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Cryptococcus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803995/depsidones-and-an-%C3%AE-pyrone-derivative-from-simpilcillium-sp-psu-h41-an-endophytic-fungus-from-hevea-brasiliensis-leaf
#1
Praphatsorn Saetang, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Souwalak Phongpaichit, Sita Preedanon, Jariya Sakayaroj, Suparerk Borwornpinyo, Sawinee Seemakhan, Chatchai Muanprasat
Nine previously undescribed depsidones (simplicildones A-I) and one previously undescribed α-pyrone (simplicilopyrone) were isolated from the endophytic fungus Simplicillium sp. PSU-H41 along with 11 known compounds. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Simplicildone A and known botryorhodine C displayed weak antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus with equal MIC values of 32 μg/mL. Additionally, botryorhodine C was active against methicillin-resistant S. aureus with the same MIC value...
August 9, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800596/fungal-genome-and-mating-system-transitions-facilitated-by-chromosomal-translocations-involving-intercentromeric-recombination
#2
Sheng Sun, Vikas Yadav, R Blake Billmyre, Christina A Cuomo, Minou Nowrousian, Liuyang Wang, Jean-Luc Souciet, Teun Boekhout, Betina Porcel, Patrick Wincker, Joshua A Granek, Kaustuv Sanyal, Joseph Heitman
Species within the human pathogenic Cryptococcus species complex are major threats to public health, causing approximately 1 million infections globally annually. Cryptococcus amylolentus is the most closely known related species of the pathogenic Cryptococcus species complex, and it is non-pathogenic. Additionally, while pathogenic Cryptococcus species have bipolar mating systems with a single large mating type (MAT) locus that represents a derived state in Basidiomycetes, C. amylolentus has a tetrapolar mating system with 2 MAT loci (P/R and HD) located on different chromosomes...
August 11, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797532/assessment-of-in-vitro-antifungal-efficacy-and-in-vivo-toxicity-of-amphotericin-b-loaded-plga-and-plga-peg-blend-nanoparticles
#3
T C Moraes Moreira Carraro, C Altmeyer, N Maissar Khalil, R Mara Mainardes
Amphotericin B (AmB) is widely applied in treatment of systemic fungal infections. However, the emergence of severe adverse effects, such as nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and hemolytic anemia, can limit its clinical use. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) blend nanoparticles containing AmB were developed with the aim to decrease AmB toxicity and propose the oral route for AmB delivery. Nanoparticles were characterized by particle size, polydispersity index, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analyses...
August 7, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797489/approach-to-fungal-infections-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals-pneumocystis-and-beyond
#4
REVIEW
Richard J Wang, Robert F Miller, Laurence Huang
Many fungi cause pulmonary disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pathogens include Pneumocystis jirovecii, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus spp, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides spp, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Talaromyces marneffei, and Emmonsia spp. Because symptoms are frequently nonspecific, a high index of suspicion for fungal infection is required for diagnosis. Clinical manifestations of fungal infection in HIV-infected patients frequently depend on the degree of immunosuppression and the CD4(+) helper T cell count...
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797488/cryptococcal-lung-infections
#5
REVIEW
Kate Skolnik, Shaunna Huston, Christopher H Mody
Cryptococcus is among the most common invasive fungal pathogens globally and is one of the leading causes of acquired immunodeficiency virus-related deaths. Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the most clinically relevant species and account for most cryptococcal disease. Pulmonary manifestations can range from mild symptoms to life-threatening infection. Treatment is tailored based on the severity of pulmonary infection, the presence of disseminated or central nervous system disease, and patient immune status...
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793877/subarachnoid-small-vein-occlusion-due-to-inflammatory-fibrosis-a-possible-mechanism-for-cerebellar-infarction-in-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis-a-case-report
#6
Yoshiteru Shimoda, Satoru Ohtomo, Hiroaki Arai, Takashi Ohtoh, Teiji Tominaga
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) causes cerebral infarction, typically, lacunar infarction in the basal ganglia. However, massive cerebral infarction leading to death is rare and its pathophysiology is unclear. We report a case of CM causing massive cerebellar infarction, which led to cerebral herniation and death. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old man who suffered from dizziness and gait disturbance for one month was admitted to our hospital and subsequently diagnosed with a cerebellar infarction...
August 9, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793019/cryptococcus-neoformans-and-c-gattii-isolates-from-both-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-patients-antifungal-susceptibility-and-outcome-of-cryptococcal-disease
#7
Erika Nascimento, Lucia Helena Vitali, Marcia Regina von Zeska Kress, Roberto Martinez
One of the factors causing treatment failure in cryptococcosis is the resistance of Cryptococcus spp. to antifungal drugs, which has motivated the susceptibility assessment of isolates from patients with cryptococcosis, different clinical conditions and infections outcomes. Clinical isolates of Cryptococcus spp. from three different groups of patients were studied in the present investigation: 19 HIV-positive patients with relapsing and/or refractory meningitis (Group 1), 30 HIV-positive patients who experienced a single and limited episode of cryptococcosis (Group 2), and 19 HIV-negative patients with cryptococcosis (Group 3)...
2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790984/acidotolerant-bacteria-and-fungi-as-a-sink-of-methanol-derived-carbon-in-a-deciduous-forest-soil
#8
Mareen Morawe, Henrike Hoeke, Dirk K Wissenbach, Guillaume Lentendu, Tesfaye Wubet, Eileen Kröber, Steffen Kolb
Methanol is an abundant atmospheric volatile organic compound that is released from both living and decaying plant material. In forest and other aerated soils, methanol can be consumed by methanol-utilizing microorganisms that constitute a known terrestrial sink. However, the environmental factors that drive the biodiversity of such methanol-utilizers have been hardly resolved. Soil-derived isolates of methanol-utilizers can also often assimilate multicarbon compounds as alternative substrates. Here, we conducted a comparative DNA stable isotope probing experiment under methylotrophic (only [(13)C1]-methanol was supplemented) and combined substrate conditions ([(12)C1]-methanol and alternative multi-carbon [(13)Cu]-substrates were simultaneously supplemented) to (i) identify methanol-utilizing microorganisms of a deciduous forest soil (European beech dominated temperate forest in Germany), (ii) assess their substrate range in the soil environment, and (iii) evaluate their trophic links to other soil microorganisms...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783748/heat-shock-protein-90-localizes-to-the-surface-and-augments-virulence-factors-of-cryptococcus-neoformans
#9
Sharanya Chatterjee, Utpal Tatu
BACKGROUND: Thermotolerance is an essential attribute for pathogenesis of Cryptococcus as exemplified by the fact that only two species in the genus, which can grow at 37°C, are human pathogens. Species which have other virulence factors including capsule formation and melanisation, but lack the ability to propagate at 37°C are not pathogenic. In another related fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, heat shock protein 90 has been implicated to be a central player in commanding pathogenicity by governing yeast to hyphal transition and drug resistance...
August 4, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781150/2016-guidelines-for-the-use-of-antifungal-agents-in-patients-with-invasive-fungal-diseases-in-taiwan
#10
REVIEW
Hsiang-Chi Kung, Po-Yen Huang, Wei-Ting Chen, Bor-Sheng Ko, Yee-Chun Chen, Shan-Chwen Chang, Yin-Ching Chuang
The Infectious Diseases Society of Taiwan, Medical Foundation in Memory of Dr. Deh-Lin Cheng, Foundation of Professor Wei-Chuan Hsieh for Infectious Diseases Research and Education, and CY Lee's Research Foundation for Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Vaccines have updated the guidelines for the use of antifungal agents in adult patients with invasive fungal diseases in Taiwan. This guideline replaces the 2009 version. Recommendations are provided for Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and Mucormycetes. The focus is based on up-to-date evidence on indications for treatment or prophylaxis of the most common clinical problems...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775082/disseminated-cryptococcal-infection-in-a-patient-who-had-kidney-transplant-discrepancy-between-clinical-symptoms-and-microbiological-findings
#11
Suzan Dahdal, Robert Kalicki, Niklaus Von Steiger, Parham Sendi
A 29-year-old man complained of a 2-day history of frontal headache and new-onset fever but no other symptoms. Two months prior to admission, he underwent his third kidney transplantation. Clinical and laboratory examinations were unremarkable. Brain MRI showed a meningeal irritation consistent with viral meningitis. A diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis and fungaemia was made after detection of a remarkably high and visible load of Cryptococcus neoformans in the cerebrospinal fluid.
August 3, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774701/fungal-infections-in-hiv-aids
#12
REVIEW
Andrew H Limper, Antoine Adenis, Thuy Le, Thomas S Harrison
Fungi are major contributors to the opportunistic infections that affect patients with HIV/AIDS. Systemic infections are mainly with Pneumocystis jirovecii (pneumocystosis), Cryptococcus neoformans (cryptococcosis), Histoplasma capsulatum (histoplasmosis), and Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei (talaromycosis). The incidence of systemic fungal infections has decreased in people with HIV in high-income countries because of the widespread availability of antiretroviral drugs and early testing for HIV. However, in many areas with high HIV prevalence, patients present to care with advanced HIV infection and with a low CD4 cell count or re-present with persistent low CD4 cell counts because of poor adherence, resistance to antiretroviral drugs, or both...
July 31, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756537/atypical-morphology-and-disparate-speciation-in-a-case-of-feline-cryptococcosis
#13
S J M Evans, K Jones, A R Moore
A 6-year-old, spayed female cat was presented with acute respiratory signs and pleural effusion. Computed tomography scan revealed a large, lobulated mass effect in the ventral right hemithorax with concurrent sternal lymphadenopathy. A cytologic sample of the mass contained pyogranulomatous inflammation, necrotic material, and abundant yeast structures that lacked a distinct capsule and demonstrated rare pseudohyphal forms. Fungal culture and biochemical testing identified the yeast as Cryptococcus albidus, with susceptibility to all antifungal agents tested...
July 29, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753024/thiocarbonyl-ylide-chemistry-enables-a-concise-synthesis-of-%C3%A2-hippolachnin-a
#14
Nils Winter, Dirk Trauner
Hippolachnin A (1) is an antifungal polyketide that bristles with ethyl groups mounted onto a caged heterotricyclic core. It has shown potent activity against Cryptococcus neoformans, a yeast that can affect immunocompromised patients as an opportunistic pathogen.[1] Herein we describe a concise, diversifiable, and scalable synthesis of (±)-hippolachnin A (1). It features a powerful photochemical opening step, a diastereoselective addition of an ethyl cuprate and an unusual strategy to install two additional ethyl groups that makes use of a thiocarbonyl ylide generated in situ...
July 28, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752102/acute-kidney-injury-and-urinary-biomarkers-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis
#15
Charlotte Schutz, David R Boulware, Katherine Huppler-Hullsiek, Maximilian von Hohenberg, Joshua Rhein, Kabanda Taseera, Friedrich Thienemann, Conrad Muzoora, David B Meya, Graeme Meintjes
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus is the most common etiology of adult meningitis in Africa. Amphotericin B deoxycholate remains paramount to treatment, despite toxicities, including acute kidney injury (AKI). We assessed the ability of the following urine markers to predict AKI in patients who received amphotericin B: urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin C (CysC), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), and protein. METHODS: One hundred and thirty human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected participants with cryptococcal meningitis were enrolled and received amphotericin and fluconazole for 2 weeks...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750078/acridine-orange-fluorescent-microscopy-is-more-sensitive-than-india-ink-light-microscopy-in-the-rapid-detection-of-cryptococcosis-among-crag-positive-hiv-patients
#16
Richard Kwizera, Andrew Akampurira, Darlisha Williams, David R Boulware, David B Meya
BACKGROUND: India ink microscopy on cerebrospinal fluid is still utilized in resource limited settings for the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis despite its poor sensitivity. We hypothesized that staining fungal nucleic acids with fluorescent dyes instead of the capsule with India ink might improve sensitivity for the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis. METHODS: We enrolled 96 HIV-infected participants with cryptococcal meningitis who provided 194 CSF specimens at serial time points in Kampala, Uganda...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747366/cross-reacting-ustilago-maydis-causing-false-positive-cryptococcal-antigen-tests
#17
Matthew P Cheng, Tien T Nguyen, Leighanne O Parkes, Philippe J Dufresne, Donald C Sheppard
Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast within the division Basidiomycota that may cause pulmonary and central nervous system (CNS) disease.….
July 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744276/differential-antifungal-activity-of-human-and-cryptococcal-melanins-with-structural-discrepancies
#18
Néstor Correa, Cristian Covarrubias, Paula I Rodas, Germán Hermosilla, Verónica R Olate, Cristián Valdés, Wieland Meyer, Fabien Magne, Cecilia V Tapia
Melanin is a pigment found in all biological kingdoms, and plays a key role in protection against ultraviolet radiation, oxidizing agents, and ionizing radiation damage. Melanin exerts an antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We demonstrated an antifungal activity of synthetic and human melanin against Candida sp. The members of the Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii species complexes are capsulated yeasts, which cause cryptococcosis. For both species melanin is an important virulence factor...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740223/dual-functional-phi29-dna-polymerase-triggered-exponential-rolling-circle-amplification-for-sequence-specific-detection-of-target-dna-embedded-in-long-stranded-genomic-dna
#19
Xiao-Yu Li, Yi-Chen Du, Yu-Peng Zhang, De-Ming Kong
An exonucleolytic digestion-assisted exponential rolling circle amplification (RCA) strategy was developed for sensitive and sequence-specific detection of target DNA embedded in long-stranded genomic DNA. Herein, Phi29 DNA polymerase plays two important roles as exonuclease and polymerase. Long-stranded genomic DNAs can be broken into small DNA fragments after ultrasonication. The fragments that contain target DNA, hybridize with a linear padlock probe to trigger the formation of a circular RCA template. The tails protruding from the 3'-end of the target DNA sequences are then digested by the 3' → 5' exonuclease activity of Phi29 DNA polymerase even if they fold into a double-stranded structure...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739790/a-cationic-polymer-that-shows-high-antifungal-activity-against-diverse-human-pathogens
#20
Leslie A Rank, Naomi M Walsh, Runhui Liu, Fang Yun Lim, Jin Woo Bok, Mingwei Huang, Nancy P Keller, Samuel H Gellman, Christina M Hull
Invasive fungal diseases are generally difficult to treat and often fatal. The therapeutic agents available to treat fungi are limited, and there is a critical need for new agents to combat these deadly infections. Antifungal compound development has been hindered by the challenge of creating agents that are highly active against fungal pathogens but not toxic to the host. Host-defense peptides (HDPs) are produced by eukaryotes as a component of the innate immune response to pathogens and have served as inspiration for the development of many new antibacterial compounds...
July 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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