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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431114/molecular-characterization-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-isolated-from-the-environment-in-beijing-china
#1
Hongtao Dou, Huizhu Wang, Shaowei Xie, Xinxin Chen, Zhipeng Xu, Yingchun Xu
The molecular type of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans in Beijing was not clear. Our study aims to reveal the molecular characterization of C. neoformans complex from environment in Beijing, China. A total of 435 samples of pigeon droppings from 11 different homes in Beijing were collected from August to November in 2015. Pigeon droppings were inoculated onto caffeic acid cornmeal agar (CACA) to screen C. neoformans complex. Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was performed for species identification...
April 20, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429797/sirtuins-in-the-phylum-basidiomycota-a-role-in-virulence-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#2
Samantha D M Arras, Jessica L Chitty, Maha S I Wizrah, Paige E Erpf, Benjamin L Schulz, Milos Tanurdzic, James A Fraser
Virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans is regulated by a range of transcription factors, and is also influenced by the acquisition of adaptive mutations during infection. Beyond the temporal regulation of virulence factor production by transcription factors and these permanent microevolutionary changes, heritable epigenetic modifications such as histone deacetylation may also play a role during infection. Here we describe the first comprehensive analysis of the sirtuin class of NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases in the phylum Basidiomycota, identifying five sirtuins encoded in the C...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423088/the-epidemiology-of-cryptococcosis-and-the-characterization-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-isolated-in-a-brazilian-university-hospital
#3
Paula Augusta Dias Fogaça de Aguiar, Reginaldo Dos Santos Pedroso, Aércio Sebastião Borges, Tomaz de Aquino Moreira, Lúcio Borges de Araújo, Denise Von Dolinger de Brito Röder
Cryptococcosis, a systemic disease caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans/ Cryptococcus gattii is more severe in immunocompromised individuals. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiology of the disease, the molecular characteristics and the antifungal susceptibility of C. neoformans isolated from patients treated in a Brazilian university hospital. This retrospective study was conducted in the Clinical Hospital, Federal University of Uberlândia, and evaluated cases of cryptococcosis and strains of C...
April 13, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421279/sporulation-how-to-survive-on-planet-earth-and-beyond
#4
REVIEW
Mingwei Huang, Christina M Hull
Sporulation is a strategy widely utilized by a wide variety of organisms to adapt to changes in their individual environmental niches and survive in time and/or space until they encounter conditions acceptable for vegetative growth. The spores produced by bacteria have been the subjects of extensive studies, and several systems such as Bacillus subtilis have provided ample opportunities to understand the molecular basis of spore biogenesis and germination. In contrast, the spores of other microbes, such as fungi, are relatively poorly understood...
April 18, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420136/discovery-of-an-octahedral-silicon-complex-as-a-potent-antifungal-agent
#5
Chen Fu, Bin Fu, Xixi Peng, Guojian Liao
Octahedral transition metal complexes have been shown to have tremendous applications in chemical biology and medicinal chemistry. Meanwhile, structural transition metals can be replaced by inert octahedral silicon in a proof-of-principle study. We here introduce the first example of octahedral silicon complexes, which can very well serve as an efficient antimicrobial agent. The typical silicon arenediolate complex 1 {[(phen)₂Si(OO)](PF₆)₂, with phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, OO = 9,10-phenanthrenediolate} exhibited significant inhibition towards the growth of Cryptococcus neoformans with MIC and MFC values of 4...
April 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414687/disseminated-cryptococcal-disease-with-diffuse-pulmonary-infiltrates-in-a-non-hiv-host
#6
M Hughes, K Trivedi, M Rudrappa
INTRODUCTION: We present a case of disseminated Cryptococcus in a non-HIV host, where the primary manifestation was pulmonary with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. This patient was on high dose corticosteroids for autoimmune hemolytic anemia. CASE: A 79 year old Caucasian man with a history of autoimmune hemolytic anemia on 100 mg of prednisone daily, coronary artery disease s/p bypass surgery, ischemic cardiomyopathy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep apnea, chronic kidney disease, and history of bilateral pulmonary emboli presented to Hematology/Oncology clinic with symptoms of productive cough, worsening shortness of breath, hemoptysis...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411053/fostering-triacylglycerol-accumulation-in-novel-oleaginous-yeast-cryptococcus-psychrotolerans-iitrfd-utilizing-groundnut-shell-for-improved-biodiesel-production
#7
Farha Deeba, Vikas Pruthi, Yuvraj S Negi
The investigation was carried out to examine the potential of triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation by novel oleaginous yeast isolate Cryptococcus psychrotolerans IITRFD on utilizing groundnut shell acid hydrolysate (GSH) as cost-effective medium. The maximum biomass productivity and lipid productivity of 0.095±0.008g/L/h and 0.044±0.005g/L/h, respectively with lipid content 46% was recorded on GSH. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile obtained by GC-MS analysis revealed oleic acid (37.8%), palmitic (29.4%) and linoleic (32...
April 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403818/srnas-as-possible-regulators-of-retrotransposon-activity-in-cryptococcus-gattii-vgii
#8
Patrícia Aline Gröhs Ferrareze, Rodrigo Silva Araujo Streit, Francine Melise Dos Santos, Augusto Schrank, Livia Kmetzsch, Marilene Henning Vainstein, Charley Christian Staats
BACKGROUND: The absence of Argonaute genes in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii R265 and other VGII strains indicates that yeasts of this genotype cannot have a functional RNAi pathway, an evolutionarily conserved gene silencing mechanism performed by small RNAs. The success of the R265 strain as a pathogen that caused the Pacific Northwest and Vancouver Island outbreaks may imply that RNAi machinery loss could be beneficial under certain circumstances during evolution. As a result, a hypermutant phenotype would be created with high rates of genome retrotransposition, for instance...
April 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400768/the-anti-helminthic-compound-mebendazole-has-multiple-antifungal-effects-against-cryptococcus-neoformans
#9
Luna S Joffe, Rafael Schneider, William Lopes, Renata Azevedo, Charley C Staats, Lívia Kmetzsch, Augusto Schrank, Maurizio Del Poeta, Marilene H Vainstein, Marcio L Rodrigues
Cryptococcus neoformans is the most lethal pathogen of the central nervous system. The gold standard treatment of cryptococcosis, a combination of amphotericin B with 5-fluorocytosine, involves broad toxicity, high costs, low efficacy, and limited worldwide availability. Although the need for new antifungals is clear, drug research and development (R&D) is costly and time-consuming. Thus, drug repurposing is an alternative to R&D and to the currently available tools for treating fungal diseases. Here we screened a collection of compounds approved for use in humans seeking for those with anti-cryptococcal activity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400397/fluorescence-in-a-cryptococcoma-following-administration-of-5-aminolevulinic-acid-hydrochloride-gliolan
#10
Waldo Gerard Solis, Mitchell Hansen
A 54-year-old man presented with two episodes of dysarthria and left facial droop. Both episodes resolved by the time of examination. MRI of the brain revealed a right frontotemporal, heterogeneously enhancing mass with surrounding vasogenic oedema, suggestive of a high-grade primary brain neoplasm. The patient was administered preoperative 5-aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride (Gliolan), and fluorescence-guided resection of the lesion was undertaken. Cryptococcus gattii infection was diagnosed from the specimen and the patient was given appropriate antifungal treatment...
April 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389278/prenylated-flavonoids-from-the-stems-and-roots-of-tripterygium-wilfordii
#11
Yang Chen, Jianping Zhao, Yixing Qiu, Hanwen Yuan, Shabana I Khan, Nusrat Hussain, M Iqbal Choudhary, Feng Zeng, De-An Guo, Ikhlas A Khan, Wei Wang
Phytochemical investigation on the stems and roots of Tripterygium wilfordii led to the isolation and characterization of three new prenylated flavanones, tripteryols A-C (1-3), along with (±)-5,4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxy-6',6″-dimethypyraro-(2″,3″:7,8)-6-methyflavanone (4), and ((2S)-5,7,4'-trihydroxy-2'-methoxy-8,5'-di(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-6-methylflavanone (5). Structures of the compounds 1-5 were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques, such as UV, IR, NMR (1D and 2D), and HRESI-MS. Tripteryols B (2) was found active in the antimicrobial assay against Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with IC50 values in the range of 2...
April 5, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387676/identification-of-fungal-species-in-brain-tissue-from-alzheimer-s-disease-by-next-generation-sequencing
#12
Ruth Alonso, Diana Pisa, Begoña Aguado, Luis Carrasco
The possibility that patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have disseminated fungal infection has been recently advanced by the demonstration of fungal proteins and DNA in nervous tissue from AD patients. In the present study, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to identify fungal species present in the central nervous system (CNS) of AD patients. Initially, DNA was extracted from frozen tissue from four different CNS regions of one AD patient and the fungi in each region were identified by NGS...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385596/investigation-of-aryl-isonitrile-compounds-with-potent-broad-spectrum-antifungal-activity
#13
Haroon Mohammad, Kwaku Kyei-Baffour, Waleed Younis, Dexter C Davis, Hassan Eldesouky, Mohamed N Seleem, Mingji Dai
Invasive fungal infections present a formidable global public health challenge due to the limited number of approved antifungal agents and the emergence of resistance to the frontline treatment options, such as fluconazole. Three fungal pathogens of significant concern are Candida, Cryptococcus, and Aspergillus given their propensity to cause opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals. New antifungal agents composed of unique chemical scaffolds are needed to address this public health challenge...
March 27, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376087/elucidation-of-the-calcineurin-crz1-stress-response-transcriptional-network-in-the-human-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#14
Eve W L Chow, Shelly A Clancey, R Blake Billmyre, Anna Floyd Averette, Joshua A Granek, Piotr Mieczkowski, Maria E Cardenas, Joseph Heitman
Calcineurin is a highly conserved Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase that orchestrates cellular Ca2+ signaling responses. In Cryptococcus neoformans, calcineurin is activated by multiple stresses including high temperature, and is essential for stress adaptation and virulence. The transcription factor Crz1 is a major calcineurin effector in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other fungi. Calcineurin dephosphorylates Crz1, thereby enabling Crz1 nuclear translocation and transcription of target genes...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370643/organic-farming-increases-richness-of-fungal-taxa-in-the-wheat-phyllosphere
#15
Ida Karlsson, Hanna Friberg, Anna-Karin Kolseth, Christian Steinberg, Paula Persson
Organic farming is often advocated as an approach to mitigate biodiversity loss on agricultural land. The phyllosphere provides a habitat for diverse fungal communities that are important for plant health and productivity. However, it is still unknown how organic farming affects the diversity of phyllosphere fungi in major crops. We sampled wheat leaves from 22 organically and conventionally cultivated fields in Sweden, paired based on their geographical location and wheat cultivar. Fungal communities were described using amplicon sequencing and real-time PCR...
April 1, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363154/synthesis-stability-and-mechanistic-studies-of-potent-anticryptococcal-hexapeptides
#16
Kitika Shenmar, Krishna K Sharma, Nishima Wangoo, Indresh K Maurya, Vinod Kumar, Shabana I Khan, Melissa R Jacob, Kulbhushan Tikoo, Rahul Jain
The growing incidents of cryptococcosis in immuno-compromised patients have created a need for novel drug therapies capable of eradicating the disease. The peptide-based drug therapy offers many advantages over the traditional therapeutic agents, which has been exploited in the present study by synthesizing a series of hexapeptides that exhibits promising activity against a panel of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and various pathogenic fungal strains; the most exemplary activity was observed against Cryptococcus neoformans...
March 24, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363053/atypical-presentation-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-in-a-koala-phascolarctos-cinereus-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-computed-tomography-study
#17
Eva Martínez-Nevado, Elisa González Alonso-Alegre, M Ángeles Jiménez Martínez, Alfonso Rodríguez-Álvaro, Elena Martínez de Merlo, Juncal García García, Isabel García Real
Cryptococcosis is a worldwide and potentially fatal mycosis documented in wild and captive koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) caused by Cryptococcus neoformans . Though mainly a subclinical disease, when the nasal cavity is affected, epistaxis, mucopurulent nasal discharge, dyspnea, and facial distortion may occur. This report describes a case of cryptococcosis in a koala where unilateral exophthalmos was the only evident clinical sign and magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography findings are described...
March 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357373/cryptococcus-flips-its-lid-membrane-phospholipid-asymmetry-modulates-antifungal-drug-resistance-and-virulence
#18
COMMENT
Erika Shor, Yina Wang, David S Perlin, Chaoyang Xue
Human fungal infections are increasing in prevalence and acquisition of antifungal drug resistance, while our antifungal drug armamentarium remains very limited, constituting a significant public health problem. Despite the fact that prominent antifungal drugs target the fungal cell membrane, very little is known about how fungal membrane biology regulates drug-target interactions. Asymmetrical phospholipid distribution is an essential property of biological membranes, which is maintained by a group of transporters that dynamically translocate specific phospholipid groups across the membrane bilayer...
August 1, 2016: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356086/characterization-of-calcineurin-from-cryptococcus-humicola-and-the-application-of-calcineurin-in-aluminum-tolerance
#19
Lei Zhang, Jing-Jing Zhang, Shuai Liu, Hong-Juan Nian, Li-Mei Chen
BACKGROUND: Calcineurin (CaN) is a Ca(2+)- and calmodulin (CaM)-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase. Previous studies have found that CaN is involved in the regulation of the stress responses. RESULTS: In this study, the growth of Cryptococcus humicola was inhibited by the CaN inhibitor tacrolimus (FK506) under aluminum (Al) stress. The expression of CNA encoding a catalytic subunit A (CNA) and its interaction with CaM were upregulated when the concentration of Al was increased...
March 29, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355252/factors-associated-with-early-mycological-clearance-in-hiv-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis
#20
Fátima Concha-Velasco, Elsa González-Lagos, Carlos Seas, Beatriz Bustamante
INTRODUCTION: The first-line combination therapy for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM), a condition of high mortality particularly in the first two weeks of treatment, consists of amphotericin B plus flucytosine (5-FC). Given that 5-FC remains unavailable in many countries, the knowledge of factors influencing mycological clearance in patients treated with second-line therapy could contribute to effective management. OBJECTIVES: To determine the factors associated with the clearance of Cryptococcus sp...
2017: PloS One
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