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Glycogen availability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329151/caloric-restriction-and-rapamycin-differentially-alter-energy-metabolism-in-yeast
#1
Kyung-Mi Choi, Seok-Jin Hong, Jan M van Deursen, Sooah Kim, Kyoung Heon Kim, Cheol-Koo Lee
Rapamycin (RM), a drug that inhibits the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and responds to nutrient availability, seemingly mimics the effects of caloric restriction (CR) on healthy life span. However, the extent of the mechanistic overlap between RM and CR remains incompletely understood. Here, we compared the impact of CR and RM on cellular metabolic status. Both regimens maintained intracellular ATP through the chronological aging process and showed enhanced mitochondrial capacity. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that CR had a stronger impact on global gene expression than RM...
March 8, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326005/bioactivity-of-food-peptides-biological-response-of-rats-to-bovine-milk-whey-peptides-following-acute-exercise
#2
Carolina Soares Moura, Pablo Christiano Barboza Lollo, Priscila Neder Morato, Eder Muller Risso, Jaime Amaya-Farfan
Background: Several physiologically beneficial effects of consuming a whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) have been attributed to the greater availability of bioactive peptides. Aims: The aim was to investigate the effect of four branched-chain amino acid- (BCAA-)containing dipeptides, present in WPH, on immune modulation, stimulation of HSP expression, muscle protein synthesis, glycogen content, satiety signals and the impact of these peptides on the plasma free amino acid profiles. Methods: The animals were divided in groups: control (rest, without gavage), vehicle (water), L-isoleucyl-L-leucine (lle-Leu), L-leucyl-L-isoleucine (Leu-lle), L-valyl-Lleucine (Val-Leu), L-leucyl-L-valine (Leu-Val) and WPH...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290602/ajs1669-a-novel-small-molecule-muscle-glycogen-synthase-activator-improves-glucose-metabolism-and-reduces-body-fat-mass-in-mice
#3
Kazuhiro Nakano, Sen Takeshita, Noriko Kawasaki, Wataru Miyanaga, Yoriko Okamatsu, Mizuki Dohi, Tadakiyo Nakagawa
Impaired glycogen synthesis and turnover are common in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. As glycogen synthase (GS) is a key enzyme involved in the synthetic process, it presents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we identified a novel, potent and orally available GS activator AJS1669 {sodium 2-[[5-[[4-(4,5-difluoro-2-methylsulfanyl-phenyl)phenoxy] methyl]furan-2-carbonyl]-(2-furylmethyl)amino] acetate}. In vitro, we performed a glycogen synthase 1 (GYS1) activation assay for screening GS activators and identified that the activity of AJS1669 was further potentiated in the presence of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P)...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290249/in-vitro-and-in-silico-studies-of-mangiferin-from-aphloia-theiformis-on-key-enzymes-linked-to-diabetes-type-2-and-associated-complications
#4
Mohamad F Mahomoodally, Simone Carradori, Azzurra Stefanucci, Adriano Mollica, Gokhan Zengin, Marie C N Picot
BACKGROUND: Mangiferin, was identified in the crude methanol extract, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions of Aphloia theiformis (Vahl.) Benn. OBJECTIVE: To study the plausible binding modes of mangiferin to key enzymes linked to diabetes type 2 (DT2), obesity, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, and urolithiasis using molecular docking. METHOD: Crystallographic structures of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, glycogen phosphorylase (GP), pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase (CEase), angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE), acetyl cholinesterase (AChE), and urease available on the Protein Databank database were docked to mangiferin using Gold 6...
March 7, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284548/relationships-between-metal-compartmentalization-and-biomarkers-in-earthworms-exposed-to-field-contaminated-soils
#5
Léa Beaumelle, Mickaël Hedde, Franck Vandenbulcke, Isabelle Lamy
Partitioning tissue metal concentration into subcellular compartments reflecting toxicologically available pools may provide good descriptors of the toxicological effects of metals on organisms. Here we investigated the relationships between internal compartmentalization of Cd, Pb and Zn and biomarker responses in a model soil organism: the earthworm. The aim of this study was to identify metal fractions reflecting the toxic pressure in an endogeic, naturally occurring earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa) exposed to realistic field-contaminated soils...
March 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241986/short-fasting-does-not-protect-perfused-ex%C3%A2-vivo-rat-liver-against-ischemia-reperfusion-on-the-importance-of-a-minimal-cell-energy-charge
#6
Bérengère Papegay, Michaela Stadler, Vincent Nuyens, Véronique Kruys, Jean G Boogaerts, Joseph Vamecq
OBJECTIVE: Dietary restriction or reduced food intake was supported to protect against renal and hepatic ischemic injury. In this vein, short fasting was recently shown to protect in situ rat liver against ischemia-reperfusion. Here, perfused ex vivo instead of in situ livers were exposed to ischemia-reperfusion to study the impact of disconnecting liver from extrahepatic supply in energetic substrates on the protection given by short-term fasting. METHODS: Perfused ex vivo livers using short (18 h) fasted compared with fed rats were submitted to ischemia-reperfusion and studied for release of cytolysis markers in the perfusate...
March 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216152/1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-prevents-the-development-of-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-in-type-1-diabetic-rats-by-enhancing-autophagy-via-inhibiting-the-%C3%AE-catenin-tcf4-gsk-3%C3%AE-mtor-pathway
#7
Huili Wei, Hua Qu, Hang Wang, Baolan Ji, Yao Ding, Dan Liu, Yang Duan, Huimin Liang, Chuan Peng, Xiaoqiu Xiao, Huacong Deng
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) can increase the risk of heart failure and death in diabetic patients. However, no effective approaches are available to prevent its progression and development. Studies have shown that vitamin D is greatly implicated in cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and there is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in diabetic patients. In this study, we investigated whether 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin-D3 (1,25D3) can improve DCM through a vitamin D receptor (VDR)-dependent mechanism associated with autophagy and the β-catenin/T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF4)/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215887/nitrogen-source-and-concentration-affect-utilization-of-glucose-by-mixed-ruminal-microbes-in-vitro
#8
M B Hall
The availability of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) changes the use of carbohydrates by ruminal microbes. However, the effects of RDP on the simultaneous use of carbohydrate and formation of microbial products are not well described, although such information is needed to understand the potential effect on nutrient supplies for ruminants. The objective of this in vitro study was to compare the effects of different levels of RDP (0.15, 0.31, 0.46 g of N/L) from tryptone (Tryp) or urea (Ur) on product formation from glucose in fermentations with mixed ruminal microbes...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176283/effect-of-nitrogen-availability-on-the-poly-3-d-hydroxybutyrate-accumulation-by-engineered-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#9
Diogo J Portugal-Nunes, Sudhanshu S Pawar, Gunnar Lidén, Marie F Gorwa-Grauslund
Poly-3-D-hydroxybutyrate (or PHB) is a polyester which can be used in the production of biodegradable plastics from renewable resources. It is naturally produced by several bacteria as a response to nutrient starvation in the excess of a carbon source. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae could be an alternative production host as it offers good inhibitor tolerance towards weak acids and phenolic compounds and does not depolymerize the produced PHB. As nitrogen limitation is known to boost the accumulation of PHB in bacteria, the present study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrogen availability on PHB accumulation in two recombinant S...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167604/gs-dreadd-knock-in-mice-for-tissue-specific-temporal-stimulation-of-camp-signaling
#10
Dmitry Akhmedov, Maria G Mendoza-Rodriguez, Kavitha Rajendran, Mario Rossi, Jürgen Wess, Rebecca Berdeaux
Hundreds of hormones and ligands stimulate cAMP signaling in different tissues through activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Although functions and individual effectors of cAMP signaling are well characterized in many tissues, pleiotropic effects of GPCR agonists limit investigation of physiologic functions of cAMP signaling in individual cell types at different developmental stages in vivo To facilitate studies of cAMP signaling in specific cell populations in vivo, we harnessed the power of DREADD (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs) technology by creating ROSA26-based knock-in mice for conditional expression of a Gs-coupled DREADD (rM3Ds-GFP, or "GsD")...
February 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153019/the-effect-of-enhanced-acetate-influx-on-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803-metabolism
#11
Kati Thiel, Eerika Vuorio, Eva-Mari Aro, Pauli Tapio Kallio
BACKGROUND: Acetate is a common microbial fermentative end-product, which can potentially be used as a supplementary carbon source to enhance the output of biotechnological production systems. This study focuses on the acetate metabolism of the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 which is unable to grow on acetate as a sole carbon source but still can assimilate it via acetyl-CoA-derived metabolic intermediates. In order to gain insight into the acetate uptake, associated limitations and metabolic effects, a heterologous acetate transporter ActP from Escherichia coli was introduced into Synechocystis to facilitate the transport of supplemented acetate from the medium into the cell...
February 2, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111252/physiological-and-biochemical-impacts-of-graphene-oxide-in-polychaetes-the-case-of-diopatra-neapolitana
#12
Lucia De Marchi, Victor Neto, Carlo Pretti, Etelvina Figueira, Luigi Brambilla, Maria Jesus Rodriguez-Douton, Francesco Rossella, Matteo Tommasini, Clascídia Furtado, Amadeu M V M Soares, Rosa Freitas
Graphene oxide (GO) is an important carbon nanomaterial (NM) that has been used, but limited literature is available regarding the impacts induced in aquatic organisms by this pollutant and, in particular in invertebrate species. The polychaete Diopatra neapolitana has frequently been used to evaluate the effects of environmental disturbances in estuarine systems due to its ecological and socio-economic importance but to our knowledge no information is available on D. neapolitana physiological and biochemical alterations due to GO exposure...
March 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109058/in-vivo-construction-of-liver-tissue-by-implantation-of-a-hepatic-non-parenchymal-adipose-derived-stem-cell-sheet
#13
Mio Fujii, Kosho Yamanouchi, Yusuke Sakai, Zhassulan Baimakhanov, Izumi Yamaguchi, Akihiko Soyama, Masaaki Hidaka, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Tamotsu Kuroki, Susumu Eguchi
Subcutaneous hepatocyte sheet implantation is an attractive therapeutic option for various liver diseases. However, this technique is limited by the availability of hepatocytes. Thus, the use of hepatic non-parenchymal cells (NPCs) containing small hepatocytes, which have the ability to proliferate more rapidly than mature hepatocytes, for transplantation has been suggested. The aim of our study was to construct liver tissue subcutaneously in rats by implanting NPC sheets co-cultivated with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), which produce certain angiogenic factors...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099358/the-gender-specific-association-of-rs334558-in-gsk3%C3%AE-with-major-depressive-disorder
#14
Sha Liu, Le Wang, Ning Sun, Chunxia Yang, Zhifen Liu, Xinrong Li, Xiaohua Cao, Yong Xu, Kerang Zhang
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric illnesses with a heritability ranging from 40% to 50%. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs334558 on the glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) gene has been identified as a genetic risk loci associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, results from replication studies examining the association between rs334558 and MDD remain inconsistent.In the present study, first, we conducted a meta-analysis of the association between rs334558 and MDD by combining 5 available case-control samples totaling 2311 cases and 2535 controls...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063369/physiological-and-biochemical-responses-of-two-keystone-polychaete-species-diopatra-neapolitana-and-hediste-diversicolor-to-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes
#15
Lucia De Marchi, Victor Neto, Carlo Pretti, Etelvina Figueira, Federica Chiellini, Amadeu M V M Soares, Rosa Freitas
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are one of the most important carbon Nanomaterials (NMs). The production and use of these carbon NMs is increasing rapidly and, therefore, the need to assess their presence in the environment and associated risks has become increasingly important. However, limited literature is available regarding the impacts induced in aquatic organisms by this pollutant, namely in invertebrate species. Diopatra neapolitana and Hediste diversicolor are keystone polychaete species inhabiting estuaries and shallow water bodies intertidal mudflats, frequently used to evaluate the impact of environmental disturbances in these systems...
April 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018344/adjunct-strategies-for-tuberculosis-vaccines-modulating-key-immune-cell-regulatory-mechanisms-to-potentiate-vaccination
#16
REVIEW
Lakshmi Jayashankar, Richard Hafner
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health threat of alarming proportions, resulting in 1.5 million deaths worldwide. The only available licensed vaccine, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, does not confer lifelong protection against active TB. To date, development of an effective vaccine against TB has proven to be elusive, and devising newer approaches for improved vaccination outcomes is an essential goal. Insights gained over the last several years have revealed multiple mechanisms of immune manipulation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in infected macrophages and dendritic cells that support disease progression and block development of protective immunity...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011297/effect-of-entodinium-caudatum-on-starch-intake-and-glycogen-formation-by-eudiplodinium-maggii-in-the-rumen-and-reticulum
#17
Grzegorz Bełżecki, Neil R McEwan, Barbara Kowalik, Tadeusz Michałowski, Renata Miltko
This study aimed to quantify the engulfed starch and reserve α-glucans (glycogen) in the cells of the ciliates Eudiplodinium maggii, as well the α-glucans in defaunated and selectively faunated sheep. The content of starch inside the cell of ciliates varied from 21 to 183mg/g protozoal DM relative to the rumen fauna composition whereas, the glycogen fluctuated between 17 and 126mg/g dry matter (DM) of this ciliate species. Establishment of the population Entodinium caudatum in the rumen of sheep already faunated with E...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983751/muscle-glycogen-where-did-you-come-from-where-did-you-go
#18
George G Schweitzer, Monica L Kearney, Bettina Mittendorfer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 16, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927596/quantification-of-muscle-pathology-in-infantile-pompe-disease
#19
Anne Schänzer, Ann-Kathrin Kaiser, Christian Mühlfeld, Martin Kulessa, Werner Paulus, Harald von Pein, Marianne Rohrbach, Lara Viergutz, Eugen Mengel, Thorsten Marquardt, Bernd Neubauer, Till Acker, Andreas Hahn
The effects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in infantile Pompe disease are variable, necessitating the identification of biomarkers to assess the severity of disease and response to ERT. The aims of this study were to investigate whether quantification of muscle pathology in infantile Pompe disease prior to and during ERT is feasible at the light microscope, and to develop a score that summarizes the degree of muscle pathology in a comprehensive manner from PAS-stained resin sections alone. We, therefore, determined glycogen load, extent of muscle fibre disruption, and amount of autophagic vacuoles in resin-embedded muscle biopsy specimens from 11 infantile Pompe patients and 2 with early childhood phenotype by quantitative methods, correlated the findings with ultrastructural analyses, compared PAS-stained resin sections with conventional PAS-stained cryosections, and related the quantified degree of muscle damage from infantile patients to the effects of ERT...
November 3, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897989/periodization-of-carbohydrate-intake-short-term-effect-on-performance
#20
Laurie-Anne Marquet, Christophe Hausswirth, Odeline Molle, John A Hawley, Louise M Burke, Eve Tiollier, Jeanick Brisswalter
BACKGROUND: "Sleep-low" consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability-low glycogen recovery after "train high" glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training ("train low") the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance...
November 25, 2016: Nutrients
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