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Glycogen availability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897989/periodization-of-carbohydrate-intake-short-term-effect-on-performance
#1
Laurie-Anne Marquet, Christophe Hausswirth, Odeline Molle, John A Hawley, Louise M Burke, Eve Tiollier, Jeanick Brisswalter
BACKGROUND: "Sleep-low" consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability-low glycogen recovery after "train high" glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training ("train low") the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance...
November 25, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859593/placental-specific-overexpression-of-sflt-1-alters-trophoblast-differentiation-and-nutrient-transporter-expression-in-an-iugr-mouse-model
#2
E Kühnel, V Kleff, V Stojanovska, S Kaiser, R Waldschütz, F Herse, T Plösch, E Winterhager, A Gellhaus
Since it is known that placental overexpression of the human anti-angiogenic molecule sFlt-1, the main candidate in the progression of preeclampsia, lead to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in mice by lentiviral transduction of mouse blastocysts, we hypothesize that sFlt-1 influence placental morphology and physiology resulting in fetal IUGR. We therefore examined the effect of sFlt-1 on placental morphology and physiology at embryonic day 18.5 with histologic and morphometric analyses, transcript analyses, immunoblotting, and methylation studies...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857162/rescue-therapy-with-tanshinone-iia-hinders-transition-of-acute-kidney-injury-to-chronic-kidney-disease-via-targeting-gsk3%C3%AE
#3
Chunming Jiang, Wei Zhu, Xiang Yan, Qiuyuan Shao, Biao Xu, Miao Zhang, Rujun Gong
Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains challenging for clinical practice and poses a risk of developing progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) with no definitive treatment available yet. Tanshinone IIA, an active ingredient of Chinese herbal Salvia miltiorrhiza, has been widely used in Asia for the remarkable organoprotective activities. Its effect on established AKI, however, remains unknown. In mice with folic acid-induced AKI, delayed treatment with Tanshinone IIA, commenced early or late after injury, diminished renal expression of kidney injury markers, reduced apoptosis and improved kidney dysfunction, concomitant with mitigated histologic signs of AKI to CKD transition, including interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, and with an ameliorated inflammatory infiltration in tubulointerstitium and a favored M2-skewed macrophage polarization...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854077/prohibitin-confers-cytoprotection-against-iso-induced-hypertrophy-in-h9c2-cells-via-attenuation-of-oxidative-stress-and-modulation-of-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-signaling
#4
Debabrata Chowdhury, Dinesh Kumar, Utpal Bhadra, Tangutur Anjana Devi, Manika Pal Bhadra
Numerous hypertrophic stimuli, including β-adrenergic agonists such as isoproterenol (ISO), result in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and alteration in the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ) leading to oxidative stress. This process is well associated with phosphorylation of thymoma viral proto-oncogene Akt (Ser473) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (Gsk-3β) (Ser9), with resultant inactivation of Gsk-3β. In the present study, we found that the protective defensive role of prohibitin (PHB) against ISO-induced hypertrophic response in rat H9c2 cells is via attenuation of oxidative stress-dependent signaling pathways...
November 16, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811061/liver-p53-is-stabilized-upon-starvation-and-required-for-amino-acid-catabolism-and-gluconeogenesis
#5
Andreas Prokesch, Franziska A Graef, Tobias Madl, Jennifer Kahlhofer, Steffi Heidenreich, Anne Schumann, Elisabeth Moyschewitz, Petra Pristoynik, Astrid Blaschitz, Miriam Knauer, Matthias Muenzner, Juliane G Bogner-Strauss, Gottfried Dohr, Tim J Schulz, Michael Schupp
The ability to adapt cellular metabolism to nutrient availability is critical for survival. The liver plays a central role in the adaptation to starvation by switching from glucose-consuming processes and lipid synthesis to providing energy substrates like glucose to the organism. Here we report a previously unrecognized role of the tumor suppressor p53 in the physiologic adaptation to food withdrawal. We found that starvation robustly increases p53 protein in mouse liver. This induction was posttranscriptional and mediated by a hepatocyte-autonomous and AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism...
November 3, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789774/post-exercise-muscle-glycogen-resynthesis-in-humans
#6
Louise M Burke, Luc J C van Loon, John A Hawley
Since the pioneering studies conducted in the 1960s in which glycogen status was investigated utilizing the muscle biopsy technique, sports scientists have developed a sophisticated appreciation of the role of glycogen in cellular adaptation and exercise performance, as well as sites of storage of this important metabolic fuel. While sports nutrition guidelines have evolved during the past decade to incorporate sport-specific and periodized manipulation of carbohydrate (CHO) availability, athletes attempt to maximise muscle glycogen synthesis between important workouts or competitive events so that fuel stores closely match to the demands of the prescribed exercise...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783812/high-cho-diet-increases-post-exercise-oxygen-consumption-after-a-supramaximal-exercise-bout
#7
G A Ferreira, R Bertuzzi, F R De-Oliveira, F O Pires, A E Lima-Silva
We investigated if carbohydrate (CHO) availability could affect the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after a single supramaximal exercise bout. Five physically active men cycled at 115% of peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2 peak) until exhaustion with low or high pre-exercise CHO availability. The endogenous CHO stores were manipulated by performing a glycogen-depletion exercise protocol 48 h before the trial, followed by 48 h consuming either a low- (10% CHO) or a high-CHO (80% CHO) diet regime. Compared to the low-CHO diet, the high-CHO diet increased time to exhaustion (3...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730589/protocols-to-study-growth-and-metabolism-in-drosophila
#8
Katrin Strassburger, Aurelio A Teleman
Signaling pathways such as the insulin/insulin-like growth factor pathway concurrently regulate organismal growth and metabolism. Drosophila has become a popular model system for studying both organismal growth and metabolic regulation. Care must be taken, however, when assessing such phenotypes because they are quantitative in nature, and influenced by environment. This chapter first describes how to control animal age and nutrient availability, since growth and metabolism are sensitive to these parameters...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727198/cardiorespiratory-and-metabolic-responses-after-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-the-influence-of-lowered-glycogen
#9
James P Gavin, Stephen D Myers, Mark E Willems
BACKGROUND: We examined the effect of early-onset of muscle damage and low muscle glycogen on cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to low-intensity exercise. METHODS: Twelve men cycled for 10 min at 50% maximal oxygen uptake before, and 12 h after a morning downhill run (five, 8 min bouts at -12% gradient, with 2 min rests) under normal (NORM) and lowered glycogen (LOW) conditions, following a cross-over design with conditions separated by six weeks. Cardiorespiratory responses were recorded, with oxidation measures derived from stoichiometry equations...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707995/glycogen-multiple-roles-in-the-cns
#10
Laura Rich, Angus M Brown
The historically neurocentric view of astrocytes as Styrofoam cushioning that rigidly clad neurons within the brain parenchyma has been superseded in the past 30 years by an increasing appreciation of the myriad roles astrocytes contribute to supporting physiological brain function. It is widely recognized that the continuous support provided by astrocytes, from prenatal development to maturity, is vital for neuronal function. Indeed, the numerous and diverse roles furnished by astrocytes contrasts with the vital but restricted transmission of action potentials that is the neuron's primary role...
October 5, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704066/the-potential-beneficial-effects-of-phenolic-compounds-isolated-from-a-pilosa-ledeb-on-insulin-resistant-hepatic-hepg2-cells
#11
Hui Teng, Lei Chen, Hongbo Song
Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb (AP) has already been applied in practice for the treatment of different disorders and is available to access without the provision of a medical prescription. The present study aims at investigating the effect of bioactive compounds isolated from AP on the improvement of insulin resistance, figuring out the mechanism in insulin-responsive cell lines. Five compounds were isolated from AP using column chromatography, including agrimonolide (K1), desmethylagrimonolide (K2), tormentic acid (K3), ursolic acid (K4), and quercetin (K5)...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701682/ghrelin-ghrelin-o-acyltransferase-and-carbohydrate-metabolism-during-pregnancy-in-calorie-restricted-mice
#12
A Trivedi, S Babic, M Heiman, W T Gibson, J-P Chanoine
Acylation of ghrelin is mediated by ghrelin O-acyltansferase (GOAT). Exogenous acylated ghrelin (AG) stimulates growth hormone (GH) and food intake. In non-pregnant (NP) animals, the GOAT-ghrelin-GH axis prevents hypoglycemia caused by caloric restriction (CR). In humans, maternal malnutrition challenges glucose metabolism, which is a key determinant of fetal health. To clarify the role of AG and GH, we compared effects of CR on the GOAT-ghrelin-GH axis in pregnant (P) and NP mice. C57BL/6 wild type (WT) and GOAT knock-out (KO) P and NP mice were freely fed (FF) or subjected to 50% CR for one week...
October 4, 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698395/hierarchical-phosphorylation-of-apical-membrane-antigen-1-is-required-for-efficient-red-blood-cell-invasion-by-malaria-parasites
#13
Boris Prinz, Katherine L Harvey, Louisa Wilcke, Ulrike Ruch, Klemens Engelberg, Laura Biller, Isabelle Lucet, Steffen Erkelenz, Dorothee Heincke, Tobias Spielmann, Christian Doerig, Conrad Kunick, Brendan S Crabb, Paul R Gilson, Tim W Gilberger
Central to the pathogenesis of malaria is the proliferation of Plasmodium falciparum parasites within human erythrocytes. Parasites invade erythrocytes via a coordinated sequence of receptor-ligand interactions between the parasite and host cell. One key ligand, Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1), is a leading blood-stage vaccine and previous work indicates that phosphorylation of its cytoplasmic domain (CPD) is important to its function during invasion. Here we investigate the significance of each of the six available phospho-sites in the CPD...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689320/local-depletion-of-glycogen-with-supramaximal-exercise-in-human-skeletal-muscle-fibres
#14
Kasper D Gejl, Niels Ørtenblad, Erik Andersson, Peter Plomgaard, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Joachim Nielsen
KEY POINTS: Glycogen is stored in local spatially distinct compartments within skeletal muscle fibres and is the main energy source during supramaximal exercise. Using quantitative electron microscopy, we show that supramaximal exercise induces a differential depletion of glycogen from these compartments and also demonstrate how this varies with fibre types. Repeated exercise alters this compartmentalized glycogen depletion. The results obtained in the present study help us understand the muscle metabolic dynamics of whole body repeated supramaximal exercise, and suggest that the muscle has a compartmentalized local adaptation to repeated exercise, which affects glycogen depletion...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685008/repeated-prolonged-exercise-decreases-maximal-fat-oxidation-in-older-men
#15
Thomas Morville, Mads Rosenkilde, Thor Munch-Andersen, Peter Riis Andersen, Katja Kjær, Signe Helbo, Marianne Kristensen, Andreas Vigelsø, Nick Mattsson, Hanne Kruuse Rasmusen, Amelia Guadalupe-Grau, Angela Fago, Christina Neigaard Hansen, Brigitte Twelkmeyer, Jesper Løvind Andersen, Flemming Dela, Jørn Wulff Helge
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Fat metabolism and muscle adaptation was investigated in 6 older trained men (age: 61 ± 4 years; VO2max: 48 ± 2 mL kg min) following repeated prolonged exercise). METHODS: 2706 km (1,681 miles) cycling was performed over 14 days and a blood sample and a muscle biopsy were obtained at rest after an overnight fast before and 30 hours after the completion of the cycling. VO2-max and maximal fat oxidation were measured using incremental exercise tests...
September 28, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662506/metabolic-profiles-of-planktonic-and-biofilm-cells-of-candida-orthopsilosis
#16
Regina Helena Pires, Thaís Regiani Cataldi, Livia Maria Franceschini, Mônica Veneziano Labate, Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida, Carlos Alberto Labate, Mario Sérgio Palma, Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini
AIM: This study aims to understand which Candida orthopsilosis protein aids fungus adaptation upon its switching from planktonic growth to biofilm. MATERIALS & METHODS: Ion mobility separation within mass spectrometry analysis combination were used. RESULTS: Proteins mapped for different biosynthetic pathways showed that selective ribosome autophagy might occur in biofilms. Glucose, used as a carbon source in the glycolytic flux, changed to glycogen and trehalose...
October 2016: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636206/ingestion-of-high-molecular-weight-carbohydrate-enhances-subsequent-repeated-maximal-power-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Jonathan M Oliver, Anthony L Almada, Leighsa E Van Eck, Meena Shah, Joel B Mitchell, Margaret T Jones, Andrew R Jagim, David S Rowlands
Athletes in sports demanding repeat maximal work outputs frequently train concurrently utilizing sequential bouts of intense endurance and resistance training sessions. On a daily basis, maximal work within subsequent bouts may be limited by muscle glycogen availability. Recently, the ingestion of a unique high molecular weight (HMW) carbohydrate was found to increase glycogen re-synthesis rate and enhance work output during subsequent endurance exercise, relative to low molecular weight (LMW) carbohydrate ingestion...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619210/the-impacts-of-as-accumulation-under-different-ph-levels-comparing-ruditapes-decussatus-and-ruditapes-philippinarum-biochemical-performance
#18
Catia Velez, Etelvina Figueira, Amadeu M V M Soares, Rosa Freitas
Marine bivalves have been used to assess environmental As contamination and the effects of seawater acidification when both factors are acting alone, but limited information is available regarding the impacts of both factors acting in combination. The aim of this study was to compare physiological (glycogen) and biochemical (lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and alkaline phosphatase) responses in both native (Ruditapes decussatus) and introduced (R. philippinarum) clams, when exposed to the combined effects of pH (7...
September 10, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599661/frequently-rearranged-in-advanced-t%C3%A2-cell-lymphomas%C3%A2-1-demonstrates-oncogenic-properties-in-prostate-cancer
#19
Wei Zhang, Hua Xiong, Yanmei Zou, Sanpeng Xu, Lanping Quan, Xianglin Yuan, Ningzhi Xu, Yihua Wang
Prostate cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer‑associated mortality for males worldwide. Although dysregulation of the β‑catenin/T‑cell factor (TCF) pathway has been previously reported in prostate cancer, the mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown. Frequently rearranged in advanced T‑cell lymphomas‑1 (FRAT1) functions as a positive regulator of the β‑catenin/TCF signaling pathway. However, to the best of our knowledge, the molecular association between FRAT1 and the β‑catenin/TCF pathway in prostate cancer has not been investigated...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574112/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-is-involved-in-glycogen-metabolism-control-and-embryogenesis-of-rhodnius-prolixus
#20
Flávia B Mury, Magda D Lugon, Rodrigo Nunes DA Fonseca, Jose R Silva, Mateus Berni, Helena M Araujo, Marcio Ribeiro Fontenele, Leonardo Araujo DE Abreu, Marílvia Dansa, Glória Braz, Hatisaburo Masuda, Carlos Logullo
Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-feeding insect that transmits Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli to vertebrate hosts. Rhodnius prolixus is also a classical model in insect physiology, and the recent availability of R. prolixus genome has opened new avenues on triatomine research. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is classically described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism, also acting as a downstream component of the Wnt pathway during embryogenesis. GSK-3 has been shown to be highly conserved among several organisms, mainly in the catalytic domain region...
October 2016: Parasitology
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