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George Garas, Asit Arora
The first application of robotic technology in surgery was described in 1985 when a robot was used to define the trajectory for a stereotactic brain biopsy. Following its successful application in a variety of surgical operations, the da Vinci® robot, the most widely used surgical robot at present, made its clinical debut in otorhinolaryngology and head and neck surgery in 2005 when the first transoral robotic surgery (TORS) resections of base of tongue neoplasms were reported. Subsequently, the indications for TORS rapidly expanded, and they now include tumours of the oropharynx, hypopharynx, parapharyngeal space, and supraglottic larynx, as well as obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA)...
June 20, 2018: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
R Zorron, C Bures, A Brandl, P Seika, V Müller, M Alkhazraji, J Pratschke, M Mogl
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, minimally invasive thyroid and parathyroid gland resections for both benign and malignant tumors are rarely performed. Recently, promising new endoscopic transoral approaches to the anterior neck have been described with good results and few complications. This study describes the first clinical series in Germany using transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy-vestibular approach (TOETVA) and identifies technical issues and solutions. METHODS: The technique is indicated for hemithyroidectomy in patients without pre-existing neck operations...
June 19, 2018: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
Arpan Tahim, Sarah Ali, Leo Cheng
INTRODUCTION: The aim of surgical management of benign facial skin lumps is to remove the lesion in its entirety, with minimal damage to adjacent tissue structures, while maintaining facial aesthetics. A method to achieve these goals is to remove peri-oral lesions in the labial and buccal zones via an intra-oral approach. We report an extended cases series of facial skin lumps that were excised using an intra-oral approach. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on all patients who underwent excisions of benign cutaneous lesions on the face via an intra-oral approach...
June 16, 2018: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Toon Swings, David C Marciano, Benu Atri, Rachel E Bosserman, Chen Wang, Marlies Leysen, Camille Bonte, Thomas Schalck, Ian Furey, Bram Van den Bergh, Natalie Verstraeten, Peter J Christie, Christophe Herman, Olivier Lichtarge, Jan Michiels
CRISPR advances genome engineering by directing endonuclease sequence specificity with a guide RNA molecule (gRNA). For precisely targeting a gene for modification, each genetic construct requires a unique gRNA. By generating a gRNA against the flippase recognition target (FRT) site, a common genetic element shared by multiple genetic collections, CRISPR-FRT circumvents this design constraint to provide a broad platform for fast, scarless, off-the-shelf genome engineering.
June 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Gregory L Elison, Murat Acar
The ability to predict phenotype from genotype has been an elusive goal for the biological sciences for several decades. Progress decoding genotype-phenotype relationships has been hampered by the challenge of introducing precise genetic changes to specific genomic locations. Here we provide a comparative review of the major techniques that have been historically used to make genetic changes in cells as well as the development of the CRISPR technology which enabled the ability to make marker-free disruptions in endogenous genomic locations...
June 5, 2018: Current Genetics
Radu Ionescu, Daniel Dima, Nicolae Antohi
Background: Common methods for addressing minor tuberous breast (type 0; normal mammary base breast with isolated areolar herniation) do not solve the underlying pathology and may leave an unsightly scar. Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of a simple, scarless method based on a novel 'compass rose' technique, which addresses the etiology of minor tuberous breast and other cases desiring small areolar diameter reductions. Methods: The technique uses three layers of suturing, one in a compass pattern and two in round block...
May 28, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Ana M Moreno, Xin Fu, Jie Zhu, Dhruva Katrekar, Yu-Ru V Shih, John Marlett, Jessica Cabotaje, Jasmine Tat, John Naughton, Leszek Lisowski, Shyni Varghese, Kang Zhang, Prashant Mali
Development of efficacious in vivo delivery platforms for CRISPR-Cas9-based epigenome engineering will be critical to enable the ability to target human diseases without permanent modification of the genome. Toward this, we utilized split-Cas9 systems to develop a modular adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector platform for CRISPR-Cas9 delivery to enable the full spectrum of targeted in situ gene regulation functionalities, demonstrating robust transcriptional repression (up to 80%) and activation (up to 6-fold) of target genes in cell culture and mice...
April 25, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Zhen Kang, Wenwen Ding, Peng Jin, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen
Simple and reliable DNA assembly methods have become a critical technique in synthetic biology. Here, we present a protocol of the recently developed DATEL (scarless and sequence-independent DNA assembly method using thermostable exonuclease and ligase) method for the construction of genetic circuits and biological pathways from multiple DNA parts in one tube. DATEL is expected to be an applicable choice for both manual and automated high-throughput assembly of DNA fragments, which will greatly facilitate the rapid progress of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yufei Chen, Kathryn Chomsky-Higgins, Iheoma Nwaogu, Carolyn D Seib, Jessica E Gosnell, Wen T Shen, Quan-Yang Duh, Insoo Suh
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive and remote access thyroid surgery has been evolving with the transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA) emerging as a true "scarless" thyroidectomy. In this study, we describe a hybrid transoral and submental thyroidectomy (TOaST) technique for thyroid lobectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A TOaST right thyroid lobectomy was performed for a 4 cm cytologically benign right thyroid nodule. Initial incision was made in the submental region with two additional 5 mm lateral ports inserted transorally...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Lu Wang, Li Hu, Xin Zhou, Zehuan Xiong, Chenguang Zhang, Hassan M A Shehada, Bo Hu, Jinlin Song, Lili Chen
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jing Wang, Ruichen Lv, Yanping Han, Ruifu Yang
Gene modification is an important technique to understand gene function. We firstly constructed Δhfq::Spe and Δrne-710::Spe mutant strains of Escherichia coli MG1655. The fragment lacking of hfq and rne-710 was ligated to the auxiliary plasmid and separately replace the spectinomycin box by homologous recombinase system to obtain the Δhfq and Δrne-710 mutant strains. The combination of two-plasmid scarless genetic modification and fusion PCR led to a new way for the long DNA fragment gene deletions.
April 25, 2018: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Guoming Sun, Yu-I Shen, John W Harmon
Skin and skin appendages protect the body from harmful environment and prevent internal organs from dehydration. Superficial epidermal wounds usually heal without scarring, however, deep dermal wound healing commonly ends up with nonfunctioning scar formation with substantial loss of skin appendage. Wound healing is one of the most complex dynamic biological processes, during which a cascade of biomolecules combine with stem cell influx and matrix synthesis and synergistically contribute to wound healing at all levels...
April 16, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Nicole B Coggins, Jacob Stultz, Henriette O'Geen, Luis G Carvajal-Carmona, David J Segal
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wojciech Dec
Breast reconstruction that leaves no visible scars on the breast is possible for a subset of patients. This article reviews a cohort of 10 patients who underwent 14 autologous breast reconstructions. To achieve a reconstruction without visible breast scars, the mastectomy and autologous reconstruction are carried out through a periareolar incision. At the completion of the reconstruction, a small skin paddle is externalized through the mastectomy incision and in a subsequent stage entirely incorporated into a nipple areola reconstruction...
February 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Qin Qin, Chen Ling, Yiqing Zhao, Tian Yang, Jin Yin, Yingying Guo, Guo Qiang Chen
Extremophiles are suitable chassis for developing the next generation industrial biotechnology (NGIB) due to their resistance to microbial contamination. However, engineering extremophiles are not an easy task. Halomonas, an industrially interesting halophile able to grow under unsterile and continuous conditions in large-scale processes, can only be engineered using suicide plasmid-mediated two-step homologous recombination which is very laborious and time-consuming (up to half a year). A convenient approach for the engineering of halophiles that can possibly be extended to other extremophiles is therefore urgently required...
May 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Rana Tarzemany, Guoqiao Jiang, Jean X Jiang, Corrie Gallant-Behm, Colin Wiebe, David A Hart, Hannu Larjava, Lari Häkkinen
Fibroblasts are the most abundant connective tissue cells and play an important role in wound healing. It is possible that faster and scarless wound healing in oral mucosal gingiva relative to skin may relate to the distinct phenotype of the fibroblasts residing in these tissues. Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the most ubiquitous Cx in skin (SFBLs) and gingival fibroblasts (GFBLs), and assembles into hemichannels (HCs) and gap junctions (GJs) on the cell membrane. We hypothesized that SFBLs and GFBLs display distinct expression or function of Cx43, and that this may partly underlie the different wound healing outcomes in skin and gingiva...
June 15, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Flavio H Mendes, Fausto Viterbo, Ana L A P Luna
BACKGROUND: It is reasonable that deflated tissue in massive weight loss patients may demand not only lifting but also some extent of central body tightening, by the fleur-de-lis procedure. Although achieving nice contouring results, poor visible scars, including umbilical complications, have restricted the indications for the anterior vertical approach. The purpose of this article is to present the authors' experience with the inner scar umbilical reconstruction, reflecting overall results in vertical abdominoplasties...
April 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Dongsheng Jiang, Donovan Correa-Gallegos, Simon Christ, Ania Stefanska, Juan Liu, Pushkar Ramesh, Vijayanand Rajendran, Martina M De Santis, Darcy E Wagner, Yuval Rinkevich
During fetal development, mammalian back-skin undergoes a natural transition in response to injury, from scarless regeneration to skin scarring. Here, we characterize dermal morphogenesis and follow two distinct embryonic fibroblast lineages, based on their history of expression of the engrailed 1 gene. We use single-cell fate-mapping, live three dimensional confocal imaging and in silico analysis coupled with immunolabelling to reveal unanticipated structural and regional complexity and dynamics within the dermis...
April 2018: Nature Cell Biology
Amir H Kashi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2018: Urology Journal
Mazaher Gholipourmalekabadi, Alexander M Seifalian, Aleksandra M Urbanska, Mir Davood Omrani, John G Hardy, Zahra Madjd, Seyed Mahmoud Hashemi, Hossein Ghanbarian, Peiman Brouki Milan, Masoud Mozafari, Rui L Reis, Subhas C Kundu, Ali Samadikuchaksaraei
Severe burn injuries can lead to delays in healing and devastating scar formation. Attempts have been made to develop a suitable skin substitute for the scarless healing of such skin wounds. Currently, there is no effective strategy for completely scarless healing after the thermal injuries. In our recent work, we fabricated and evaluated a 3D protein-based artificial skin made from decellularized human amniotic membrane (AM) and electrospun nanofibrous silk fibroin (ESF) in vitro. We also characterized both biophysical and cell culture investigation to establish in vitro performance of the developed bilayer scaffolds...
April 18, 2018: Biomacromolecules
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