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Glycogen availability

Catherine R Braunstein, Jarvis C Noronha, Andrea J Glenn, Effie Viguiliouk, Rebecca Noseworthy, Tauseef A Khan, Fei Au-Yeung, Sonia Blanco Mejia, Thomas M S Wolever, Robert G Josse, Cyril W C Kendall, John L Sievenpiper
Recent literature suggests that catalytic doses (≤10 g/meal or 36 g/day) of D-fructose and D-allulose may reduce postprandial blood glucose responses to carbohydrate loads in people with and without type 2 diabetes by inducing glycogen synthesis. To assess the effect of small single doses of fructose and allulose on postprandial blood glucose regulation in response to a 75 g-oral glucose tolerance test (75 g-OGTT) in healthy individuals, we conducted an acute randomized, crossover, equivalence trial in healthy adults...
June 9, 2018: Nutrients
Simon J McIlroy, Cristobal A Onetto, Bianca McIlroy, Florian-Alexander Herbst, Morten S Dueholm, Rasmus H Kirkegaard, Eustace Fernando, Søren M Karst, Marta Nierychlo, Jannie M Kristensen, Kathryn L Eales, Paul R Grbin, Reinhard Wimmer, Per Halkjær Nielsen
Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) involves the cycling of biomass through carbon-rich (feast) and carbon-deficient (famine) conditions, promoting the activity of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). However, several alternate metabolic strategies, without polyphosphate storage, are possessed by other organisms, which can compete with the PAO for carbon at the potential expense of EBPR efficiency. The most studied are the glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs), which utilize aerobically stored glycogen to energize anaerobic substrate uptake and storage...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lin-Lin Shen, Noralyn B Mañucat-Tan, Shi-Hao Gao, Wei-Wei Li, Fan Zeng, Chi Zhu, Jun Wang, Xian-Le Bu, Yu-Hui Liu, Chang-Yue Gao, Zhi-Qiang Xu, Larisa Bobrovskaya, Peng Lei, Jin-Tai Yu, Weihong Song, Hua-Dong Zhou, Xiu-Qing Yao, Xin-Fu Zhou, Yan-Jiang Wang
Tau pathology is characterized as a form of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) known as FTLD-tau. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms are not known and no therapeutic interventions are currently available. Here, we report that the neurotrophin receptor p75NTR plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of FTLD-tau. The expression of p75NTR and the precursor of nerve growth factor (proNGF) were increased in the brains of FTLD-tau patients and mice (P301L transgenic). ProNGF-induced tau phosphorylation via p75NTR in vitro, which was associated with the AKT/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3β pathway...
June 4, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Pilar Sánchez-Blázquez, Elsa Cortés-Montero, María Rodríguez-Muñoz, Javier Garzón
Background: Several currently available animal models reproduce select behavioral facets of human mania as well as the abnormal glutamatergic neurotransmission and dysregulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) that accompanies this disease. Methods: In this study, we addressed the therapeutic potential of ligands of sigma receptor type 1 (σ1R) in two putative models of mania: the "manic" Black Swiss outbred mice from Taconic farms (BStac) and mice with the 129 genetic background and histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) deletion (HINT1-/- mice) that exhibit bipolar-like behaviors...
May 31, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Dong Yang, Xiling Zhang, Wencun Zhang, Thamaraiselvan Rengarajan
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among highest prevailing cancers in the whole world, especially in western countries. For a diverse of reasons, patients prefer naturally occurring dietary substances over synthetic agents to prevent cancer. Vicenin-2 is largely available in a medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum and is an apigenin form, 6,8-di-C-glucoside, which has been reported to have a range of pharmacological values which includes antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Mrudu Herbert, Surekha Pendyal, Mugdha Rairikar, Carine Halaby, Robert W Benjamin, Priya S Kishnani
Management of liver glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) primarily involves maintaining normoglycemia through dietary modifications and regular glucose monitoring. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is typically done 3-6 times per day, and may not sufficiently capture periods of asymptomatic hypoglycemia, particularly during sleep. Continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS) provide 24-h continuous glucose data and have been used effectively in diabetes mellitus to monitor metabolic control and optimize treatment...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Elisa Vittonatto, Silvia Boschi, Loredana CHIADò-Piat, Valentina Ponzalino, Sara Bortolani, Chiara Brusa, Innocenzo Rainero, Federica Ricci, Liliana Vercelli, Tiziana Mongini
Intrafibral vacuoles are the morphological hallmark in a wide variety of human skeletal muscle disorders with different etiology. In most cases, differential diagnosis is feasible with a routine histochemical work up of muscle biopsy. Ultrastructural analysis is an important confirmatory tool, but it is not widely available. Immunohistochemical stainings for p62, LAMP2 and LC3 are commonly available as tissutal marker for autophagy. We compared the immunohistochemical patterns for autophagic markers p62, LC3 and LAMP2 with routine histochemical markers in 39 biopsies from patients with definite diagnoses of glycogen storage disease type 2 (LOPD or Pompe disease, PD), sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM), oculo-pharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) and necrotizing myopathy (NM)...
December 2017: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
Samuel G Impey, Kelly M Hammond, Robert Naughton, Carl Langan-Evans, Sam O Shepherd, Adam P Sharples, Jessica Cegielski, Kenneth Smith, Stewart Jeromson, D Lee Hamilton, Graeme L Close, James P Morton
We examined the effects of whey versus collagen protein on skeletal muscle cell signalling responses associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and protein synthesis in recovery from an acute training session completed with low carbohydrate (CHO) availability. In a repeated measures design (after adhering to a 36-h exercise-dietary intervention to standardise pre-exercise muscle glycogen), eight males completed a 75-min non-exhaustive cycling protocol and consumed 22 g of a hydrolysed collagen blend (COLLAGEN) or whey (WHEY) protein 45 min prior to exercise, 22 g during exercise and 22 g immediately post-exercise...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Peng Zhang, Sharif S Nada, Xinle Tan, Bin Deng, Mitchell A Sullivan, Robert G Gilbert
Glycogen, a complex branched polymer of glucose (average chain length ~10 monomer units), is the blood-sugar reservoir in humans and other animals. Certain aspects of its molecular structure relevant to its biological functions are currently unamenable to experimental exploration. Knowledge of these is needed to develop future models for quantitative data-fitting to obtain mechanistic understanding of the biosynthetic processes that give rise to glycogen structure. Monte Carlo simulations of the biosynthesis of this structure with realistic macromolecular parameters reveal how chain growth and stoppage (the latter assumed to be through both the action of glycogen branching enzyme and other degradative enzymes, and by hindrance) control structural features...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
N N Bezborodkina, A Yu Chestnova, M L Vorobev, B N Kudryavtsev
Glycogen is a strongly branched polymer of α-D-glucose, with glucose residues in the linear chains linked by 1→4-bonds (~93% of the total number of bonds) and with branching after every 4-8 residues formed by 1→6-glycosidic bonds (~7% of the total number of bonds). It is thought currently that a fully formed glycogen molecule (β-particle) with the self-glycosylating protein glycogenin in the center has a spherical shape with diameter of ~42 nm and contains ~ 55,000 glucose residues. The glycogen molecule also includes numerous proteins involved in its synthesis and degradation, as well as proteins performing a carcass function...
May 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Dandan Yan, Jianling Yao, Ying Liu, Xing Zhang, Yiqi Wang, Xiaoyi Chen, Liegang Liu, Nian Shi, Hong Yan
Acrylamide (ACR) is an axonal toxicant that produces peripheral neuropathy in laboratory animals and humans. Epidemiological study found that diet ACR exposure was associated with a mild cognitive decline in men. However, limited information is available as regards its potential and underlying mechanism to cause memory alterations. Curcumin is a polyphenol with neuroprotective and cognitive-enhancing properties. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism of ACR-induced spatial memory impairment and the beneficial effect of curcumin...
April 26, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Jason P Weinman, Christina J White, Deborah R Liptzin, Robin R Deterding, Csaba Galambos, Lorna P Browne
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis is a form of childhood interstitial lung disease characterized by the histological finding of abundant glycogen-laden mesenchymal cells within the pulmonary interstitium. Patients present in the neonatal period with disproportionate respiratory distress. Often, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis is accompanied by alveolar simplification complicating recognition and diagnosis. Despite the recognition of pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis as a distinct entity, only a few case reports describing imaging findings are found in the literature, with no published systematic review available...
April 23, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Zoran Gucev, Velibor Tasic, Momir Polenakovic
The sixth SEE meeting on rare diseases (RDs) was held in MASA the November 10th, 2017. A block of lectures on rare renal diseases started the meeting: nephrotic syndrome, Alport syndrome, atypical HUS, hypophosphatemic rickets, CAKUT were presented in all complexities. Their molecular and genetic mechanisms were discussed. The discovery of a dozen of newly genes in CAKUT, congenital overgrowth, spodilocostal dysplasia, precocious puberty has been done with collaboration of Macedonian and foreign researchers...
December 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
Bas Van Hooren, Jonathan M Peake
It is widely believed that an active cool-down is more effective for promoting post-exercise recovery than a passive cool-down involving no activity. However, research on this topic has never been synthesized and it therefore remains largely unknown whether this belief is correct. This review compares the effects of various types of active cool-downs with passive cool-downs on sports performance, injuries, long-term adaptive responses, and psychophysiological markers of post-exercise recovery. An active cool-down is largely ineffective with respect to enhancing same-day and next-day(s) sports performance, but some beneficial effects on next-day(s) performance have been reported...
April 16, 2018: Sports Medicine
Christina Pedersen, Stephan D Bouman, Trine Porsgaard, Mette M Rosenkilde, Nikolaj K Roed
The current available insulin therapies decrease blood glucose but are associated with the risk of developing hypoglycemia. Glucagon is a counter regulatory hormone and we hypothesize that a fixed ratio of insulin and a long-acting glucagon-analogue can reduce the risk of hypoglycemia. To define an appropriate ratio we tested two fixed glucagon doses (3.5 and 10 nmol/kg) in combination with increasing doses of insulin in diabetic rats. We observed a plateau in blood glucose at 15.2 mmol/L with 10 nmol/kg of the glucagon-analogue...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Pravin Ambure, Jyotsna Bhat, Tomasz Puzyn, Kunal Roy
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multi-factorial disease, which can be simply outlined as an irreversible and progressive neurodegenerative disorder with an unclear root cause. It is a major cause of dementia in old aged people. In the present study, utilizing the structural and biological activity information of ligands for five important and mostly studied vital targets (i.e. cyclin-dependant kinase 5, β-secretase, monoamine oxidase B, glycogen synthase kinase 3β, acetylcholinesterase) that are believed to be effective against AD, we have developed five classification models using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) technique...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Janice Y Chou, Goo-Young Kim, Jun-Ho Cho
Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC) that is expressed primarily in the liver, kidney, and intestine. G6Pase-α catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) to glucose and phosphate in the terminal step of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, and is a key enzyme for endogenous glucose production. The active site of G6Pase-α is inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen. For catalysis, the substrate G6P must be translocated from the cytoplasm into the ER lumen by a G6P transporter (G6PT)...
September 2017: Liver Research
Marta Conde-Sieira, Manuel Gesto, Sónia Batista, Fátima Linares, José L R Villanueva, Jesús M Míguez, José L Soengas, Luísa M P Valente
The substitution of fish resources as ingredients for aquafeeds by those based on vegetable sources is needed to ensure aquaculture sustainability in the future. It is known that Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) accepts high dietary content of plant ingredients without altering growth or flesh quality parameters. However, scarce information is available regarding the long-term impact of vegetable diets (combining the inclusion of both vegetable protein and oils) on the stress response and immunity of this fish species...
2018: PloS One
Si Houn Hahn, David Kronn, Nancy D Leslie, Loren D M Pena, Pranoot Tanpaiboon, Michael J Gambello, James B Gibson, Richard Hillman, David W Stockton, John W Day, Raymond Y Wang, Kristina An Haack, Raheel Shafi, Susan Sparks, Yang Zhao, Catherine Wilson, Priya S Kishnani
PurposePompe disease results from lysosomal acid α-glucosidase (GAA) deficiency and its associated glycogen accumulation and muscle damage. Alglucosidase alfa (recombinant human GAA (rhGAA)) received approval in 2006 as a treatment for Pompe disease at the 160 L production scale. In 2010, larger-scale rhGAA was approved for patients up to 8 years old without cardiomyopathy. NCT01526785 evaluated 4,000 L rhGAA efficacy/safety in US infantile- or late-onset Pompe disease (IOPD, LOPD) patients up to 1 year old transitioned from 160 L rhGAA...
March 22, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
A C Van Erp, R A Rebolledo, D Hoeksma, N R Jespersen, P J Ottens, R Nørregaard, M Pedersen, C Laustsen, J G M Burgerhof, J C Wolters, J Ciapaite, H E Bøtker, H G D Leuvenink, B Jespersen
Hepatic and renal energy status prior to transplantation correlates with graft survival. However, effects of brain death (BD) on organ-specific energy status are largely unknown. We studied metabolism, perfusion, oxygen consumption, and mitochondrial function in the liver and kidneys following BD. BD was induced in mechanically-ventilated rats, inflating an epidurally-placed Fogarty-catheter, with sham-operated rats as controls. A 9.4T-preclinical MRI system measured hourly oxygen availability (BOLD-related R2*) and perfusion (T1-weighted)...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
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