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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932035/epigenetics-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#1
REVIEW
K N Hema, T Smitha, H S Sheethal, S Angeline Mirnalini
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of oral neoplasm, accounting for over 90% of all oral malignancies and 38% of head and neck tumors. Worldwide, OSCC is the eighth most common human cancer, with more than 500,000 new cases being diagnosed every year with a fairly onerous prognosis, encouraging further research on factors that might modify disease outcome. Genetic and/or environmental risk factors associated with the development of oral cancer have been sufficiently understood (smoking, alcohol, betel, diet, living habits, etc...
May 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930539/transcriptional-regulation-of-p57-kip2-expression-during-development-differentiation-and-disease
#2
Marianna N Rossi, Oriella Andresini, Francesca Matteini, Rossella Maione
p57(kip2) is the most complex member of the CIP/KIP family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and plays a fundamental role in regulating cell cycle and differentiation during mammalian development. Consistently with a key role for p57(kip2) in the spatial and temporal control of cell proliferation, its expression is fine-tuned by multiple regulatory mechanisms, resulting in a tissue-, developmental phase- and cell type-specific pattern. Moreover, p57(kip2) is an imprinted gene, further supporting the importance of its proper expression dosage...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926429/targeting-histone-acetylation-readers-and-writers-in-leukemia-and-cancer
#3
Christopher B Benton, Warren Fiskus, Kapil N Bhalla
Chromatin packaging of DNA provides a framework for transcriptional regulation. Modifications to DNA and histone proteins in nucleosomes lead to conformational changes, alterations in the recruitment of transcriptional complexes, and ultimately modulation of gene expression. We provide a focused review of control mechanisms that help modulate the activation and deactivation of gene transcription specifically through histone acetylation writers and readers in cancer. The chemistry of these modifications is subject to clinically actionable targeting, including state-of-the-art strategies to inhibit basic oncogenic mechanisms related to histone acetylation...
September 2017: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925386/5-hydroxymethylcytosine-signatures-in-circulating-cell-free-dna-as-diagnostic-biomarkers-for-human-cancers
#4
Wenshuai Li, Xu Zhang, Xingyu Lu, Lei You, Yanqun Song, Zhongguang Luo, Jun Zhang, Ji Nie, Wanwei Zheng, Diannan Xu, Yaping Wang, Yuanqiang Dong, Shulin Yu, Jun Hong, Jianping Shi, Hankun Hao, Fen Luo, Luchun Hua, Peng Wang, Xiaoping Qian, Fang Yuan, Lianhuan Wei, Ming Cui, Taiping Zhang, Quan Liao, Menghua Dai, Ziwen Liu, Ge Chen, Katherine Meckel, Sarbani Adhikari, Guifang Jia, Marc B Bissonnette, Xinxiang Zhang, Yupei Zhao, Wei Zhang, Chuan He, Jie Liu
DNA modifications such as 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) are epigenetic marks known to affect global gene expression in mammals. Given their prevalence in the human genome, close correlation with gene expression and high chemical stability, these DNA epigenetic marks could serve as ideal biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. Taking advantage of a highly sensitive and selective chemical labeling technology, we report here the genome-wide profiling of 5hmC in circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and in genomic DNA (gDNA) of paired tumor and adjacent tissues collected from a cohort of 260 patients recently diagnosed with colorectal, gastric, pancreatic, liver or thyroid cancer and normal tissues from 90 healthy individuals...
September 19, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923849/bivalent-epigenetic-control-of-oncofetal-gene-expression-in-cancer
#5
Sayyed K Zaidi, Seth E Frietze, Jonathan A Gordon, Jessica L Heath, Terri Messier, Deli Hong, Joseph R Boyd, Mingu Kang, Anthony N Imbalzano, Jane B Lian, Janet L Stein, Gary S Stein
Multiple mechanisms of epigenetic control that include DNA methylation, histone modification, non-coding RNAs, and mitotic gene bookmarking play pivotal roles in stringent gene regulation during lineage commitment and maintenance. Experimental evidence indicates that bivalent chromatin domains, i.e., regions of genome that are marked by both H3K4me3 (activating) and H3K27me3 (repressive) histone modifications, are a key property of pluripotent stem cells. Bivalency of developmental genes during the G1 phase of the pluripotent stem cell cycle contributes to cell fate decisions...
September 18, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921466/roles-of-hdacs-in-the-responses-of-innate-immune-cells-and-as-targets-in-inflammatory-diseases
#6
Yiqun Hu, Bandar Ali Suliman
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are an emerging class of molecules involved in the epigenetic regulation of innate immune responses through Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interferon (IFN) signaling pathways. HDACs are also key drivers of inflammatory diseases via epigenetic regulation through chromatin DNA and histone modification by methylation and acetylation, among other mechanisms, which control innate immune cell gene expression. Importantly, these epigenetic changes are reversible, and HDACs may also be targeted by small-molecule HDAC inhibitors, which have been used in clinical settings for cancer therapy...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919981/regulation-of-cancer-epigenomes-with-a-histone-binding-synthetic-transcription-factor
#7
David B Nyer, Rene M Daer, Daniel Vargas, Caroline Hom, Karmella A Haynes
Chromatin proteins have expanded the mammalian synthetic biology toolbox by enabling control of active and silenced states at endogenous genes. Others have reported synthetic proteins that bind DNA and regulate genes by altering chromatin marks, such as histone modifications. Previously, we reported the first synthetic transcriptional activator, the "Polycomb-based transcription factor" (PcTF) that reads histone modifications through a protein-protein interaction between the polycomb chromodomain motif and trimethylated lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3)...
2017: NPJ Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912372/genome-wide-maps-of-alkylation-damage-repair-and-mutagenesis-in-yeast-reveal-mechanisms-of-mutational-heterogeneity
#8
Peng Mao, Alexander J Brown, Ewa P Malc, Piotr A Mieczkowski, Michael J Smerdon, Steven A Roberts, John J Wyrick
DNA base damage is an important contributor to genome instability, but how the formation and repair of these lesions is affected by the genomic landscape and contributes to mutagenesis is unknown. Here, we describe genome-wide maps of DNA base damage, repair, and mutagenesis at single nucleotide resolution in yeast treated with the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). Analysis of these maps revealed that base excision repair (BER) of alkylation damage is significantly modulated by chromatin, with faster repair in nucleosome-depleted regions, and slower repair and higher mutation density within strongly positioned nucleosomes...
September 14, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904641/histone-code-and-long-non-coding-rnas-lncrnas-aberrations-in-lung-cancer-implications-in-the-therapy-response
#9
REVIEW
Abril Marcela Herrera-Solorio, Leonel Armas-López, Oscar Arrieta, Joaquín Zúñiga, Patricia Piña-Sánchez, Federico Ávila-Moreno
Respiratory diseases hold several genome, epigenome, and transcriptional aberrations as a cause of the accumulated damage promoted by, among others, environmental risk factors. Such aberrations can also come about as an adaptive response when faced with therapeutic oncological drugs. In epigenetic terms, aberrations in DNA methylation patterns, histone code marks balance, and/or chromatin-remodeling complexes recruitment, among Polycomb Repressive Complex-2 (PRC2) versus Trithorax (TRX) Activator Complex, have been proposed to be affected by several previously characterized functional long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs)...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900510/egln1-c-myc-induced-lymphoid-specific-helicase-inhibits-ferroptosis-through-lipid-metabolic-gene-expression-changes
#10
Yiqun Jiang, Chao Mao, Rui Yang, Bin Yan, Ying Shi, Xiaoli Liu, Weiwei Lai, Yating Liu, Xiang Wang, Desheng Xiao, Hu Zhou, Yan Cheng, Fenglei Yu, Ya Cao, Shuang Liu, Qin Yan, Yongguang Tao
Ferroptosis is a newly discovered form of non-apoptotic cell death in multiple human diseases. However, the epigenetic mechanisms underlying ferroptosis remain poorly defined. First, we demonstrated that lymphoid-specific helicase (LSH), which is a DNA methylation modifier, interacted with WDR76 to inhibit ferroptosis by activating lipid metabolism-associated genes, including GLUT1, and ferroptosis related genes SCD1 and FADS2, in turn, involved in the Warburg effect. WDR76 targeted these genes expression in dependent manner of LSH and chromatin modification in DNA methylation and histone modification...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894047/the-role-of-vitamin-c-in-epigenetic-regulation
#11
Jolanta Guz, Ryszard Oliński
Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) is a micronutrient best known for its anti-scurvy activity in humans. Vitamin C is involved in many biological processes involving enzymatic reactions that are catalyzed by members of dioxygenases which use Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate as a co-substrate.The article reviews recent data that suggest the involvement of ascorbate in dioxygenases catalyzed chromatin and DNA modifications which thereby contribute to epigenetic regulation. Concerning chromatin modification, the dioxygenases are involved in distinct demethylation reactions with varying specificity for the position of the lysine on the target histone...
August 24, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882223/micrornas-and-epigenetics
#12
Catia Moutinho, Manel Esteller
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression mainly at the posttranscriptional level. Similar to protein-coding genes, their expression is also controlled by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Disruption of these control processes leads to abnormal expression of miRNAs in cancer. In this chapter, we discuss the supportive links between miRNAs and epigenetics in the context of carcinogenesis. miRNAs can be epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation and/or specific histone modifications...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839265/combinatorial-bioactive-botanicals-re-sensitize-tamoxifen-treatment-in-er-negative-breast-cancer-via-epigenetic-reactivation-of-er%C3%AE-expression
#13
Yuanyuan Li, Syed M Meeran, Trygve O Tollefsbol
Conventional cancer prevention has primarily focused on single chemopreventive compounds that may not be sufficiently efficacious. We sought to investigate potential combinatorial effects of epigenetic bioactive botanicals including epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in green tea polyphenols (GTPs) and sulforaphane (SFN) in broccoli sprouts (BSp) on neutralizing epigenetic aberrations in estrogen receptor-α (ERα) leading to enhanced anti-hormone therapeutic efficacy in ERα-negative breast cancer. Our results showed that this combinatorial treatment re-sensitized ERα-dependent cellular inhibitory responses to an estrogen antagonist, tamoxifen (TAM), via at least in part, epigenetic reactivation of ERα expression in ERα-negative breast cancer cells...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835928/impaired-dna-replication-derepresses-chromatin-and-generates-a-transgenerationally-inherited-epigenetic-memory
#14
Adam Klosin, Kadri Reis, Cristina Hidalgo-Carcedo, Eduard Casas, Tanya Vavouri, Ben Lehner
Impaired DNA replication is a hallmark of cancer and a cause of genomic instability. We report that, in addition to causing genetic change, impaired DNA replication during embryonic development can have major epigenetic consequences for a genome. In a genome-wide screen, we identified impaired DNA replication as a cause of increased expression from a repressed transgene in Caenorhabditis elegans. The acquired expression state behaved as an "epiallele," being inherited for multiple generations before fully resetting...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825597/epigenetics-at-the-base-of-alternative-splicing-changes-that-promote-colorectal-cancer
#15
Alberto R Kornblihtt
Chromatin modification influences gene expression by either repressing or activating genes, depending on the specific histone mark. Chromatin structure can also influence alternative splicing of transcripts; however, the mechanisms by which epigenetic marks influence splicing are poorly understood. A report in the current issue of the JCI highlights the biological importance of the coordinated control of alternative pre-mRNA splicing by chromatin structure and transcriptional elongation. Yuan et al. found that mutation of the histone methyl transferase SEDT2 affects alternative splicing fates of several key regulatory genes, including those involved in Wnt signaling...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816066/stressing-the-epi-genome-dealing-with-ros-in-cancer
#16
Akshay V Bhat, Shainan Hora, Ananya Pal, Sudhakar Jha, Reshma Taneja
SIGNIFICANCE: Growing evidence indicates cross-talk between Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and several key epigenetic processes like DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNAs in normal physiology and human pathologies including cancer. This review focuses on how ROS-induced oxidative stress, metabolic intermediates and epigenetic processes influence each other in various cancers. Recent Advances: ROS alters chromatin structure and metabolism which impact the epigenetic landscape in cancer cells...
August 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812986/epigenome-aberrations-emerging-driving-factors-of-the-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#17
REVIEW
Ali Mehdi, Yasser Riazalhosseini
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the most common form of Kidney cancer, is characterized by frequent mutations of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene in ~85% of sporadic cases. Loss of pVHL function affects multiple cellular processes, among which the activation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway is the best-known function. Constitutive activation of HIF signaling in turn activates hundreds of genes involved in numerous oncogenic pathways, which contribute to the development or progression of ccRCC...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800870/recent-advances-in-her2-positive-breast-cancer-epigenetics-susceptibility-and-therapeutic-strategies
#18
REVIEW
Heena Singla, Abhilash Ludhiadch, Raman Preet Kaur, Harish Chander, Vinod Kumar, Anjana Munshi
HER2 amplification/overexpression accounts for aggressive clinical features of HER2 positive breast cancer. Epigenetic changes including DNA methylation, histone modifications and ncRNAs/miRNAs are associated with regulation of DNA chromatin and specifically, gene transcription. Hence, these produce eminent effects upon proto-oncogenes, tumor-suppressors and key cancer-regulatory signaling pathways. Understanding of epigenomic regulation of HER2 overexpression and signaling may help uncover the unmatchable physiology of HER2 gene/protein...
August 1, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795861/lnc00673-errlr01-is-a-prognostic-indicator-of-overall-survival-in-breast-cancer
#19
Ubaidat Abdul-Rahman, Balázs Gyoörffy, Brian D Adams
LncRNAs are novel noncoding RNAs involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression by recruiting ribonucleoprotein complexes to specific genomic loci to initiate histone methylation and/or other chromatin modifications. LncRNAs themselves function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes, depending on the gene regulatory networks they govern. We identified lnc00673 (ERRLR01) as a marker of overall survival (OS) in breast cancer patients. Specifically, ERRLR01 levels were elevated in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) as compared to Luminal- A, Luminal-B, and HER2 breast cancer subtypes...
August 10, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794818/electrophoretic-stretching-and-imaging-of-single-native-chromatin-fibers-in-nanoslits
#20
Jia-Wei Yeh, Kylan Szeto
Stretching single chromosomal DNA fibers in nanofluidic devices has become a valuable tool for studying the genome and more recently the epigenome. Although nanofluidic technology has been extensively used in single molecular DNA analysis, compared to bare DNA, much less work has been done to elongate chromatin, and only a few studies utilize more biologically relevant samples such as native eukaryotic chromatin. Here, we provide a method for stretching and imaging individual chromatin fibers within a micro- and nanofluidic device...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
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