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histone modification chromatin cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899379/transcriptional-regulator-cnot3-defines-an-aggressive-colorectal-cancer-subtype
#1
Paloma Cejas, Alessia Cavazza, Chandri Yandava, Víctor Moreno, David Horst, Juan Moreno-Rubio, Emilio Burgos, Marta Mendiola, Len Taing, Ajay Goel, Jaime Feliu, Ramesh A Shivdasani
Cancer cells exhibit dramatic alterations of chromatin organization at cis-regulatory elements, but the molecular basis, extent and impact of these alterations are still being unraveled. Here we identify extensive genome-wide modification of sites bearing the active histone mark H3K4me2 in primary human colorectal cancers (CRC), as compared to corresponding benign precursor adenomas. Modification of certain CRC sites highlighted the activity of the transcription factor CNOT3, which is known to control self-renewal of embryonic stem cells (ESC)...
November 29, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891192/the-quest-for-an-effective-and-safe-personalized-cell-therapy-using-epigenetic-tools
#2
REVIEW
T A L Brevini, G Pennarossa, E F M Manzoni, C E Gandolfi, A Zenobi, F Gandolfi
In the presence of different environmental cues that are able to trigger specific responses, a given genotype has the ability to originate a variety of different phenotypes. This property is defined as plasticity and allows cell fate definition and tissue specialization. Fundamental epigenetic mechanisms drive these modifications in gene expression and include DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, and microRNAs. Understanding these mechanisms can provide powerful tools to switch cell phenotype and implement cell therapy...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890923/the-epigenetic-landscape-of-renal-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Mark R Morris, Farida Latif
The majority of kidney cancers are associated with mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau gene and a small proportion are associated with infrequent mutations in other well characterized tumour-suppressor genes. In the past 15 years, efforts to uncover other key genes involved in renal cancer have identified many genes that are dysregulated or silenced via epigenetic mechanisms, mainly through methylation of promoter CpG islands or dysregulation of specific microRNAs. In addition, the advent of next-generation sequencing has led to the identification of several novel genes that are mutated in renal cancer, such as PBRM1, BAP1 and SETD2, which are all involved in histone modification and nucleosome and chromatin remodelling...
November 28, 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890782/bromodomain-histone-readers-and-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Abhinav K Jain, Michelle C Barton
Lysine acetylation of histone proteins is a fundamental post-translational modification that regulates chromatin structure and plays an important role in gene transcription. Aberrant levels of histone lysine acetylation are associated with the development of several diseases. Acetyl-lysine modifications create docking sites for bromodomains, which are structurally conserved modules present in transcription-associated proteins that are termed "reader" proteins. Bromodomain-containing reader proteins are part of multi-protein complexes that regulate transcription programs, often associated with profound phenotypic changes...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876760/changes-of-bivalent-chromatin-coincide-with-increased-expression-of-developmental-genes-in-cancer
#5
Stephan H Bernhart, Helene Kretzmer, Lesca M Holdt, Frank Jühling, Ole Ammerpohl, Anke K Bergmann, Bernd H Northoff, Gero Doose, Reiner Siebert, Peter F Stadler, Steve Hoffmann
Bivalent (poised or paused) chromatin comprises activating and repressing histone modifications at the same location. This combination of epigenetic marks at promoter or enhancer regions keeps genes expressed at low levels but poised for rapid activation. Typically, DNA at bivalent promoters is only lowly methylated in normal cells, but frequently shows elevated methylation levels in cancer samples. Here, we developed a universal classifier built from chromatin data that can identify cancer samples solely from hypermethylation of bivalent chromatin...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811314/epigenetic-treatment-of-pancreatic-cancer-is-there-a-therapeutic-perspective-on-the-horizon
#6
REVIEW
Elisabeth Hessmann, Steven A Johnsen, Jens T Siveke, Volker Ellenrieder
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) constitutes one of the most aggressive malignancies with a 5-year survival rate of <7%. Due to growing incidence, late diagnosis and insufficient treatment options, PDAC is predicted to soon become one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Although intensified cytostatic combinations, particularly gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel and the folinic acid, fluorouracil, irinotecan, oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) protocol, provide some improvement in efficacy and survival compared with gemcitabine alone, a breakthrough in the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer remains out of sight...
November 3, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806299/widespread-chromatin-accessibility-at-repetitive-elements-links-stem-cells-with-human-cancer
#7
Nicholas C Gomez, Austin J Hepperla, Raluca Dumitru, Jeremy M Simon, Fang Fang, Ian J Davis
Chromatin regulation is critical for differentiation and disease. However, features linking the chromatin environment of stem cells with disease remain largely unknown. We explored chromatin accessibility in embryonic and multipotent stem cells and unexpectedly identified widespread chromatin accessibility at repetitive elements. Integrating genomic and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that these sites of increased accessibility are associated with well-positioned nucleosomes marked by distinct histone modifications...
November 1, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798111/the-ring-finger-domain-e3-ubiquitin-ligases-brca1-and-the-rnf20-rnf40-complex-in-global-loss-of-the-chromatin-mark-histone-h2b-monoubiquitination-h2bub1-in-cell-line-models-and-primary-high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer
#8
Kristie-Ann Dickson, Alexander J Cole, Anthony J Gill, Adele Clarkson, Gregory B Gard, Angela Chou, Catherine J Kennedy, Beric R Henderson, Sian Fereday, Nadia Traficante, Kathryn Alsop, David D Bowtell, Anna deFazio, Roderick Clifton-Bligh, Deborah J Marsh
Enzymatic factors driving cancer-associated chromatin remodelling are of increasing interest as the role of the cancer epigenome in gene expression and DNA repair processes becomes elucidated. Monoubiquitination of histone H2B at lysine 120 (H2Bub1) is a central histone modification that functions in histone cross-talk, transcriptional elongation, DNA repair, maintaining centromeric chromatin and replication-dependent histone mRNA 3'-end processing, as well as being required for the differentiation of stem cells...
October 25, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793800/gene-expression-profiling-of-epigenetic-chromatin-modification-enzymes-and-histone-marks-by-cigarette-smoke-implications-for-copd-and-lung-cancer
#9
Isaac Kirubakaran Sundar, Irfan Rahman
Chromatin modifying enzymes mediate DNA methylation and histone modifications upon recruitment to specific target gene loci in response to various stimuli. The key enzymes that regulate chromatin accessibility for maintenance of modifications in DNA and histones, and for modulation of gene expression patterns in response to cigarette smoke (CS), are not known. We hypothesize that CS exposure alters the gene expression patterns of chromatin modifying enzymes, which then affects multiple downstream pathways involved in the response to CS...
October 28, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793053/epigenetic-regulation-of-cancer-biology-and-anti-tumor-immunity-by-ezh2
#10
Anthos Christofides, Theodoros Karantanos, Kankana Bardhan, Vassiliki A Boussiotis
Polycomb group proteins regulate chromatin structure and have an important regulatory role on gene expression in various cell types. Two polycomb group complexes (Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and 2 (PRC2)) have been identified in mammalian cells. Both PRC1 and PRC2 compact chromatin, and also catalyze histone modifications. PRC1 mediates monoubiquitination of histone H2A, whereas PRC2 catalyzes methylation of histone H3 on lysine 27. These alterations of histones can lead to altered gene expression patterns by regulating chromatin structure...
October 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780718/the-long-non-coding-rna-91h-increases-aggressive-phenotype-of-breast-cancer-cells-and-up-regulates-h19-igf2-expression-through-epigenetic-modifications
#11
Constance Vennin, Nathalie Spruyt, Yves-Marie Robin, Thierry Chassat, Xuefen Le Bourhis, Eric Adriaenssens
Numerous genomic imprinting loci are regulated by long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). We have previously identified a new lncRNA at the H19/IGF2 locus transcribed in H19 antisense orientation and named 91H. This RNA is conserved among mammals. In mice, 91H regulates positively IGF2 expression from a novel promoter. However, in human the function of 91H at the H19/IGF2 locus remains largely undeciphered. Here, we observed that 91H, H19 and IGF2 are overexpressed in breast tumors. By using 91H-knockdown breast cancer cells, we demonstrated that 91H exerts oncogenic properties by promoting cell growth, migration and invasion as well as tumor growth in xenografted immunodeficient mouse model...
October 22, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775603/zinc-finger-and-x-linked-factor-zfx-binds-to-human-set-transcript-2-promoter-and-transactivates-set-expression
#12
Siliang Xu, Ping Duan, Jinping Li, Tristan Senkowski, Fengbiao Guo, Haibin Chen, Alberto Romero, Yugui Cui, Jiayin Liu, Shi-Wen Jiang
SET (SE Translocation) protein carries out multiple functions including those for protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibition, histone modification, DNA repair, and gene regulation. SET overexpression has been detected in brain neurons of patients suffering Alzheimer's disease, follicle theca cells of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients, and ovarian cancer cells, indicating that SET may play a pathological role for these disorders. SET transcript 2, produced by a specific promoter, represents a major transcript variant in different cell types...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768134/emerging-role-of-nutri-epigenetics-in-inflammation-and-cancer
#13
Paule V Joseph, Sarah K Abey, Wendy A Henderson
Nutrition is a factor involved in inflammation and a modulator of risk toward some cancers, and the complexity of linkages between dietary components and epigenetics mechanisms (e.g., DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling) may affect the inflammation phenotype and the development of cancer. An increasing number of studies support the role of diet in cancer development, prevention, and treatment. Although current knowledge regarding nutri-epigenetics is expanding, more work is needed, and nurse scientists have the potential to significantly contribute to the expansion of this knowledge...
November 1, 2016: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761811/assessment-of-hdaci-induced-cytotoxicity
#14
Lisa Marx-Blümel, Christian Marx, Marie Kühne, Jürgen Sonnemann
The chromatin contains the genetic and the epigenetic information of a eukaryotic organism. Posttranslational modifications of histones, such as acetylation and methylation, regulate their structure and control gene expression. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) acetylate lysine residues in histones while histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove this modification. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) can alter gene expression patterns and induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Here we provide an overview of methods to determine the cytotoxic effects of HDACi treatment...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729836/mutational-analysis-of-extranodal-nk-t-cell-lymphoma-using-targeted-sequencing-with-a-comprehensive-cancer-panel
#15
Seungkyu Choi, Jai Hyang Go, Eun Kyung Kim, Hojung Lee, Won Mi Lee, Chun-Sung Cho, Kyudong Han
Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (NKTCL), is a malignant disorder of cytotoxic lymphocytes of NK or T cells. It is an aggressive neoplasm with a very poor prognosis. Although extranodal NKTCL reportedly has a strong association with Epstein-Barr virus, the molecular pathogenesis of NKTCL has been unexplored. The recent technological advancements in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have made DNA sequencing cost- and time-effective, with more reliable results. Using the Ion Proton Comprehensive Cancer Panel, we sequenced 409 cancer-related genes to identify somatic mutations in five NKTCL tissue samples...
September 2016: Genomics & Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723831/the-architectural-chromatin-factor-high-mobility-group-a1-enhances-dna-ligase-iv-activity-influencing-dna-repair
#16
Ilenia Pellarin, Laura Arnoldo, Silvia Costantini, Silvia Pegoraro, Gloria Ros, Carlotta Penzo, Gianluca Triolo, Francesca Demarchi, Riccardo Sgarra, Alessandro Vindigni, Guidalberto Manfioletti
The HMGA1 architectural transcription factor is an oncogene overexpressed in the vast majority of human cancers. HMGA1 is a highly connected node in the nuclear molecular network and the key aspect of HMGA1 involvement in cancer development is that HMGA1 simultaneously confers cells multiple oncogenic hits, ranging from global chromatin structural and gene expression modifications up to the direct functional alterations of key cellular proteins. Interestingly, HMGA1 also modulates DNA damage repair pathways...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717710/dysregulation-of-histone-methyltransferases-in-breast-cancer-opportunities-for-new-targeted-therapies
#17
Ewa M Michalak, Jane E Visvader
Histone methyltransferases (HMTs) catalyze the methylation of lysine and arginine residues on histone tails and non-histone targets. These important post-translational modifications are exquisitely regulated and affect chromatin compaction and transcriptional programs leading to diverse biological outcomes. There is accumulating evidence that genetic alterations of several HMTs impinge on oncogenic or tumor-suppressor functions and influence both cancer initiation and progression. HMTs therefore represent an opportunity for therapeutic targeting in those patients with tumors in which HMTs are dysregulated, to reverse the histone marks and transcriptional programs associated with aggressive tumor behavior...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717206/epigenetic-silencing-of-mir-200c-in-breast-cancer-is-associated-with-aggressiveness-and-is-modulated-by-zeb1
#18
Valentina Damiano, Giulia Brisotto, Silvia Borgna, Alessandra di Gennaro, Michela Armellin, Tiziana Perin, Michela Guardascione, Roberta Maestro, Manuela Santarosa
Loss of expression of miR-200 family members has been implicated in cellular plasticity, a phenomenon that accounts for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stem-like features of many carcinomas and is considered a major cause of tumor aggressiveness and drug resistance. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of miR-200 downregulation in breast cancer are still largely unknown. Here we show that miR-200c expression inversely correlates with miR-200c/miR-141 locus methylation in triple-negative breast tumors (TNBC)...
September 22, 2016: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702660/vasohibin-2-promotes-human-luminal-breast-cancer-angiogenesis-in-a-non-paracrine-manner-via-transcriptional-activation-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-2
#19
Min Tu, Cheng Lu, Nan Lv, Jishu Wei, Zipeng Lu, Chunhua Xi, Jianmin Chen, Feng Guo, Kuirong Jiang, Qiang Li, Junli Wu, Guoxin Song, Shui Wang, Wentao Gao, Yi Miao
Vasohibin 2 (VASH2) is an angiogenic factor and cancer-related protein that acts via paracrine mechanisms. Here, we investigated the angiogenic function and mechanism of action of VASH2 in 200 human breast cancer tissues by performing immunohistochemical staining, western blot, indirect sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a semi-quantitative sandwich-based antibody array. Breast cancer cells stably overexpressing VASH2 or with knocked-down VASH2 were established and used for in vivo and in vitro models...
October 1, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698925/low-proteolytic-clipping-of-histone-h3-in-cervical-cancer
#20
Jorge Sandoval-Basilio, Nicolás Serafín-Higuera, Octavio D Reyes-Hernandez, Idanya Serafín-Higuera, Gabriela Leija-Montoya, Magali Blanco-Morales, Monica Sierra-Martínez, Roberto Ramos-Mondragon, Silvia García, Luz Berenice López-Hernández, Martha Yocupicio-Monroy, Sofia L Alcaraz-Estrada
Chromatin in cervical cancer (CC) undergoes chemical and structural changes that alter the expression pattern of genes. Recently, a potential mechanism, which regulates gene expression at transcriptional levels is the proteolytic clipping of histone H3. However, until now this process in CC has not been reported. Using HeLa cells as a model of CC and human samples from patients with CC, we identify that the H3 cleavage was lower in CC compared with control tissue. Additionally, the histone H3 clipping was performed by serine and aspartyl proteases in HeLa cells...
2016: Journal of Cancer
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