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Glycogen availability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099358/the-gender-specific-association-of-rs334558-in-gsk3%C3%AE-with-major-depressive-disorder
#1
Sha Liu, Le Wang, Ning Sun, Chunxia Yang, Zhifen Liu, Xinrong Li, Xiaohua Cao, Yong Xu, Kerang Zhang
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric illnesses with a heritability ranging from 40% to 50%. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs334558 on the glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) gene has been identified as a genetic risk loci associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, results from replication studies examining the association between rs334558 and MDD remain inconsistent.In the present study, first, we conducted a meta-analysis of the association between rs334558 and MDD by combining 5 available case-control samples totaling 2311 cases and 2535 controls...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063369/physiological-and-biochemical-responses-of-two-keystone-polychaete-species-diopatra-neapolitana-and-hediste-diversicolor-to-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes
#2
Lucia De Marchi, Victor Neto, Carlo Pretti, Etelvina Figueira, Federica Chiellini, Amadeu M V M Soares, Rosa Freitas
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are one of the most important carbon Nanomaterials (NMs). The production and use of these carbon NMs is increasing rapidly and, therefore, the need to assess their presence in the environment and associated risks has become increasingly important. However, limited literature is available regarding the impacts induced in aquatic organisms by this pollutant, namely in invertebrate species. Diopatra neapolitana and Hediste diversicolor are keystone polychaete species inhabiting estuaries and shallow water bodies intertidal mudflats, frequently used to evaluate the impact of environmental disturbances in these systems...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018344/adjunct-strategies-for-tuberculosis-vaccines-modulating-key-immune-cell-regulatory-mechanisms-to-potentiate-vaccination
#3
REVIEW
Lakshmi Jayashankar, Richard Hafner
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health threat of alarming proportions, resulting in 1.5 million deaths worldwide. The only available licensed vaccine, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, does not confer lifelong protection against active TB. To date, development of an effective vaccine against TB has proven to be elusive, and devising newer approaches for improved vaccination outcomes is an essential goal. Insights gained over the last several years have revealed multiple mechanisms of immune manipulation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in infected macrophages and dendritic cells that support disease progression and block development of protective immunity...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011297/effect-of-entodinium-caudatum-on-starch-intake-and-glycogen-formation-by-eudiplodinium-maggii-in-the-rumen-and-reticulum
#4
Grzegorz Bełżecki, Neil R McEwan, Barbara Kowalik, Tadeusz Michałowski, Renata Miltko
This study aimed to quantify the engulfed starch and reserve α-glucans (glycogen) in the cells of the ciliates Eudiplodinium maggii, as well the α-glucans in defaunated and selectively faunated sheep. The content of starch inside the cell of ciliates varied from 21 to 183mg/g protozoal DM relative to the rumen fauna composition whereas, the glycogen fluctuated between 17 and 126mg/g dry matter (DM) of this ciliate species. Establishment of the population Entodinium caudatum in the rumen of sheep already faunated with E...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983751/muscle-glycogen-where-did-you-come-from-where-did-you-go
#5
George G Schweitzer, Monica L Kearney, Bettina Mittendorfer
Muscle glycogen is an important fuel source during exercise. Inadequate glycogen availability results in reduced endurance exercise capacity and an inability to continue exercise, because of impaired excitation contraction coupling once glycogen stores are depleted. The glycogen utilization rate depends on exercise intensity and is greatest at maximal dynamic or static contractions. The spherical glycogen molecules are located in three distinct sub-cellular compartments within skeletal muscle: i) intermyofibrillar glycogen, which accounts for ∼3/4(th) of total glycogen and is situated near mitochondria between the myofibrils, mainly near the I-band, ii) subsarcolemmal glycogen, which accounts for ∼5-15% of all glycogen, and iii) intramyofibrillar glycogen, which also accounts for ∼5-15% of total glycogen (Friden et al...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927596/quantification-of-muscle-pathology-in-infantile-pompe-disease
#6
Anne Schänzer, Ann-Kathrin Kaiser, Christian Mühlfeld, Martin Kulessa, Werner Paulus, Harald von Pein, Marianne Rohrbach, Lara Viergutz, Eugen Mengel, Thorsten Marquardt, Bernd Neubauer, Till Acker, Andreas Hahn
The effects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in infantile Pompe disease are variable, necessitating the identification of biomarkers to assess the severity of disease and response to ERT. The aims of this study were to investigate whether quantification of muscle pathology in infantile Pompe disease prior to and during ERT is feasible at the light microscope, and to develop a score that summarizes the degree of muscle pathology in a comprehensive manner from PAS-stained resin sections alone. We, therefore, determined glycogen load, extent of muscle fibre disruption, and amount of autophagic vacuoles in resin-embedded muscle biopsy specimens from 11 infantile Pompe patients and 2 with early childhood phenotype by quantitative methods, correlated the findings with ultrastructural analyses, compared PAS-stained resin sections with conventional PAS-stained cryosections, and related the quantified degree of muscle damage from infantile patients to the effects of ERT...
November 3, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897989/periodization-of-carbohydrate-intake-short-term-effect-on-performance
#7
Laurie-Anne Marquet, Christophe Hausswirth, Odeline Molle, John A Hawley, Louise M Burke, Eve Tiollier, Jeanick Brisswalter
BACKGROUND: "Sleep-low" consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability-low glycogen recovery after "train high" glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training ("train low") the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance...
November 25, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859593/placental-specific-overexpression-of-sflt-1-alters-trophoblast-differentiation-and-nutrient-transporter-expression-in-an-iugr-mouse-model
#8
E Kühnel, V Kleff, V Stojanovska, S Kaiser, R Waldschütz, F Herse, T Plösch, E Winterhager, A Gellhaus
Since it is known that placental overexpression of the human anti-angiogenic molecule sFlt-1, the main candidate in the progression of preeclampsia, lead to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in mice by lentiviral transduction of mouse blastocysts, we hypothesize that sFlt-1 influence placental morphology and physiology resulting in fetal IUGR. We therefore examined the effect of sFlt-1 on placental morphology and physiology at embryonic day 18.5 with histologic and morphometric analyses, transcript analyses, immunoblotting, and methylation studies...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857162/rescue-therapy-with-tanshinone-iia-hinders-transition-of-acute-kidney-injury-to-chronic-kidney-disease-via-targeting-gsk3%C3%AE
#9
Chunming Jiang, Wei Zhu, Xiang Yan, Qiuyuan Shao, Biao Xu, Miao Zhang, Rujun Gong
Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains challenging for clinical practice and poses a risk of developing progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) with no definitive treatment available yet. Tanshinone IIA, an active ingredient of Chinese herbal Salvia miltiorrhiza, has been widely used in Asia for the remarkable organoprotective activities. Its effect on established AKI, however, remains unknown. In mice with folic acid-induced AKI, delayed treatment with Tanshinone IIA, commenced early or late after injury, diminished renal expression of kidney injury markers, reduced apoptosis and improved kidney dysfunction, concomitant with mitigated histologic signs of AKI to CKD transition, including interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, and with an ameliorated inflammatory infiltration in tubulointerstitium and a favored M2-skewed macrophage polarization...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854077/prohibitin-confers-cytoprotection-against-iso-induced-hypertrophy-in-h9c2-cells-via-attenuation-of-oxidative-stress-and-modulation-of-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-signaling
#10
Debabrata Chowdhury, Dinesh Kumar, Utpal Bhadra, Tangutur Anjana Devi, Manika Pal Bhadra
Numerous hypertrophic stimuli, including β-adrenergic agonists such as isoproterenol (ISO), result in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and alteration in the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ) leading to oxidative stress. This process is well associated with phosphorylation of thymoma viral proto-oncogene Akt (Ser473) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (Gsk-3β) (Ser9), with resultant inactivation of Gsk-3β. In the present study, we found that the protective defensive role of prohibitin (PHB) against ISO-induced hypertrophic response in rat H9c2 cells is via attenuation of oxidative stress-dependent signaling pathways...
November 16, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811061/liver-p53-is-stabilized-upon-starvation-and-required-for-amino-acid-catabolism-and-gluconeogenesis
#11
Andreas Prokesch, Franziska A Graef, Tobias Madl, Jennifer Kahlhofer, Steffi Heidenreich, Anne Schumann, Elisabeth Moyschewitz, Petra Pristoynik, Astrid Blaschitz, Miriam Knauer, Matthias Muenzner, Juliane G Bogner-Strauss, Gottfried Dohr, Tim J Schulz, Michael Schupp
The ability to adapt cellular metabolism to nutrient availability is critical for survival. The liver plays a central role in the adaptation to starvation by switching from glucose-consuming processes and lipid synthesis to providing energy substrates like glucose to the organism. Here we report a previously unrecognized role of the tumor suppressor p53 in the physiologic adaptation to food withdrawal. We found that starvation robustly increases p53 protein in mouse liver. This induction was posttranscriptional and mediated by a hepatocyte-autonomous and AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism...
November 3, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789774/post-exercise-muscle-glycogen-resynthesis-in-humans
#12
Louise M Burke, Luc J C van Loon, John A Hawley
Since the pioneering studies conducted in the 1960s in which glycogen status was investigated utilizing the muscle biopsy technique, sports scientists have developed a sophisticated appreciation of the role of glycogen in cellular adaptation and exercise performance, as well as sites of storage of this important metabolic fuel. While sports nutrition guidelines have evolved during the past decade to incorporate sport-specific and periodized manipulation of carbohydrate (CHO) availability, athletes attempt to maximise muscle glycogen synthesis between important workouts or competitive events so that fuel stores closely match to the demands of the prescribed exercise...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783812/high-cho-diet-increases-post-exercise-oxygen-consumption-after-a-supramaximal-exercise-bout
#13
G A Ferreira, R Bertuzzi, F R De-Oliveira, F O Pires, A E Lima-Silva
We investigated if carbohydrate (CHO) availability could affect the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after a single supramaximal exercise bout. Five physically active men cycled at 115% of peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2 peak) until exhaustion with low or high pre-exercise CHO availability. The endogenous CHO stores were manipulated by performing a glycogen-depletion exercise protocol 48 h before the trial, followed by 48 h consuming either a low- (10% CHO) or a high-CHO (80% CHO) diet regime. Compared to the low-CHO diet, the high-CHO diet increased time to exhaustion (3...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730589/protocols-to-study-growth-and-metabolism-in-drosophila
#14
Katrin Strassburger, Aurelio A Teleman
Signaling pathways such as the insulin/insulin-like growth factor pathway concurrently regulate organismal growth and metabolism. Drosophila has become a popular model system for studying both organismal growth and metabolic regulation. Care must be taken, however, when assessing such phenotypes because they are quantitative in nature, and influenced by environment. This chapter first describes how to control animal age and nutrient availability, since growth and metabolism are sensitive to these parameters...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727198/cardiorespiratory-and-metabolic-responses-after-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-the-influence-of-lowered-glycogen
#15
James P Gavin, Stephen D Myers, Mark E Willems
BACKGROUND: We examined the effect of early-onset of muscle damage and low muscle glycogen on cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to low-intensity exercise. METHODS: Twelve men cycled for 10 min at 50% maximal oxygen uptake before, and 12 h after a morning downhill run (five, 8 min bouts at -12% gradient, with 2 min rests) under normal (NORM) and lowered glycogen (LOW) conditions, following a cross-over design with conditions separated by six weeks. Cardiorespiratory responses were recorded, with oxidation measures derived from stoichiometry equations...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707995/glycogen-multiple-roles-in-the-cns
#16
REVIEW
Laura Rich, Angus M Brown
The historically neurocentric view of astrocytes as Styrofoam cushioning that rigidly clad neurons within the brain parenchyma has been superseded in the past 30 years by an increasing appreciation of the myriad roles astrocytes contribute to supporting physiological brain function. It is widely recognized that the continuous support provided by astrocytes, from prenatal development to maturity, is vital for neuronal function. Indeed, the numerous and diverse roles furnished by astrocytes contrasts with the vital but restricted transmission of action potentials that is the neuron's primary role...
October 5, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704066/the-potential-beneficial-effects-of-phenolic-compounds-isolated-from-a-pilosa-ledeb-on-insulin-resistant-hepatic-hepg2-cells
#17
Hui Teng, Lei Chen, Hongbo Song
Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb (AP) has already been applied in practice for the treatment of different disorders and is available to access without the provision of a medical prescription. The present study aims at investigating the effect of bioactive compounds isolated from AP on the improvement of insulin resistance, figuring out the mechanism in insulin-responsive cell lines. Five compounds were isolated from AP using column chromatography, including agrimonolide (K1), desmethylagrimonolide (K2), tormentic acid (K3), ursolic acid (K4), and quercetin (K5)...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701682/ghrelin-ghrelin-o-acyltransferase-and-carbohydrate-metabolism-during-pregnancy-in-calorie-restricted-mice
#18
Arjun Trivedi, Sandra Babic, Mark Heiman, William T Gibson, Jean-Pierre Chanoine
Acylation of ghrelin is mediated by ghrelin O-acyltansferase (GOAT). Exogenous acylated ghrelin (AG) stimulates growth hormone (GH) and food intake. In non-pregnant (NP) animals, the GOAT-ghrelin-GH axis prevents hypoglycemia caused by caloric restriction (CR). In humans, maternal malnutrition challenges glucose metabolism, which is a key determinant of fetal health. To clarify the role of AG and GH, we compared effects of CR on the GOAT-ghrelin-GH axis in pregnant (P) and NP mice. C57BL/6 wild type (WT) and GOAT knock-out (KO) P and NP mice were freely fed (FF) or subjected to 50% CR for one week...
January 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698395/hierarchical-phosphorylation-of-apical-membrane-antigen-1-is-required-for-efficient-red-blood-cell-invasion-by-malaria-parasites
#19
Boris Prinz, Katherine L Harvey, Louisa Wilcke, Ulrike Ruch, Klemens Engelberg, Laura Biller, Isabelle Lucet, Steffen Erkelenz, Dorothee Heincke, Tobias Spielmann, Christian Doerig, Conrad Kunick, Brendan S Crabb, Paul R Gilson, Tim W Gilberger
Central to the pathogenesis of malaria is the proliferation of Plasmodium falciparum parasites within human erythrocytes. Parasites invade erythrocytes via a coordinated sequence of receptor-ligand interactions between the parasite and host cell. One key ligand, Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1), is a leading blood-stage vaccine and previous work indicates that phosphorylation of its cytoplasmic domain (CPD) is important to its function during invasion. Here we investigate the significance of each of the six available phospho-sites in the CPD...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689320/local-depletion-of-glycogen-with-supramaximal-exercise-in-human-skeletal-muscle-fibres
#20
Kasper D Gejl, Niels Ørtenblad, Erik Andersson, Peter Plomgaard, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Joachim Nielsen
KEY POINTS: Glycogen is stored in local spatially distinct compartments within skeletal muscle fibres and is the main energy source during supramaximal exercise. Using quantitative electron microscopy, we show that supramaximal exercise induces a differential depletion of glycogen from these compartments and also demonstrate how this varies with fibre types. Repeated exercise alters this compartmentalized glycogen depletion. The results obtained in the present study help us understand the muscle metabolic dynamics of whole body repeated supramaximal exercise, and suggest that the muscle has a compartmentalized local adaptation to repeated exercise, which affects glycogen depletion...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Physiology
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