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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549808/volatile-fatty-acid-recovery-by-anaerobic-fermentation-from-blue-green-algae-effect-of-pretreatment
#1
Hyun Uk Cho, Hye Gyeong Kim, Young Mo Kim, Jong Moon Park
The aims of this study were to quantify how pretreatment affects production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from cyanobacterial biomass and production of subsequent microbial lipid by an oleaginous microorganism that uses the VFAs as carbon sources. The highest biomass solubilization was obtained using thermal-alkaline (th-alkaline) pretreatment (33.1%), followed by alkaline pretreatment (29.1%), and thermal pretreatment (7.2%), but the highest VFA yield was obtained using alkaline pretreatment (0.54±0.02g/gVS), followed by the untreated condition (0...
May 17, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542452/the-role-of-aspartyl-aminopeptidase-ape4-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-virulence-and-authophagy
#2
Fabiano de Assis Gontijo, Amanda Teixeira de Melo, Renata C Pascon, Larissa Fernandes, Hugo Costa Paes, J Andrew Alspaugh, Marcelo A Vallim
In order to survive and cause disease, microbial pathogens must be able to proliferate at the temperature of their infected host. We identified novel microbial features associated with thermotolerance in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans using a random insertional mutagenesis strategy, screening for mutants with defective growth at 37°C. Among several thermosensitive mutants, we identified one bearing a disruption in a gene predicted to encode the Ape4 aspartyl aminopeptidase protein...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536567/the-repurposing-of-anti-psychotic-drugs-quetiapine-and-olanzapine-as-anti-cryptococcus-drugs
#3
Adepemi O Ogundeji, Carolina H Pohl, Olihile M Sebolai
The management of cryptococcal infections is often difficult. This can, in part, be attributed to the fungistatic nature of fluconazole, which may result in cells disseminating to give rise to pathogen-emergent psychosis following brain inflammation. This chance at treatment failure has necessitated the current study wherein the antimicrobial quality of anti-psychotic drugs viz. quetiapine and olanzapine, was assessed. The response of test strains toward quetiapine or olanzapine alone and in combined therapy with fluconazole or amphotericn B was measured...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536555/novel-antifungal-activity-for-the-lectin-scytovirin-inhibition-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-cryptococcus-gattii
#4
Tyler H Jones, Erin E McClelland, Hana McFeeters, Robert L McFeeters
Pathogenic cryptococci are encapsulated yeast that can cause severe meningoencephalitis. Existing therapeutic options are dated and there is a growing need for new alternative antifungal agents for these fungi. Here we report novel inhibition of pathogenic cryptococci by the antimicrobial lectin Scytovirin. Inhibition was most potent against Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans and C. gattii, with MFC values of 500 nM. Scytovirin binding was localized to the cell wall and shown to affect capsule size and release...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535491/efficient-bioconversion-of-high-content-volatile-fatty-acids-into-microbial-lipids-by-cryptococcus-curvatus-atcc-20509
#5
Jia'nan Liu, Xiangfeng Huang, Rui Chen, Ming Yuan, Jia Liu
The lower utilization ratios of high-content VFAs resulted in less lipid yield by the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus ATCC 20509. In this work, increasing the inoculation concentration to OD600=5.1 improved the acetic acid utilization ratio (99.8%) and lipids production (4.63g/L) in mediums with 30g/L of acetic acid. For the higher acetic acid concentration (40g/L), increasing the nitrogen to carbon ratio (0.033) and raising the initial pH (pH=8) was superior over improvement in the inoculate, with the lipid production increased from 1...
April 21, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533240/heterocycle-thiazole-compounds-exhibit-antifungal-activity-through-increase-in-the-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-cryptococcus-gattii-species-complex
#6
Nívea Pereira de Sá, Caroline Miranda de Lima, Cleudiomar Inácio Lino, Paulo Jorge Sanches Barbeira, Ludmila de Matos Baltazar, Daniel Assis Santos, Renata Barbosa de Oliveira, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Beth Burgwyn Fuchs, Susana Johann
Human cryptococcosis can occur as a primary or opportunistic infection and develops as an acute, sub-acute, or chronic systemic infection, involving different organs of the host. Given the limited therapeutic options and the occasional resistance to fluconazole, there is a need to develop novel drugs for the treatment of cryptococcosis. In this report, we describe promising thiazoles 1, 2, 3, and 4 and explore their possible modes of action against Cryptococcus. To this end, we show evidence of interference in the Cryptococcus antioxidant system...
May 22, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528469/multiple-sclerosis-treatment-with-fingolimod-profile-of-non-cardiologic-adverse-events
#7
REVIEW
Yara Dadalti Fragoso
Fingolimod was the first oral medication approved for management of multiple sclerosis and is currently used by tens of thousands patients worldwide. Fingolimod acts via the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor, maintaining peripheral lymphocytes entrapped in the lymph nodes. In consequence, there is a reduction in the infiltration of aggressive lymphocytes into the central nervous system. The drug is safe and effective, and its first hours of use are associated with related to S1P receptors in the heart...
May 20, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528250/antifungal-toxicity-of-linear-geranylphenol-influence-of-oxigenate-substituents
#8
Lautaro Taborga, Maximiliano Sortino, Carrasco Héctor, Estefanía Butassi, Susana Zacchino, Luis Espinoza
Twenty four linear geranylphenols were evaluated for their antifungal properties against ATCC and clinical isolates of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. For the analysis of their antifungal behavior the compounds were grouped into two series: (i) compounds with only one geranyl substituent on the benzene ring and (ii) compounds with two geranyl moieties on the benzene ring. Results showed that compounds of series (i) present better antifungal activities than those of series (ii). In addition, within group (i) all compounds showed better activities against C...
May 17, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525610/searching-for-clues-for-eighteen-years-deciphering-the-ecological-determinants-of-cryptococcus-gattii-on-vancouver-island-british-columbia
#9
Emily Sohanna Acheson, Eleni Galanis, Karen Bartlett, Sunny Mak, Brian Klinkenberg
Cryptococcus gattii emerged on Vancouver Island in 1999 for unknown reasons, causing human and animal fatalities and illness. The apparent emergence of this fungus in another temperate area, this time in the Pacific Northwest, suggests the fungus may have expanded its ecological niche. Yet studies that directly examine the potential roles of climatic and land use changes on C. gattii are still lacking. We aim to summarize the existing global literature on the ecology of C. gattii, with particular focus on the gap in knowledge surrounding the potential effects of climatic and land use changes...
May 19, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524625/mrna-decay-an-adaptation-tool-for-the-environmental-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#10
REVIEW
Amanda L M Bloom, Jay Leipheimer, John C Panepinto
Fungi are ubiquitous in the environment and humans constantly encounter them in the soil, air, water, and food. The vast majority of these interactions are inconsequential. However, in the context of immunodeficiency precipitated by HIV infection, hematologic malignancy, or transplantation, a small subset of fungi can cause devastating, systemic infection. The most deadly of the opportunistic environmental fungi, Cryptococcus neoformans, is estimated to cause hundreds of thousands of deaths per year, mostly in the context of HIV co-infection...
May 19, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507958/bifocal-cryptococcal-osteomyelitis-in-an-immunocompetent-male
#11
Rohit Delat, Vinodchandra Laheri
INTRODUCTION: Cryptococcus neoformans commonly affects lungs and central nervous system that to in immunocompromised individual. Bony involvement is extremely rare and most common site is vertebrae and usual presentation is monofocal. CASE REPORT: We present 18-year-old male with bifocal osteomyelitis of scapula and tibia in immunocompetent male. CONCLUSION: Cryptococcal osteomyelitis should be kept as a differential diagnosis in a patient as a primary diagnosis to avoid diagnostic delay and morbidity associated with it...
November 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506251/diversity-in-vitro-virulence-traits-and-antifungal-susceptibility-pattern-of-gastrointestinal-yeast-flora-of-healthy-poultry-gallus-gallus-domesticus
#12
Supram Hosuru Subramanya, Nawal Kishor Sharan, Bharat Prasad Baral, Deependra Hamal, Niranjan Nayak, Peralam Yegneswaran Prakash, Brijesh Sathian, Indira Bairy, Shishir Gokhale
BACKGROUND: Poultry farming and consumption of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) meat and eggs are common gastronomical practices worldwide. Till now, a detailed understanding about the gut colonisation of Gallus gallus domesticus by yeasts and their virulence properties and drug resistance patterns in available literature remain sparse. This study was undertaken to explore this prevalent issue. RESULTS: A total of 103 specimens of fresh droppings of broiler chickens (commercial G domesticus) and domesticated chickens (domesticated G domesticus) were collected from the breeding sites...
May 15, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494245/global-reprogramming-of-host-kinase-signaling-in-response-to-fungal-infection
#13
Aseem Pandey, Sheng Li Ding, Qing-Ming Qin, Rahul Gupta, Gabriel Gomez, Furong Lin, Xuehuan Feng, Luciana Fachini da Costa, Sankar P Chaki, Madhu Katepalli, Elizabeth D Case, Erin J van Schaik, Tabasum Sidiq, Omar Khalaf, Angela Arenas, Koichi S Kobayashi, James E Samuel, Gonzalo M Rivera, Robert C Alaniz, Sing-Hoi Sze, Xiaoning Qian, William J Brown, Allison Rice-Ficht, William K Russell, Thomas A Ficht, Paul de Figueiredo
Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) is a deadly fungal pathogen whose intracellular lifestyle is important for virulence. Host mechanisms controlling fungal phagocytosis and replication remain obscure. Here, we perform a global phosphoproteomic analysis of the host response to Cryptococcus infection. Our analysis reveals numerous and diverse host proteins that are differentially phosphorylated following fungal ingestion by macrophages, thereby indicating global reprogramming of host kinase signaling. Notably, phagocytosis of the pathogen activates the host autophagy initiation complex (AIC) and the upstream regulatory components LKB1 and AMPKα, which regulate autophagy induction through their kinase activities...
May 10, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492340/alterations-of-zinc-homeostasis-in-response-to-cryptococcus-neoformans-in-a-murine-macrophage-cell-line
#14
Francine Melise Dos Santos, Alícia Corbellini Piffer, Rafael de Oliveira Schneider, Nicole Sartori Ribeiro, Ane Wichine Acosta Garcia, Augusto Schrank, Lívia Kmetzsch, Marilene Henning Vainstein, Charley Christian Staats
AIM: To evaluate alterations of zinc homeostasis in macrophages exposed to Cryptococcus neoformans. Materials & methods: Using a fluorescent zinc probe-based flow cytometry and atomic absorption spectrometry, zinc levels were evaluated in J774.A1 cell lines exposed to C. neoformans H99 cells. The transcription profile of macrophage zinc related homeostasis genes - metallothioneins and zinc transporters (ZnTs) of the SLC30 and SLC39 (Zrt-Irt-protein) families - was analyzed by quantitative PCR...
May 11, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491059/elucidation-of-the-role-of-3-hydroxy-fatty-acids-in-cryptococcus-amoeba-interactions
#15
Uju L Madu, Adepemi O Ogundeji, Carolina H Pohl, Jacobus Albertyn, Olihile M Sebolai
We previously reported that 3-hydroxy fatty acids promoted the survival of cryptococcal cells when acted upon by amoebae. To expand on this, the current study sought to explain how these molecules may protect cells. Our data suggest that 3-hydroxy fatty acids may subvert the internalization of cryptococcal cells via suppression of the levels of a fetuin A-like amoebal protein, which may be important for enhancing phagocytosis. Additionally, we show that an acapsular strain (that is devoid of 3-hydroxy fatty acids) was protected against the effects of hydrogen peroxide when exogenous 3-hydroxy fatty acids were present, but not in the absence of 3-hydroxy fatty acids...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490578/investigating-clinical-issues-by-genotyping-of-medically-important-fungi-why-and-how
#16
REVIEW
Alexandre Alanio, Marie Desnos-Ollivier, Dea Garcia-Hermoso, Stéphane Bretagne
Genotyping studies of medically important fungi have addressed elucidation of outbreaks, nosocomial transmissions, infection routes, and genotype-phenotype correlations, of which secondary resistance has been most intensively investigated. Two methods have emerged because of their high discriminatory power and reproducibility: multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) using short tandem repeat (STR) markers. MLST relies on single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the coding regions of housekeeping genes...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487233/are-biological-control-agents-isolated-from-tropical-fruits-harmless-to-potential-consumers
#17
Iris Betsabee Ocampo-Suarez, Zaira López, Montserrat Calderón-Santoyo, Juan Arturo Ragazzo-Sánchez, Peter Knauth
Postharvest losses of fruits and vegetables can reach up to 25% in developed and up to 50% in developing countries. (Sub)tropical fruits are especially susceptible because their protecting peel can easily be damaged. Traditionally used pesticides are associated to environmental pollution and possible harmful health effects. An alternative are biocontrol agents (BCA), means bacteria or yeasts applied onto the fruits to inhibit the growth of phytopathogens. Many reports on their effectiveness have been published, however, reports on their harmlessness to consumers are still rare...
May 6, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486489/cytokine-patterns-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-hiv-infected-patients-with-cryptococcal-meningitis-following-initiation-of-antifungal-and-antiretroviral-therapy
#18
Delio José Mora, Kennio Ferreira-Paim, Leonardo Eurípedes Andrade-Silva, Thatiane Bragine, Ivonete Helena Rocha, Barbara de Melo Ribeiro, Guilherme Henrique Machado, Virmondes Rodrigues Junior, David Nascimento Silva-Teixeira, Wieland Meyer, Mario León Silva-Vergara
Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a life-threatening infection in HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited settings. Cytokine patterns in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and sera may be related to clinical outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate cytokine patterns in the CSF and sera of HIV-infected patients with CM as well as the cytokines produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) when stimulated with LPS and cryptococcal GXM. CSF and serum levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-17A, INF-γ, TNF-α and CXCL-10 were measured in HIV-infected patients with CM (CM+ HIV+) at various time points...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483963/influence-of-experimental-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-wistar-rats-on-voriconazole-brain-penetration-assessed-by-microdialysis
#19
Izabel Almeida Alves, Keli Jaqueline Staudt, Carolina de Miranda Silva, Graziela de Araujo Lock, Teresa Dalla Costa, Bibiana Verlindo de Araujo
To advance in the treatment of cryptococcal meningites is crucial to know the drug's free fraction that reaches the biophase. In the present study we applied the microdialysis (μD) as a tool to determine the free levels reached by voriconazole (VRC) in the brain of healthy and Cryptococcus neoformans infected rats. The infection was induced by the i.v. administration of 1⋅10(5) CFU of yeast. The dose administered was 5 mg/kg i.v. of VRC. Plasma and microdialysate samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and LC-UV methods...
May 8, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483415/global-burden-of-disease-of-hiv-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis-an-updated-analysis
#20
Radha Rajasingham, Rachel M Smith, Benjamin J Park, Joseph N Jarvis, Nelesh P Govender, Tom M Chiller, David W Denning, Angela Loyse, David R Boulware
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus is the most common cause of meningitis in adults living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Global burden estimates are crucial to guide prevention strategies and to determine treatment needs, and we aimed to provide an updated estimate of global incidence of HIV-associated cryptococcal disease. METHODS: We used 2014 Joint UN Programme on HIV and AIDS estimates of adults (aged >15 years) with HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage...
May 5, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
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