveh-Benjamin, 2000). Unitization, the process of creating a perceptually or semantically integrated representation that includes both items in an associative pair, attenuates age-related associative deficits (Bastin et al., 2013; Ahmad et al., 2015; Zheng et al., 2015). Compared to non-unitized pairs, unitized pairs may rely less on hippocampally-mediated binding associated with recollection, and more on familiarity-based processes mediated by perirhinal cortex (PRC) and parahippocampal cortex (PHC)...
April 26, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444371/neural-correlates-of-both-perception-and-memory-for-objects-in-the-rodent-perirhinal-cortex
#13
Jae-Rong Ahn, Inah Lee
Despite its anatomical positioning as an interface between the perceptual and memory systems, the perirhinal cortex (PER) has long been considered dedicated for object recognition memory. Whether the PER is also involved in object perception has been intensely debated in recent studies, but physiological evidence has been lacking. We recorded single units from the PER while the rat made categorical responses immediately after sampling a visual object as the originally learned objects were ambiguously morphed to varying degrees...
April 24, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424398/-brodmann-areas-27-28-36-and-37-the-parahippocampal-and-the-fusiform-gyri
#14
Satoshi Eifuku
First, Brodmann areas 27, 28, 36 and 37, were anatomically defined in the beginning of this review. These areas exist in the parahippocampal or fusiform gyrus of the ventral temporal lobe in humans. Subsequently, the current understanding of their functions was summarized on the basis of recent findings mainly through human functional neuroimaging studies and animal studies. Rodent studies have shown the existence of neuronal activities for representing space, such as those involving head-direction cells or grid cells, in areas 27 (the parasubicular cortex) and 28 (the ventral entorhinal cortex)...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424397/-spatial-cognition-and-episodic-memory-formation-in-the-limbic-cortex
#15
Yasushi Kobayashi
The limbic lobe defined by Broca is a cortical region with highly diverse structure and functions, and comprises the paleo-, archi-, and neocortices as well as their transitional zones. In the limbic lobe, Brodmann designated areas 27, 28, 34, 35, and 36 adjacent to the hippocampus, and areas 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, and 33 around the corpus callosum. In the current literature, areas 27 and 28 correspond to the presubiculum and entorhinal cortex, respectively. Area 34 represents the cortico-medial part of the amygdaloid complex...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419566/perirhinal-accumulation-of-neuronal-alpha-synuclein-in-a-multiple-system-atrophy-patient-with-dementia
#16
Mari Saito, Makoto Hara, Momoko Ebashi, Akihiko Morita, Kyoko Okada, Taku Homma, Masahiko Sugitani, Kentaro Endo, Toshiki Uchihara, Satoshi Kamei
We report the case of a 79-year-old Japanese woman who developed cerebellar ataxia followed by rigidity, dysautonomia and cognitive disorders, and was thus clinically diagnosed as having possible MSA with dementia. Neuropathological findings demonstrated not only olivopontocerebellar and striatonigral degeneration with frequent glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs), but also degenerative changes in the parahippocampal region, accentuated in the anterior portion of perirhinal cortex, where neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) and NFTs were numerous while GCIs were limited...
April 16, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411272/disconnection-of-the-perirhinal-and-postrhinal-cortices-impairs-recognition-of-objects-in-context-but-not-contextual-fear-conditioning
#17
Victoria R Heimer-McGinn, Devon L Poeta, Krishan Aghi, Methma Udawatta, Rebecca D Burwell
The perirhinal cortex (PER) is known to process object information, whereas the rodent postrhinal cortex (POR), homolog to the parahippocampal cortex in primates, is thought to process spatial information. A number of studies, however, provide evidence that both areas are involved in processing contextual information. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the rat POR relies on object information received from the PER to form complex representations of context. Using three fear-conditioning (FC) paradigms (signaled, unsignaled, and renewal) and two context-guided object recognition tasks (with 3D and 2D objects), we examined the effects of crossed excitotoxic lesions to the POR and the contralateral PER...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389337/recognition-memory-induced-gene-expression-in-the-perirhinal-cortex-a-transcriptomic-analysis
#18
Hannah Scott, Mark F Rogers, Helen L Scott, Colin Campbell, Elizabeth C Warburton, James B Uney
We have used transcriptome analysis to identify genes and pathways that are activated during recognition memory formation in the perirhinal cortex. Rats were exposed to objects either repeatedly, so that the objects become familiar, or to novel objects in a bow-tie maze over six consecutive days. On the final day, one hour after the last exposure to the series of objects, RNA from the perirhinal cortex was sequenced to compare the transcriptome of naïve control rats and rats exposed to either novel or familiar stimuli...
April 4, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367410/contrasting-roles-for-dna-methyltransferases-and-histone-deacetylases-in-single-item-and-associative-recognition-memory
#19
Hannah Scott, Anna E Smith, Gareth R Barker, James B Uney, E Clea Warburton
Recognition memory enables us to judge whether we have encountered a stimulus before and to recall associated information, including where the stimulus was encountered. The perirhinal cortex (PRh) is required for judgment of stimulus familiarity, while hippocampus (HPC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are additionally involved when spatial information associated with a stimulus needs to be remembered. While gene expression is known to be essential for the consolidation of long-term recognition memory, the underlying regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood...
March 2017: Neuroepigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347878/memory-guided-drawing-training-increases-granger-causal-influences-from-the-perirhinal-cortex-to-v1-in-the-blind
#20
Laura Cacciamani, Lora T Likova
The perirhinal cortex (PRC) is a medial temporal lobe structure that has been implicated in not only visual memory in the sighted, but also tactile memory in the blind (Cacciamani & Likova, 2016). It has been proposed that, in the blind, the PRC may contribute to modulation of tactile memory responses that emerge in low-level "visual" area V1 as a result of training-induced cortical reorganization (Likova, 2012, 2015). While some studies in the sighted have indicated that the PRC is indeed structurally and functionally connected to the visual cortex (Clavagnier, Falchier, & Kennedy, 2004; Peterson, Cacciamani, Barense, & Scalf, 2012), the PRC's direct modulation of V1 is unknown-particularly in those who lack the visual input that typically stimulates this region...
March 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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