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Glycogen availability

Katrin Strassburger, Aurelio A Teleman
Signaling pathways such as the insulin/insulin-like growth factor pathway concurrently regulate organismal growth and metabolism. Drosophila has become a popular model system for studying both organismal growth and metabolic regulation. Care must be taken, however, when assessing such phenotypes because they are quantitative in nature, and influenced by environment. This chapter first describes how to control animal age and nutrient availability, since growth and metabolism are sensitive to these parameters...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
James P Gavin, Stephen D Myers, Mark E Willems
BACKGROUND: We examined the effect of early-onset of muscle damage and low muscle glycogen on cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to low-intensity exercise. METHODS: Twelve men cycled for 10 min at 50% maximal oxygen uptake before, and 12 h after a morning downhill run (five, 8 min bouts at -12% gradient, with 2 min rests) under normal (NORM) and lowered glycogen (LOW) conditions, following a cross-over design with conditions separated by six weeks. Cardiorespiratory responses were recorded, with oxidation measures derived from stoichiometry equations...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Laura Rich, Angus M Brown
The historically neurocentric view of astrocytes as Styrofoam cushioning that rigidly clad neurons within the brain parenchyma has been superseded in the past 30 years by an increasing appreciation of the myriad roles astrocytes contribute to supporting physiological brain function. It is widely recognized that the continuous support provided by astrocytes, from prenatal development to maturity, is vital for neuronal function. Indeed, the numerous and diverse roles furnished by astrocytes contrasts with the vital but restricted transmission of action potentials that is the neuron's primary role...
October 5, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Hui Teng, Lei Chen, Hongbo Song
Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb (AP) has already been applied in practice for the treatment of different disorders and is available to access without the provision of a medical prescription. The present study aims at investigating the effect of bioactive compounds isolated from AP on the improvement of insulin resistance, figuring out the mechanism in insulin-responsive cell lines. Five compounds were isolated from AP using column chromatography, including agrimonolide (K1), desmethylagrimonolide (K2), tormentic acid (K3), ursolic acid (K4), and quercetin (K5)...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
A Trivedi, S Babic, M Heiman, W T Gibson, J-P Chanoine
Acylation of ghrelin is mediated by ghrelin O-acyltansferase (GOAT). Exogenous acylated ghrelin (AG) stimulates growth hormone (GH) and food intake. In non-pregnant (NP) animals, the GOAT-ghrelin-GH axis prevents hypoglycemia caused by caloric restriction (CR). In humans, maternal malnutrition challenges glucose metabolism, which is a key determinant of fetal health. To clarify the role of AG and GH, we compared effects of CR on the GOAT-ghrelin-GH axis in pregnant (P) and NP mice. C57BL/6 wild type (WT) and GOAT knock-out (KO) P and NP mice were freely fed (FF) or subjected to 50% CR for one week...
October 4, 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Boris Prinz, Katherine L Harvey, Louisa Wilcke, Ulrike Ruch, Klemens Engelberg, Laura Biller, Isabelle Lucet, Steffen Erkelenz, Dorothee Heincke, Tobias Spielmann, Christian Doerig, Conrad Kunick, Brendan S Crabb, Paul R Gilson, Tim W Gilberger
Central to the pathogenesis of malaria is the proliferation of Plasmodium falciparum parasites within human erythrocytes. Parasites invade erythrocytes via a coordinated sequence of receptor-ligand interactions between the parasite and host cell. One key ligand, Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1), is a leading blood-stage vaccine and previous work indicates that phosphorylation of its cytoplasmic domain (CPD) is important to its function during invasion. Here we investigate the significance of each of the six available phospho-sites in the CPD...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
K D Gejl, N Ørtenblad, E Andersson, P Plomgaard, H C Holmberg, J Nielsen
Skeletal muscle glycogen is heterogeneous distributed in three separated compartments (intramyofibrillar, intermyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal). Although only constituting 4-15% of the total glycogen volume, the availability of intramyofibrillar glycogen has been shown to be of particular importance to muscle function. The present study was designed to investigate the depletion of these three sub-cellular glycogen compartments during repeated supra-maximal exercise in elite athletes. Ten elite cross-country skiers (age: 25 ± 4 yrs...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Thomas Morville, Mads Rosenkilde, Thor Munch-Andersen, Peter Riis Andersen, Katja Kjær, Signe Helbo, Marianne Kristensen, Andreas Vigelsø, Nick Mattsson, Hanne Kruuse Rasmusen, Amelia Guadalupe-Grau, Angela Fago, Christina Neigaard Hansen, Brigitte Twelkmeyer, Jesper Løvind Andersen, Flemming Dela, Jørn Wulff Helge
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Fat metabolism and muscle adaptation was investigated in 6 older trained men (age: 61 ± 4 years; VO2max: 48 ± 2 mL kg min) following repeated prolonged exercise). METHODS: 2706 km (1,681 miles) cycling was performed over 14 days and a blood sample and a muscle biopsy were obtained at rest after an overnight fast before and 30 hours after the completion of the cycling. VO2-max and maximal fat oxidation were measured using incremental exercise tests...
September 28, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Regina Helena Pires, Thaís Regiani Cataldi, Livia Maria Franceschini, Mônica Veneziano Labate, Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida, Carlos Alberto Labate, Mario Sérgio Palma, Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini
AIM: This study aims to understand which Candida orthopsilosis protein aids fungus adaptation upon its switching from planktonic growth to biofilm. MATERIALS & METHODS: Ion mobility separation within mass spectrometry analysis combination were used. RESULTS: Proteins mapped for different biosynthetic pathways showed that selective ribosome autophagy might occur in biofilms. Glucose, used as a carbon source in the glycolytic flux, changed to glycogen and trehalose...
October 2016: Future Microbiology
Jonathan M Oliver, Anthony L Almada, Leighsa E Van Eck, Meena Shah, Joel B Mitchell, Margaret T Jones, Andrew R Jagim, David S Rowlands
Athletes in sports demanding repeat maximal work outputs frequently train concurrently utilizing sequential bouts of intense endurance and resistance training sessions. On a daily basis, maximal work within subsequent bouts may be limited by muscle glycogen availability. Recently, the ingestion of a unique high molecular weight (HMW) carbohydrate was found to increase glycogen re-synthesis rate and enhance work output during subsequent endurance exercise, relative to low molecular weight (LMW) carbohydrate ingestion...
2016: PloS One
Catia Velez, Etelvina Figueira, Amadeu M V M Soares, Rosa Freitas
Marine bivalves have been used to assess environmental As contamination and the effects of seawater acidification when both factors are acting alone, but limited information is available regarding the impacts of both factors acting in combination. The aim of this study was to compare physiological (glycogen) and biochemical (lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and alkaline phosphatase) responses in both native (Ruditapes decussatus) and introduced (R. philippinarum) clams, when exposed to the combined effects of pH (7...
September 10, 2016: Environmental Research
Wei Zhang, Hua Xiong, Yanmei Zou, Sanpeng Xu, Lanping Quan, Xianglin Yuan, Ningzhi Xu, Yihua Wang
Prostate cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer‑associated mortality for males worldwide. Although dysregulation of the β‑catenin/T‑cell factor (TCF) pathway has been previously reported in prostate cancer, the mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown. Frequently rearranged in advanced T‑cell lymphomas‑1 (FRAT1) functions as a positive regulator of the β‑catenin/TCF signaling pathway. However, to the best of our knowledge, the molecular association between FRAT1 and the β‑catenin/TCF pathway in prostate cancer has not been investigated...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Flávia B Mury, Magda D Lugon, Rodrigo Nunes DA Fonseca, Jose R Silva, Mateus Berni, Helena M Araujo, Marcio Ribeiro Fontenele, Leonardo Araujo DE Abreu, Marílvia Dansa, Glória Braz, Hatisaburo Masuda, Carlos Logullo
Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-feeding insect that transmits Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli to vertebrate hosts. Rhodnius prolixus is also a classical model in insect physiology, and the recent availability of R. prolixus genome has opened new avenues on triatomine research. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is classically described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism, also acting as a downstream component of the Wnt pathway during embryogenesis. GSK-3 has been shown to be highly conserved among several organisms, mainly in the catalytic domain region...
October 2016: Parasitology
Fangzhe Chen, Weifeng Wang, Hongyan Ding, Qi Yang, Qiang Dong, Mei Cui
BACKGROUND: As the number of patients with cardioembolic ischemic stroke is predicted to be double by 2030, increased burden of warfarin-associated hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after cerebral ischemia is an expected consequence. However, thus far, no effective treatment strategy is available for HT prevention in routine clinical practice. While the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4) is known to protect against oxidative stress and neuronal cell death caused by ischemic brain damage, its effect on preventing warfarin-associated HT after cerebral ischemia is yet unknown...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Amira Elgogary, Qingguo Xu, Brad Poore, Jesse Alt, Sarah C Zimmermann, Liang Zhao, Jie Fu, Baiwei Chen, Shiyu Xia, Yanfei Liu, Marc Neisser, Christopher Nguyen, Ramon Lee, Joshua K Park, Juvenal Reyes, Thomas Hartung, Camilo Rojas, Rana Rais, Takashi Tsukamoto, Gregg L Semenza, Justin Hanes, Barbara S Slusher, Anne Le
Targeting glutamine metabolism via pharmacological inhibition of glutaminase has been translated into clinical trials as a novel cancer therapy, but available drugs lack optimal safety and efficacy. In this study, we used a proprietary emulsification process to encapsulate bis-2-(5-phenylacetamido-1,2,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide (BPTES), a selective but relatively insoluble glutaminase inhibitor, in nanoparticles. BPTES nanoparticles demonstrated improved pharmacokinetics and efficacy compared with unencapsulated BPTES...
September 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Concetta Saponaro, Michele Maffia, Nicola Di Renzo, Addolorata Maria Luce Coluccia
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)-initiating cells (CICs) express the hybrid oncoprotein BCR-ABL at the highest levels compared to their differentiated progeny but fail to expand at the same rate as downstream leukemic myeloid cells. Moreover, the primitive stem cell clone that originates the indolent CML chronic phase (CP) remains almost invariant as the disease evolves to a fatal blast crisis (BC). Compared to their healthy counterpart, the most dormant BCR-ABL+ CICs show the tendency to remain in a somewhat unusual 'proliferative quiescence', i...
August 17, 2016: Current Drug Targets
Roger A Kroes, Joseph R Moskal
The mechanism of transcriptional silencing of ST6Gal1 in gliomas has not yet been elucidated. Multiple independent promoters govern the expression of the ST6Gal I gene. Here, we investigated whether epigenetic abnormalities involving DNA methylation affect ST6Gal1 expression. Transcript-specific qRT-PCR following exposure of glioma cell lines to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, resulted in the re-expression of the normally quiescent ST6Gal1 mRNA driven exclusively by the P3 promoter sequence...
August 10, 2016: Glycobiology
Julien Louis, Laurie-Anne Marquet, Eve Tiollier, Stéphane Bermon, Christophe Hausswirth, Jeanick Brisswalter
PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of a 3-week dietary periodization on immunity and sleep in triathletes. METHODS: 21 triathletes were divided into two groups with different nutritional guidelines during a 3-week endurance training program including nine twice a day sessions with lowered (SL group) or maintained (CON group) glycogen availability during the overnight recovery period. In addition to performance tests, sleep was monitored every night. Systemic and mucosal immune parameters as well as the incidence of URTI were monitored every week of the training/nutrition protocol...
October 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Javier T Gonzalez, Cas J Fuchs, James A Betts, Luc J C van Loon
Carbohydrate and fat are the main substrates utilized during prolonged endurance-type exercise. The relative contribution of each is determined primarily by the intensity and duration of exercise, along with individual training and nutritional status. During moderate- to high-intensity exercise, carbohydrate represents the main substrate source. Because endogenous carbohydrate stores (primarily in liver and muscle) are relatively small, endurance-type exercise performance/capacity is often limited by endogenous carbohydrate availability...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Anup Mammen Oommen, Neeti Somaiya, Jisha Vijayan, Satheesh Kumar, Suri Venkatachalam, Lokesh Joshi
The perplexing nature of dynamic glycosylation modification plays imperative role in determining the regulatory role of key glycoconjugates involved in immune system. Systematic analysis of change in expression pattern of glycogenes and lectins can bring in a comprehensive understanding of genetic basis of the glycobiological changes occurring in pathological condition. Advancement in the field of glycobiology has capacitated the process of linking gene expression changes of glycogenes with its biological function...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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