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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635996/reply-to-engelthaler-and-meyer-furthering-the-continental-drift-speciation-hypothesis-in-the-pathogenic-cryptococcus-species-complexes
#1
COMMENT
Arturo Casadevall, Joudeh B Freij, Christopher Hann-Soden, John Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634812/semi-industrial-scale-production-of-a-new-yeast-with-probiotic-traits-cryptococcus-sp-ymhs-isolated-from-the-red-sea
#2
Ashraf F El-Baz, Hesham A El-Enshasy, Yousseria M Shetaia, Hoda Mahrous, Nor Zalina Othman, Ahmed E Yousef
A new yeast strain with promising probiotic traits was isolated from the Red Sea water samples. The isolate (YMHS) was subjected to genetic characterization and identified as Cryptococcus sp. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer regions showed 95% sequence similarity between the isolate and Cryptococcus albidus. Cryptococcus sp. YMHS exhibited desirable characteristics of probiotic microorganisms; it has tolerance to low pH in simulated gastric juice, resistance to bile salts, hydrophobic characteristics, broad antimicrobial activity, and in vitro ability to degrade cholesterol...
June 20, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633410/cryptococcus-neoformans-and-gattii-promote-dna-damage-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#3
Jéssica Cristina Bilizario Noguerol Andrade, Mariana Gatto, Daniela Ramos Rodrigues, Ângela Maria Victoriano de Campos Soares, Sueli Aparecida Calvi
Cryptococcosis, a systemic mycosis capable of disseminating to the central nervous system with frequent lethal effects, is caused by the species Cryptococus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Several infectious agents such as virus, bacteria, and parasites may be associated to DNA damage and carcinogenesis in humans. Products of the oxidative metabolism, such as NO, produced as a host defense mechanism to destroy these pathogens, have been implicated in this damage process, due to excessive production related to an established chronic inflammatory response...
June 15, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631642/sporadic-occurrence-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-hiv-seronegative-patients-uncommon-etiology
#4
Shukla Das, Shyama Datt, Priyamvada Roy, Rumpa Saha, Immaculata Xess
Cryptococcosis in HIV-seronegative patients is rarely reported from India. This prospective study was conducted to look for cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seronegative individuals and compare their laboratory features to cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seropositive patients. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected from 153 suspected cases of meningitis and subjected to India ink preparation, antigen detection, and culture. Nineteen samples tested positive for Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Seventeen and two patients were HIV reactive and nonreactive, respectively...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631547/cryptococcal-maxillary-osteomyelitis-and-osteonecrosis-in-a-18-month-old-dog
#5
Katherine Block, Jean Battig
An 18-month-old neutered male labradoodle was treated with surgical debridement for maxillary osteomyelitis and sequestrum formation. Histopathologic findings of the necrotic bone were consistent with Cryptococcus subspecies, confirmed with latex agglutination serum titer testing. The patient responded to a combination of fluconazole and surgical debridement and was titer negative after 8 months of medical therapy. The patient never exhibited signs of systemic illness which is commonly reported with cryptococcosis...
June 2017: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630941/furthering-the-continental-drift-speciation-hypothesis-in-the-pathogenic-cryptococcus-species-complexes
#6
David M Engelthaler, Wieland Meyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630940/fluconazole-induced-ploidy-change-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-results-from-the-uncoupling-of-cell-growth-and-nuclear-division
#7
Sophie Altamirano, Diana Fang, Charles Simmons, Shreyas Sridhar, Peipei Wu, Kaustuv Sanyal, Lukasz Kozubowski
Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that causes lethal cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. One of the challenges in treating cryptococcosis is the development of resistance to azole antifungals. Previous studies linked azole resistance to elevated numbers of copies of critical resistance genes in aneuploid cells. However, how aneuploidy is formed in the presence of azole drugs remains unclear. This study showed that treatment with inhibitory concentrations of an azole drug, fluconazole (FLC), resulted in a significant population of cells with increased DNA content, through the following defects: inhibition of budding, premature mitosis, and inhibition of cytokinesis followed by replication in the mother cell...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622118/imaging-spectrum-of-invasive-fungal-and-fungal-like-infections
#8
Hilary L P Orlowski, Sebastian McWilliams, Vincent M Mellnick, Sanjeev Bhalla, Meghan G Lubner, Perry J Pickhardt, Christine O Menias
Invasive fungal and fungal-like infections contribute to substantial morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals. The incidence of these infections is increasing-largely because of rising numbers of immunocompromised patients, including those with neutropenia, human immunodeficiency virus, chronic immunosuppression, indwelling prostheses, burns, and diabetes mellitus, and those taking broad-spectrum antibiotics. Invasive fungal pathogens include primary mycotic organisms such as Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, which are true pathogens and inherently virulent...
June 16, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615417/t-cell-restricted-notch-signaling-contributes-to-pulmonary-th1-and-th2-immunity-during-cryptococcus-neoformans-infection
#9
Lori M Neal, Yafeng Qiu, Jooho Chung, Enze Xing, Woosung Cho, Antoni N Malachowski, Ashley R Sandy-Sloat, John J Osterholzer, Ivan Maillard, Michal A Olszewski
Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous, opportunistic fungal pathogen but the cell signaling pathways that drive T cell responses regulating antifungal immunity are incompletely understood. Notch is a key signaling pathway regulating T cell development, and differentiation and functional responses of mature T cells in the periphery. The targeting of Notch signaling within T cells has been proposed as a potential treatment for alloimmune and autoimmune disorders, but it is unknown whether disturbances to T cell immunity may render these patients vulnerable to fungal infections...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614360/comparative-genomics-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-var-grubii-associated-with-meningitis-in-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-patients-in-vietnam
#10
Jeremy N Day, Seet Qihui, Lam Tuan Thanh, Phan Hai Trieu, Anh Duong Van, Nha Hoang Thu, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Nguyen P H Lan, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Philip M Ashton, Guy E Thwaites, Maciej F Boni, Marcel Wolbers, Niranjan Nagarajan, Patrick B O Tan, Stephen Baker
The vast burden of cryptococcal meningitis occurs in immunosuppressed patients, driven by HIV, and is caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. We previously reported cryptococcal meningitis in Vietnam arising atypically in HIV uninfected, apparently immunocompetent patients, caused by a single amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) cluster of C. neoformans var. grubii (VNIγ). This variant was less common in HIV infected individuals; it remains unclear why this lineage is associated with apparently immunocompetent patients...
June 14, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611159/population-genomics-and-the-evolution-of-virulence-in-the-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#11
Christopher A Desjardins, Charles Giamberardino, Sean M Sykes, Chen-Hsin Yu, Jennifer L Tenor, Yuan Chen, Timothy Yang, Alexander M Jones, Sheng Sun, Miriam R Haverkamp, Joseph Heitman, Anastasia P Litvintseva, John R Perfect, Christina A Cuomo
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes approximately 625,000 deaths per year from nervous system infections. Here, we leveraged a unique, genetically diverse population of C. neoformans from sub-Saharan Africa, commonly isolated from mopane trees, to determine how selective pressures in the environment coincidentally adapted C. neoformans for human virulence. Genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 387 isolates, representing the global VNI and African VNB lineages, highlighted a deep, nonrecombining split in VNB (herein, VNBI and VNBII)...
June 13, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609752/bioconversion-of-mixed-volatile-fatty-acids-into-microbial-lipids-by-cryptococcus-curvatus-atcc-20509
#12
Jia Liu, Ming Yuan, Jia-Nan Liu, Xiang-Feng Huang
The oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus ATCC 20509 can use 5-40g/L of acetic, propionic, or butyric acid as sole carbon source to produce lipids. High concentrations (30g/L) of mixed volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were used to cultivate C. curvatus to explore the effects of different ratios of mixed VFAs on lipid production and composition. When mixed VFAs (VFA ratio was 15:5:10) were used as carbon sources, the highest cell mass and lipid concentration were 8.68g/L and 4.93g/L, respectively, which were significantly higher than those when 30g/L of acetic acid was used as sole carbon source...
May 17, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606355/analysis-of-multiple-components-involved-in-the-interaction-between-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-acanthamoeba-castellanii
#13
Juliana Rizzo, Priscila C Albuquerque, Julie M Wolf, Renata Nascimento, Marcos D Pereira, Joshua D Nosanchuk, Marcio L Rodrigues
Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental fungus that can cause lethal meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals. The mechanisms by which environmental microbes become pathogenic to mammals are still obscure, but different studies suggest that fungal virulence evolved from selection imposed by environmental predators. The soil-living Acanthamoeba castellanii is a well-known predator of C. neoformans. In this work, we evaluated the participation of C. neoformans virulence-associated structures in the interaction of fungal cells with A...
June 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597822/fungi-that-infect-humans
#14
Julia R Köhler, Bernhard Hube, Rosana Puccia, Arturo Casadevall, John R Perfect
Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597045/biocontrol-activity-of-a-cold-adapted-yeast-from-tibet-against-gray-mold-in-cherry-tomato-and-its-action-mechanism
#15
Hao Hu, Michael E Wisniewski, Ahmed Abdelfattah, Xiaodong Zheng
Cold-adapted biocontrol yeast was selected from four yeast isolates from Tibet against gray mold of cherry tomato in cold storage. The strain numbered LB2 showed the best biocontrol activity and identified as Cryptococcus laurentii. Competition for nutrient, space, and induced fruit resistance was also its antagonistic mechanism. Compared with C. laurentii from sea-level place, the reason why LB2 had a better biocontrol activity was studied. More trehalose and proline in cell of LB2 made it exhibit a better cellular activity at low temperature, such as higher population dynamics in the wounds of cherry tomato and more biocontrol-related enzyme secretion, chitinase and β-glucanase...
July 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596945/treatment-with-pcramoll-alone-and-in-combination-with-fluconazole-provides-therapeutic-benefits-in-c-gattii-infected-mice
#16
Jannyson J Jandú, Marliete C Costa, Julliana R A Santos, Fernanda M Andrade, Thais F Magalhães, Márcia V Silva, Maria C A B Castro, Luanna C B B Coelho, Aline G Gomes, Tatiane A Paixão, Daniel A Santos, Maria T S Correia
Cryptococcus gattii is one of the main causative agents of cryptococcosis in immunocompetent individuals. Treatment of the infection is based on the use of antimycotics, however, the toxicity of these drugs and the increase of drug-resistant strains have driven the search for more effective and less toxic therapies for cryptococcosis. pCramoll are isolectins purified from seeds of Cratylia mollis, a native forage plant from Brazil, which has become a versatile tool for biomedical application. We evaluated the effect of pCramoll alone and in combination with fluconazole for the treatment of mice infected with C...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595777/disseminated-cryptococcus-deuterogattii-aflp6-vgii-infection-in-an-arabian-horse-from-dubai-united-arab-emirates
#17
Jörg Kinne, Marina Joseph, Ulrich Wernery, Nora Nogradi, Ferry Hagen
BACKGROUND: During the past decades there has been an increase in cryptococcal infections caused by the basidiomycetous yeast species Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato, among humans and animals that live in endemic regions in Australia, Europe and the Americas. Unlike human cryptococcosis, little epidemiological data are available about C. gattii sensu lato infections in horses. CASE REPORT: A fatal case of a disseminated C. gattii sensu lato infection in an 11-year-old Arabian gelding imported from South Africa into the United Arab Emitares is reported...
June 5, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594372/purine-acquisition-and-synthesis-by-human-fungal-pathogens
#18
REVIEW
Jessica L Chitty, James A Fraser
While members of the Kingdom Fungi are found across many of the world's most hostile environments, only a limited number of species can thrive within the human host. The causative agents of the most common invasive fungal infections are Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Cryptococcus neoformans. During the infection process, these fungi must not only combat the host immune system while adapting to dramatic changes in temperature and pH, but also acquire sufficient nutrients to enable growth and dissemination in the host...
June 8, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592745/clinicopathological-features-of-cryptococcal-lymphadenitis-and-a-review-of-literature
#19
Keisuke Kawamoto, Hiroaki Miyoshi, Takaharu Suzuki, Reiji Muto, Kyohei Yamada, Eriko Yanagida, Mayuko Koshino, Yuya Sasaki, Jun Takizawa, Hirohito Sone, Yasuo Sugita, Masao Seto, Koichi Ohshima
Cryptococcosis is an invasive fungal infection in immunocompromised patients. The clinicopathological characteristics of cryptococcal lymphadenitis are not well known. We analyzed three cases of cryptococcal lymphadenitis and compared their characteristics with those in previous reports. Two patients were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) carriers, and one patient was a human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) carrier. The age of the HTLV-1 carrier with cryptococcosis was much higher than that of the HIV-1 carriers...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology: JCEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591262/fatal-cryptococcus-gattii-genotype-vgi-infection-in-an-hiv-positive-patient-in-barranquilla-colombia
#20
María Clara Noguera, Patricia Escandón, Elizabeth Castañeda
Cryptococcosis is a major invasive fungal disease related worldwide with the AIDS population. New reports of HIV/AIDS cases to the national public health surveillance system (SIVIGILA) in Colombia have shown that there is a growing community at risk of contracting cryptococcosis throughout the country who do not have access to ART. Even though the most prevalent species Cryptococcus neoformans is mainly associated with the HIV population, we report a fatal case of cryptococcosis in an AIDS patient in Barranquilla, associated with Cryptococcus gattii VGI, isolated from blood culture...
June 1, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
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