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Daiki Imanishi, Katsumasa Abe, Yoshio Kera, Shouji Takahashi
Vanrija humicola ( Cryptococcus humicola ) strain UJ1 is a basidiomycetous yeast that produces d-aspartate oxidase, which is highly specific to d-aspartate. Here, we report the 22.6-Mb draft genome sequence of V. humicola strain UJ1, which comprises 22.6 Mb in 46 scaffolds, with an overall G+C content of 62.82%, comprising 46 scaffolds with an N 50 of 1.34 Mb.
March 15, 2018: Genome Announcements
Karen L Wozniak
The fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii can cause life-threatening infections in immune compromised and immune competent hosts. These pathogens enter the host via inhalation, and respiratory tract innate immune cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) are one of the first host cells they encounter. The interactions between Cryptococcus and innate immune cells play a critical role in the progression of disease in the host. This review will focus specifically on the interactions between Cryptococcus and dendritic cells (DCs), including recognition/processing by DCs, effects of immune mediators on DC recruitment and activity, and the potential for DC vaccination against cryptococcosis...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Mou Tang, Wenting Zhou, Yi Liu, Jiabao Yan, Zhiwei Gong
N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), the monomeric constituent of chitin, is rarely studied for lipid production by oleaginous species. This study demonstrated that Cryptococcus curvatus had a great capacity to convert GlcNAc into lipid with high yield using a two-stage production process. Optimal inoculum age and inoculation size strongly improved the two-stage lipid production efficiency. More interestingly, this process rendered superior lipid production under non-sterile condition. The acetate liberated from GlcNAc was consumed timely, while the NH4 + released was rarely assimilated...
March 5, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Angie Gelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Virulence
Laura J Schmertmann, Kathryn Stalder, Donald Hudson, Patricia Martin, Mariano Makara, Wieland Meyer, Richard Malik, Mark B Krockenberger
Disseminated cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus gattii (molecular type VGI) was diagnosed in an adult free-ranging female koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Subclinical cryptococcosis was later diagnosed in this koala's joey. In the adult koala, a pathological fracture of the tibia was associated with the bone lysis of marked focal cryptococcal osteomyelitis. Limb-sparing orthopedic intervention, in the setting of disseminated cryptococcosis, was judged to have a poor prognosis, and the adult koala was euthanized...
February 24, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Dejan Stojkovic, Marina Kostic, Marija Smiljkovic, Milena Aleksic, Perica Vasiljevic, Milos Nikolic, Marina Sokovic
The following review is oriented towards microbes linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and antimicrobial effect of compounds and extracts derived from aquatic organisms against specific bacteria, fungi and viruses which were found previously in patients suffering from AD. Major group of microbes linked to AD include bacteria: Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Actinomyces naeslundii, spirochete group; fungi: Candida sp., Cryptococcus sp...
March 8, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Althea Campuzano, Floyd L Wormley
Cryptococcus species, the etiological agents of cryptococcosis, are encapsulated fungal yeasts that predominantly cause disease in immunocompromised individuals, and are responsible for 15% of AIDS-related deaths worldwide. Exposure follows the inhalation of the yeast into the lung alveoli, making it incumbent upon the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of pulmonary phagocytes to recognize highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) of fungi. The main challenges impeding the ability of pulmonary phagocytes to effectively recognize Cryptococcus include the presence of the yeast's large polysaccharide capsule, as well as other cryptococcal virulence factors that mask fungal PAMPs and help Cryptococcus evade detection and subsequent activation of the immune system...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Qin Xiao, Yongzhou Lu, Min Chen, Bo Chen, Yuming Yang, Daxiang Cui, Bo Pan, Nan Xu
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast. There is still little quick and effective solution for the diagnosis or treatment of C. neoformans infection at an early stage in clinical. Antibody-conjugated silica-modified gold nanorods (GNR-SiO2 -Ab) can conjugate C. neoformans selectively. It may provide a possibility for treatment of cryptococcosis safely and effectively. METHODS: Gold nanorods (GNRs) were synthesized according to the seed-mediated template-assisted protocol...
March 7, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Lais Lovison Sturaro, Tohru Gonoi, Ariane Fidelis Busso-Lopes, Cibele Aparecida Tararam, Carlos Emilio Levy, Luzia Lyra, Plinio Trabasso, Angélica Zaninelli Schreiber, Katsuhiko Kamei, Maria Luiza Moretti
A DNA microarray platform, based on the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1, ITS2) of the rRNA gene, was developed to identify 32 fungal pathogens at the species level. The probe sequences were spotted onto polycarbonate slides with a mini-microarray printer, and after the hybridization, the results were visible with the naked eye. The performance of the microarray platform was evaluated against the commercial automated systems (Vitek ® 2 and BD Phoenix™ systems) and DNA sequencing (gold standard)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Christina A Cuomo, Johanna Rhodes, Christopher A Desjardins
Cryptococcus species are the causative agents of cryptococcal meningitis, a significant source of mortality in immunocompromised individuals. Initial work on the molecular epidemiology of this fungal pathogen utilized genotyping approaches to describe the genetic diversity and biogeography of two species, Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Whole genome sequencing of representatives of both species resulted in reference assemblies enabling a wide array of downstream studies and genomic resources...
2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Guilhem Janbon
In Cryptococcus neoformans, nearly all genes are interrupted by small introns. In recent years, genome annotation and genetic analysis have illuminated the major roles these introns play in the biology of this pathogenic yeast. Introns are necessary for gene expression and alternative splicing can regulate gene expression in response to environmental cues. In addition, recent studies have revealed that C. neoformans introns help to prevent transposon dissemination and protect genome integrity. These characteristics of cryptococcal introns are probably not unique to Cryptococcus, and this yeast likely can be considered as a model for intron-related studies in fungi...
2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Jiraprapa Wipasa, Romanee Chaiwarith, Kriangkrai Chawansuntati, Jutarat Praparattanapan, Kritsadee Rattanathammethee, Khuanchai Supparatpinyo
A major characteristic of immunodeficiency associated with life-threatening intracellular infection in adults is the presence of anti-interferon-γ antibodies. Although little is known about the mechanism underlying this syndrome, it is believed that the antibodies inhibit the activity of downstream signaling pathway of interferon-γ. In this study, the characteristics of these antibodies in patients who presented, or have a history of, intracellular infection and were positive to anti-interferon-γ antibodies were investigated...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Elizabeth Nalintya, David B Meya, Sarah Lofgren, Kathy Huppler Hullsiek, David R Boulware, Radha Rajasingham
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus is a leading cause of AIDS-related mortality. Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) is detectable in blood before meningitis onset, and predicts death. CrAg screening amongst those with advanced HIV, and treatment of those CrAg+ with fluconazole has demonstrated survival benefit. However, implementation and widespread uptake have been slow outside of clinical trials. METHODS: We designed a CrAg screening program for routine care that incorporated intensive education and training of clinic staff...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Vikas Yadav, Sheng Sun, R Blake Billmyre, Bhagya C Thimmappa, Terrance Shea, Robert Lintner, Guus Bakkeren, Christina A Cuomo, Joseph Heitman, Kaustuv Sanyal
The centromere DNA locus on a eukaryotic chromosome facilitates faithful chromosome segregation. Despite performing such a conserved function, centromere DNA sequence as well as the organization of sequence elements is rapidly evolving in all forms of eukaryotes. The driving force that facilitates centromere evolution remains an enigma. Here, we studied the evolution of centromeres in closely related species in the fungal phylum of Basidiomycota. Using ChIP-seq analysis of conserved inner kinetochore proteins, we identified centromeres in three closely related Cryptococcus species: two of which are RNAi-proficient, while the other lost functional RNAi...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Cristina Lazzarini, Krupanandan Haranahalli, Robert Rieger, Hari Krishna Ananthula, Pankaj B Desai, Alan Ashbaugh, Michael J Linke, Melanie T Cushion, Bela Ruzsicska, John Haley, Iwao Ojima, Maurizio Del Poeta
The incidence of invasive fungal infections has risen dramatically in the past decades. Current antifungal drugs are either toxic, likely to interact with other drugs, have a narrow spectrum of activity or induce fungal resistance. Hence, there is a great need for new antifungals, possibly with novel mechanisms of action. Previously our group reported an acylhydrazone called BHBM that targeted the sphingolipid pathway, and showed strong antifungal activity against several fungi. In this study, we screened 19 derivatives of BHBM...
March 5, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Leonardo Euripedes Andrade-Silva, Kennio Ferreira-Paim, Thatiana Bragine Ferreira, Anderson Vilas-Boas, Delio José Mora, Verônica Morais Manzato, Fernanda Machado Fonseca, Kelli Buosi, Juliana Andrade-Silva, Bruno da Silva Prudente, Natalia Evelyn Araujo, Helioswilton Sales-Campos, Marcus Vinicius da Silva, Virmondes Rodrigues Júnior, Wieland Meyer, Mario Léon Silva-Vergara
Cryptococcal infections are mainly caused by members of the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex (molecular types VNI, VNII, VNB, VNIV and the AD hybrid VNIII). PCR of the mating type loci and MLST typing using the ISHAM-MLST consensus scheme were used to evaluate the genetic relationship of 102 (63 clinical and 39 environmental) C. neoformans isolates from Uberaba, Brazil and to correlate the obtained genotypes with clinical, antifungal susceptibility and virulence factor data. All isolates were mating type alpha...
2018: PloS One
Yunfang Meng, Yumeng Fan, Wanqing Liao, Xiaorong Lin
Cryptococcus neoformans is a major opportunistic fungal pathogen. Like many dimorphic fungal pathogens, C. neoformans can undergo morphological transition from the yeast form to the hypha form and its morphotype is tightly linked to its virulence. Although some genetic factors controlling morphogenesis have been identified, little is known about the epigenetic regulation in this process. Proteins with the plant homeodomain (PHD) finger, a structurally conserved domain in eukaryotes, are first identified in plants and are known to be involved in reading and effecting chromatin modification...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Rafał Ogórek, Bartosz Kozak, Zuzana Višňovská, Dana Tančinová
This paper is the first aero-mycological report from Demänovská Ice Cave. Fungal spores were sampled from the internal and external air of the cave in June, 2014, using the impact method with a microbiological air sampler. Airborne fungi cultured on PDA medium were identified using a combination of classical phenotypic and molecular methods. Altogether, the presence of 18 different fungal spores, belonging to 3 phyla, 9 orders and 14 genera, was detected in the air of the cave. All of them were isolated from the indoor samples, and only 9 were obtained from the outdoor samples...
2018: Aerobiologia
Rodrigo Abonia, Alexander Garay, Juan C Castillo, Braulio Insuasty, Jairo Quiroga, Manuel Nogueras, Justo Cobo, Estefanía Butassi, Susana Zacchino
Two practical and efficient approaches have been implemented as alternative procedures for the synthesis of naftifine and novel diversely substituted analogues 16 and 20 in good to excellent yields, mediated by Mannich-type reactions as the key step of the processes. In these approaches, the γ-aminoalcohols 15 and 19 were obtained as the key intermediates and their subsequent dehydration catalyzed either by Brønsted acids like H₂SO₄ and HCl or Lewis acid like AlCl₃, respectively, led to naftifine, along with the target allylamines 16 and 20 ...
February 26, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Liang Huo, Ping Zhang, Chenxi Li, Kashif Rahim, Xiaoran Hao, Biyun Xiang, Xudong Zhu
Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel class of ubiquitous and intriguing noncoding RNA, have been found in a number of eukaryotes but not yet basidiomycetes. In this study, we identified 73 circRNAs from 39.28 million filtered RNA reads from the basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans JEC21 using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and the bioinformatics tool circular RNA identification (CIRI). Furthermore, mapping of newly found circRNAs to the genome showed that 73.97% of the circRNAs originated from exonic regions, whereas 20...
February 26, 2018: Genes
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