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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323835/molecular-epidemiology-of-cryptococcal-genotype-vnic-st5-in-siriraj-hospital-thailand
#1
Chanin Hatthakaroon, Sujiraphong Pharkjaksu, Piriyaporn Chongtrakool, Kamol Suwannakarn, Pattarachai Kiratisin, Popchai Ngamskulrungroj
Despite the strong association between Cryptococcus neoformans infection and the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status of patients globally, most cryptococcosis cases in Far East Asia occur in non-HIV individuals. Molecular epidemiological studies, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), have shown that more than 95% of cryptococcal strains belong to a specific subtype of VNI. However, this association has never been specifically examined in other parts of Asia. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the VNIc/ST5 genotype distribution among cryptococcosis patients in Thailand...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317465/anti-cryptococcal-activity-of-ethanol-crude-extract-and-hexane-fraction-from-ocimum-basilicum-var-maria-bonita-mechanisms-of-action-and-synergism-with-amphotericin-b-and-ocimum-basilicum-essential-oil
#2
Nathalia N R Cardoso, Celuta S Alviano, Arie F Blank, Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank, Maria Teresa V Romanos, Marcel M L Cunha, Antonio Jorge R da Silva, Daniela S Alviano
CONTEXT: Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, kidney disorders, and intestinal worms. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the anti-cryptococcal activity of ethanol crude extract and hexane fraction obtained from O. basilicum var. Maria Bonita leaves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MIC values for Cryptococcus sp. were obtained according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute in a range of 0.3-2500 μg/mL...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315437/homology-modeling-molecular-docking-and-molecular-dynamics-studies-of-the-catalytic-domain-of-chitin-deacetylase-from-cryptococcus-laurentii-strain-ry1
#3
Soumyadev Sarkar, Suchetana Gupta, Writachit Chakraborty, Sanjib Senapati, Ratan Gachhui
This study provides structural insights into chitin deacetylase, over-expressing under nitrogen limiting condition in Cryptococcus laurentii strain RY1. The enzyme converts chitin, the second most abundant natural biopolymer, to chitosan, which offers tremendous applications in diverse fields. To elucidate the structure-function relationship of this biologically and industrially important enzyme, a homology model of the catalytic domain was constructed. The stability of the structure was assessed by molecular dynamics simulation studies...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303817/screening-of-invasive-fungal-infections-by-a-real-time-panfungal-pan-acf-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancy
#4
Malini Rajinder Capoor, Shikha Puri, Hitesh Raheja, Ritin Mohindra, Dinesh Kumar Gupta, Pradeep Kumar Verma, Ranadeep Chowdhary
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a fatal infection in haematology patients. There is an urgent need for reliable screening methods facilitating timely diagnosis and treatment. A real-time panfungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on TaqMan technology targeting 18S ribosomal RNA gene was used to screen whole blood specimen obtained from series of Haematology malignancy patients for IFIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The panfungal (Pan-ACF) assay was employed to investigate specimen from 133 patients in duplicate with suspected IFI...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300886/disseminated-cryptococcosis-manifested-as-a-single-tumor-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-similar-to-the-cutaneous-primary-forms
#5
Danielle Mechereffe do Amaral, Ritha de Cássia Capelato Rocha, Luiz Euribel Prestes Carneiro, Dewton Moraes Vasconcelos, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado de Abreu
Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans that tends to affect immunocompromised individuals. The fungi are mostly acquired by inhalation, which leads to an initial pulmonary infection. Later, other organs - such as the central nervous system and the skin - can be affected by hematogenous spread. In addition, cutaneous contamination can occur by primary inoculation after injuries (primary cutaneous cryptococcosis), whose diagnosis is defined based on the absence of systemic involvement...
September 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298522/scavenger-receptor-marco-orchestrates-early-defenses-and-contributes-to-fungal-containment-during-cryptococcal-infection
#6
Jintao Xu, Adam Flaczyk, Lori M Neal, Zhenzong Fa, Alison J Eastman, Antoni N Malachowski, Daphne Cheng, Bethany B Moore, Jeffrey L Curtis, John J Osterholzer, Michal A Olszewski
The scavenger receptor macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) promotes protective innate immunity against bacterial and parasitic infections; however, its role in host immunity against fungal pathogens, including the major human opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, remains unknown. Using a mouse model of C. neoformans infection, we demonstrated that MARCO deficiency leads to impaired fungal control during the afferent phase of cryptococcal infection. Diminished fungal containment in MARCO(-/-) mice was accompanied by impaired recruitment of Ly6C(high) monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) and lower moDC costimulatory maturation...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298477/central-role-of-the-trehalose-biosynthesis-pathway-in-the-pathogenesis-of-human-fungal-infections-opportunities-and-challenges-for-therapeutic-development
#7
REVIEW
Arsa Thammahong, Srisombat Puttikamonkul, John R Perfect, Richard G Brennan, Robert A Cramer
Invasive fungal infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in part due to a limited antifungal drug arsenal. One therapeutic challenge faced by clinicians is the significant host toxicity associated with antifungal drugs. Another challenge is the fungistatic mechanism of action of some drugs. Consequently, the identification of fungus-specific drug targets essential for fitness in vivo remains a significant goal of medical mycology research. The trehalose biosynthetic pathway is found in a wide variety of organisms, including human-pathogenic fungi, but not in humans...
June 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296967/the-combined-rapid-detection-and-species-level-identification-of-yeasts-in-simulated-blood-culture-using-a-colorimetric-sensor-array
#8
Nabin K Shrestha, Sung H Lim, Deborah A Wilson, Ana Victoria SalasVargas, Yair S Churi, Paul A Rhodes, Peter J Mazzone, Gary W Procop
BACKGROUND: A colorimetric sensor array (CSA) has been demonstrated to rapidly detect and identify bacteria growing in blood cultures by obtaining a species-specific "fingerprint" of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during growth. This capability has been demonstrated in prokaryotes, but has not been reported for eukaryotic cells growing in culture. The purpose of this study was to explore if a disposable CSA could differentially identify 7 species of pathogenic yeasts growing in blood culture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282442/characterization-of-c-type-lectins-reveals-an-unexpectedly-limited-interaction-between-cryptococcus-neoformans-spores-and-dectin-1
#9
Naomi M Walsh, Marcel Wuthrich, Huafeng Wang, Bruce Klein, Christina M Hull
Phagocytosis by innate immune cells is an important process for protection against multiple pathologies and is particularly important for resistance to infection. However, phagocytosis has also been implicated in the progression of some diseases, including the dissemination of the human fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans. Previously, we identified Dectin-1 as a likely phagocytic receptor for C. neoformans spores through the use of soluble components in receptor-ligand blocking experiments. In this study, we used gain-of-function and loss-of-function assays with intact cells to evaluate the in vivo role of Dectin-1 and other C-type lectins in interactions with C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278668/chemical-characterisation-and-biological-activity-of-leaf-essential-oils-obtained-from-pistacia-terebinthus-growing-wild-in-tunisia-and-sardinia-island
#10
Alessandra Piras, Hanen Marzouki, Andrea Maxia, Arianna Marengo, Silvia Porcedda, Danilo Falconieri, Maria José Gonçalves, Carlos Cavaleiro, Ligia Salgueiro
In the present work the chemical compositions, measured by GC and GC-MS, of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of Pistacia terebinthus collected in Bizerte (Tunisia) and Baunei (Italy) are reported. Both essential oils possessed high content of monoterpene hydrocarbons (86.3% and 90.9%, respectively), being α-pinene (62.4 vs. 35.0)%, camphene (3.0 vs. 2.4)%, β-pinene (12.1 vs. 4.5)%, terpinolene (1.7 vs. 35.2)% and β-phellandrene (3.8 vs. 4.5)% the main components. The Tunisian essential oil exhibited higher antifungal activity than the Italian one...
February 15, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278624/assessment-of-safe-bioactive-doses-of-foeniculum-vulgare-mill-essential-oil-from-portugal
#11
C Cabral, M Miranda, M J Gonçalves, C Cavaleiro, M T Cruz, L Salgueiro
This study was designed to evaluate the antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil; concomitantly, the safety of bioactive doses was also unveiled, for the first time, in several mammalian cells. The chemical characterisation was made by GC and GC-MS. Antifungal activity was evaluated against yeasts, dermatophytes and Aspergillus strains and germ tube inhibition assay was evaluated using Candida albicans. Cell viability was assessed by the MTT assay. The main constituents of the oil are E-anetol (47%), α-phellandrene (11%), α-pinene (10...
March 2, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272809/bioprospection-of-cold-adapted-yeasts-with-biotechnological-potential-from-antarctica
#12
María Martha Martorell, Lucas Adolfo Mauro Ruberto, Pablo Marcelo Fernández, Lucía Inés Castellanos de Figueroa, Walter Patricio Mac Cormack
The aim of this study was to investigate the ability to produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes at low temperature of yeasts isolated from 25 de Mayo island, Antarctica, and to identify those exhibiting one or more of the evaluated enzymatic activities. A total of 105 yeast isolates were obtained from different samples and 66 were identified. They belonged to 12 basidiomycetous and four ascomycetous genera. Most of the isolates were ascribed to the genera Cryptococcus, Mrakia, Cystobasidium, Rhodotorula, Gueomyces, Phenoliferia, Leucosporidium, and Pichia...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271644/a-case-of-disseminated-infection-with-skin-manifestation-due-to-non-neoformans-and-non-gattii-cryptococcus-in-a-patient-with-refractory-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#13
Sun Seob Park, Hyewon Lee, Weon Seo Park, Sang Hyun Hwang, Sang Il Choi, Mi Hong Choi, Si Won Lee, Eun Jung Ko, Young Ju Choi, Hyeon Seok Eom
Cryptococcus spp. other than Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii were previously considered saprophytes and thought to be non-pathogenic to humans. However, opportunistic infections associated with non-neoformans and non-gattii species, such as Cryptococcus laurentii and Cryptococcus albidus, have increased over the past four decades. We experienced a case of cryptococcosis caused by non-neoformans and non-gattii spp. in a 47-year-old female with refractory acute myeloid leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation...
January 16, 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270580/microevolution-of-serial-clinical-isolates-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-var-grubii-and-c-%C3%A2-gattii
#14
Yuan Chen, Rhys A Farrer, Charles Giamberardino, Sharadha Sakthikumar, Alexander Jones, Timothy Yang, Jennifer L Tenor, Omar Wagih, Marelize Van Wyk, Nelesh P Govender, Thomas G Mitchell, Anastasia P Litvintseva, Christina A Cuomo, John R Perfect
The pathogenic species of Cryptococcus are a major cause of mortality owing to severe infections in immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent individuals. Although antifungal treatment is usually effective, many patients relapse after treatment, and in such cases, comparative analyses of the genomes of incident and relapse isolates may reveal evidence of determinative, microevolutionary changes within the host. Here, we analyzed serial isolates cultured from cerebrospinal fluid specimens of 18 South African patients with recurrent cryptococcal meningitis...
March 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265797/isolation-of-cryptococcus-gattii-from-a-castanopsis-argyrophylla-tree-hollow-mai-kaw-chiang-mai-thailand
#15
Kantarawee Khayhan, Ferry Hagen, Treepradab Norkaew, Tanpalang Puengchan, Teun Boekhout, Pojana Sriburee
The pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus gattii was isolated from a tree hollow of a Castanopsis argyrophylla King ex Hook.f. (Fagaceae) in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Molecular characterization with amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and multi-locus sequence typing showed that this isolate belonged to genotype AFLP4/VGI representing C. gattii sensu stricto. Subsequent comparison of the environmental isolate with those from clinical samples from Thailand showed that they grouped closely together in a single cluster...
March 6, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265742/connecting-virulence-pathways-to-cell-cycle-progression-in-the-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#16
REVIEW
Christina M Kelliher, Steven B Haase
Proliferation and host evasion are critical processes to understand at a basic biological level for improving infectious disease treatment options. The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans causes fungal meningitis in immunocompromised individuals by proliferating in cerebrospinal fluid. Current antifungal drugs target "virulence factors" for disease, such as components of the cell wall and polysaccharide capsule in C. neoformans. However, mechanistic links between virulence pathways and the cell cycle are not as well studied...
March 6, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262043/phosphorus-rich-structures-and-capsular-architecture-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#17
Caroline L Ramos, Fabio M Gomes, Wendell Girard-Dias, Fernando P Almeida, Priscila C Albuquerque, Matthias Kretschmer, James W Kronstad, Susana Frases, Wanderley de Souza, Marcio L Rodrigues, Kildare Miranda
AIM: In this study, we aimed to analyze the relationship of phosphorus-rich structures with surface architecture in Cryptococcus neoformans. METHODS: Phosphorus-rich structures in C. neoformans were analyzed by combining fluorescence microscopy, biochemical extraction, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe x-ray microanalysis and 3D reconstruction of high pressure frozen and freeze substituted cells by focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM)...
March 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260588/utilization-of-size-polymorphism-in-its1-and-its2-regions-for-identification-of-pathogenic-yeast-species
#18
Hossein Khodadadi, Ladan Karimi, Nilufar Jalalizand, Hassan Adin, Hossein Mirhendi
PURPOSE: Despite the existence of a variety of available yeast-identification strategies, easier and more cost-effective methods are required for routine use in clinical laboratories. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA genes exhibit variable sizes depending on the yeast species. In the present study, fragment size polymorphism (FSP) analysis of the ITS1 and ITS2 regions for identification of the clinically most important yeast species was assessed. METHODOLOGY: The ITS1 and ITS2 regions of 190 strains, including isolates of 31 standard strains and 159 clinical isolates, were separately PCR amplified with two primer sets: ITS1-ITS2 and ITS3-ITS4...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251810/the-water-channel-protein-aquaporin-1-regulates-cellular-metabolism-and-competitive-fitness-in-a-global-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#19
Gena Lee Meyers, Kwang-Woo Jung, Soohyun Bang, Jungyeon Kim, Sooah Kim, Joohyeon Hong, Eunji Cheong, Kyoung Heon Kim, Yong-Sun Bahn
In this study, an aquaporin protein, Aqp1, in Cryptococcus neoformans, which can lead either saprobic or parasitic lifestyles and causes life-threatening fungal meningitis was identified and characterized. AQP1 expression was rapidly induced (via the HOG pathway) by osmotic or oxidative stress. In spite of such transcriptional regulation, Aqp1 was found to be largely unnecessary for adaptation to diverse environmental stressors, regardless of the presence of the polysaccharide capsule. The latter is shown here to be a key environmental-stress protectant for C...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247152/magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-of-cryptococcal-neuroradiological-lesions-in-hiv-negative-cryptococcal-meningitis
#20
Y Zhong, Z Zhou, X Fang, F Peng, W Zhang
Magnetic resonance (MR) scanning has become an important diagnostic and management tool in cryptococcal meningitis (CM). However, there are only isolated case reports documenting neuroradiological findings in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients with CM and none has clearly addressed the relationship between cerebral lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and prognosis. The MR brain images available from 114 HIV-negative patients with CM were retrospectively analysed. Patients were divided into Group I with one or more CM-related lesions and Group II without CM-related lesions...
February 28, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
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