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M Migda, M S Migda, B Migda, E Wender-Ozegowska
Metabolic syndrome (MS) and obesity is an important risk factor for fetal complications like excessive fetal growth manifested by large for gestational age (LGA) and macrosomia, which is a consequence of metabolic disturbances present in the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of this prospective observational study is to analyze the relationship between the first trimester biochemical and anthropometric parameters of fetuses with the incidence of their macrosomia and LGA so to early predict such complications in women with symptoms of MS...
December 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Joydeep Mukherjee, Tor-Christian Aase Johannessen, Shigeo Ohba, Tracy T Chow, Lindsey E Jones, Ajay Pandita, Russell O Pieper
A subset of tumors use a recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) pathway to resolve telomeric dysfunction in the absence of TERT. Loss-of-function mutations in the chromatin remodeling factor ATRX are associated with ALT but are insufficient to drive the process. Because many ALT tumors express the mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase IDH1 R132H, including all lower-grade astrocytomas (LGA) and secondary glioblastoma, we examined an hypothesized role for IDH1 R132H in driving the ALT phenotype during gliomagenesis...
March 15, 2018: Cancer Research
Przemyslaw Rys, Agnieszka H Ludwig-Słomczyńska, Katarzyna Cyganek, Maciej T Malecki
BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have shown an advantage of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) over multiple daily injections (MDI) in the general type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) population. RCT data on T1DM management in pregnancy remain limited. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review of both RCTs and non-RCTs evaluating CSII versus MDI in T1DM-complicated pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Electronic databases were searched for studies comparing CSII with MDI in T1DM-complicated pregnancy...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Christoph Helling, Christoph Wölper, Stephan Schulz
Cp*AsCl2 (Cp* = C5Me5) reacts with one equivalent of LGa (L = HC[C(Me)N(2,6-i-Pr2C6H3)]2) with formation of L(Cl)GaAs(Cl)Cp* 1, whereas the reaction with two equivalents of LGa yielded gallaarsene LGaAsCp* 2 containing a Ga=As double bond and (η1-Ga(Cp*)L(η2-GaL)(μ-As3) 3. 2 and 3 were structural-ly characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and the π-bonding contribution in 2 was analyzed by temperature-dependent 1H NMR spectroscopy (9.65 kcal mol-1) and by quantum mechani-cal computation.
March 14, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Cairina E Frank, Kathy N Speechley, Jennifer J Macnab, M Karen Campbell
Objectives: To investigate if an association exists between being born large for gestational age (LGA) and verbal ability or externalizing behaviour problems at ages 4-5 years. Method: A secondary analysis was conducted using the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, including singleton births in 2004-2005 followed till 4-5 years ( n = 1685). LGA was defined as a birth weight > 90th percentile. Outcomes included poor verbal ability (scoring < 15th percentile on the Revised Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test) and externalizing behaviour problems (scoring > 90th percentile on externalizing behaviour scales)...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Sheree L Boulet, Jennifer F Kawwass, Sara Crawford, Michael J Davies, Dmitry M Kissin
We used 2006-2015 US National Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance System data to compare preterm birth and fetal growth for livebo n singletons (24-42 week gestation) following donor versus autologous oocyte in vitro fertilization (IVF). Using binary and multinomial logistic regressi n, we computed adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between use of donor oocytes and preterm delivery, small-f r-gestational-age (SGA), and large-for-gestational age (LGA), stratified by fresh and thawed embryo status and accounting for maternal characteristics and year of birth...
March 9, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Muhammad Febrian Rachmadi, Maria Del C Valdés-Hernández, Maria Leonora Fatimah Agan, Carol Di Perri, Taku Komura
We propose an adaptation of a convolutional neural network (CNN) scheme proposed for segmenting brain lesions with considerable mass-effect, to segment white matter hyperintensities (WMH) characteristic of brains with none or mild vascular pathology in routine clinical brain magnetic resonance images (MRI). This is a rather difficult segmentation problem because of the small area (i.e., volume) of the WMH and their similarity to non-pathological brain tissue. We investigate the effectiveness of the 2D CNN scheme by comparing its performance against those obtained from another deep learning approach: Deep Boltzmann Machine (DBM), two conventional machine learning approaches: Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF), and a public toolbox: Lesion Segmentation Tool (LST), all reported to be useful for segmenting WMH in MRI...
February 17, 2018: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
Maheswari Ekambaram, Matilde Irigoyen, Johelin DeFreitas, Sharina Rajbhandari, Jessica Lynn Geaney, Leonard Edward Braitman
BACKGROUND: In adolescents, there is limited evidence on the independent and additive effect of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on infant birth weight. Data also show that this effect may vary by race. We sought to examine the impact of maternal prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on birth weight and risk of large for gestational age (LGA) in term newborns of minority adolescent mothers. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 411 singleton live term infants born to mothers ≤ 18 years...
March 7, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Craig P Allen, Kicheon Park, Ang Li, Nora D Volkow, George F Koob, Yingtian Pan, Xiu-Ti Hu, Congwu Du
Cocaine addiction is associated with dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which facilitates relapse and compulsive drug taking. To assess if cocaine's effects on both neuronal and vascular activity contribute to PFC dysfunction, we used optical coherence tomography and multi-wavelength laser speckle to measure vascularization and hemodynamics and used GCaMP6f to monitor intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+ ]in ) as a marker of neuronal activity. Rats were given short (1 hour; ShA) or long (6 hours; LgA) access cocaine self-administration...
March 5, 2018: Addiction Biology
Nurah M Hammoud, Gerard H A Visser, Lenie van Rossem, Douwe H Biesma, Jan M Wit, Harold W de Valk
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is reported to be associated with childhood obesity, however the magnitude of this association and relation to intrauterine growth is uncertain. We, therefore, aimed to assess whether the growth trajectories of large for gestational age (LGA) and non-LGA offspring of mothers with GDM (OGDM) are different until early adolescence. We also aimed to explore whether growth trajectories of OGDM differ from those of offspring of mothers with type 1 or 2 diabetes (ODM1, ODM2)...
February 28, 2018: Diabetologia
Eran Weiner, Elad Barber, Ohad Feldstein, Letizia Schreiber, Ann Dekalo, Yossi Mizrachi, Jacob Bar, Michal Kovo
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare placental histopathological lesions and neonatal outcome in singleton vs. twin pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: Maternal characteristics, neonatal outcomes, and placental histopathology reports of pregnancies complicated by GDM, between 1/2008-10/2016, were reviewed. Results were compared between singletons (singleton group) and dichorionic-diamniotic twins (twin group). Placental lesions were classified as placental weight abnormalities, maternal and fetal vascular malperfusion lesions (MVM, FVM), inflammatory lesions, and lesions associated with chronic villitis...
March 2018: Placenta
Yan Tan, Hui Zhang, Xiao-Chun Wang, Jiang-Bo Qin, Le Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of multi ultra-high-b-value diffusion weighted imaging (UHBV-DWI) in differentiating high grade astrocytomas (HGA) from low grade astrocytomas (LHA), analyze its association with aquaporin (AQP) expression. METHODS: Forty astrocytomas which divided into LGA (N = 15) and HGA (N = 25) were studied. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and UHBV-ADC values in solid parts and peritumoral edema were compared between LGA and HGA groups by the t-test...
February 27, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
C J Phythian, B Jackson, R Bell, L Citer, R Barwell, P A Windsor
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of macroscopic Sarcocystis spp., Cysticercus ovis and Echinococcus granulosus recorded at routine postmortem inspection of Tasmanian slaughter sheep during 2007 to 2013. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of routine postmortem meat inspection data maintained on 352,325 Tasmanian adult slaughter sheep inspected across nine abattoirs in Tasmania, Victoria and South Australia as part of the National Sheep Health Monitoring Project (NSHMP)...
March 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
E Spiegel, I Shoham-Vardi, R Sergienko, D Landau, E Sheiner
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) birth weight at-term poses an increased risk for long-term pediatric endocrine morbidity. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective population-based cohort study compared the incidence of long-term pediatric hospitalizations due to endocrine morbidity of singleton children born SGA, appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) and LGA at-term. A multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression model analysis was used to control for confounders...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Alice E Hughes, Michael Nodzenski, Robin N Beaumont, Octavious Talbot, Beverley M Shields, Denise M Scholtens, Bridget A Knight, William L Lowe, Andrew T Hattersley, Rachel M Freathy
Maternal glycemia is a key determinant of birth weight but recent large-scale genome wide-association studies demonstrated an important contribution of fetal genetics. It is not known whether fetal genotype modifies the impact of maternal glycemia, or whether it acts through insulin-mediated growth. We tested the effects of maternal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and a fetal genetic score for birth weight on birth weight and fetal insulin in 2,051 European mother-child pairs from the Exeter Family Study of Childhood Health (EFSOCH) and Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study...
February 20, 2018: Diabetes
Yuan Jiang, Mingdi Zhang, Songyi Lin, Sheng Cheng
The composition, structure, and proper positioning of amino acid in a peptide are closely related to its antioxidant activity. In this study, we purified antioxidant peptides from corn protein hydrolysates (CPH) and identified novel antioxidant peptides from fraction CPH2-III as Ala-Gly-Ile/Leu-Pro-Met (AGI/LPM; 487.62Da) and His-Ala-Ile/Leu-Gly-Ala (HAI/LGA; 467.53Da). AGLPM and HALGA exhibited better oxygen radical absorbance capacities than AGIPM and HAIGA did (P<0.05), as assessed using HepG2 cells with the cellular antioxidant activity assay (CAA) and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy...
March 2018: Food Research International
Olumide Ajibola, Semeeh Akinwale Omoleke, Olusola Akintoye Omisakin
INTRODUCTION: Following the significant reduction of Neisseria meningitidis A (NmA) in most parts of northern Nigeria, a new strain of Neisseria meningitidis C (NmC) emerged in 2013 causing outbreaks in the north and recently spreading to southern parts of the Nigeria. This study provides detailed epidemiological investigation in the last four years. METHODS: Analysis of confirmed and suspected cases of meningitis in Kebbi, Nigeria from 2014 to June 2017 detected through Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response...
February 6, 2018: Vaccine
Andre Francis, Oliver Hugh, Jason Gardosi
BACKGROUND: Fetal growth abnormalities are linked to stillbirth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes, and use of the correct birthweight standard is essential for accurate assessment of growth status and perinatal risk. OBJECTIVE: Two competing, conceptually opposite birthweight standards are currently being implemented internationally: customized gestation-related optimal weight (GROW) and INTERGROWTH-21st . We wanted to compare their performance when applied to a multiethnic international cohort, and evaluate their usefulness in the assessment of stillbirth risk at term...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Adi L Tarca, Roberto Romero, Dereje W Gudicha, Offer Erez, Edgar Hernandez-Andrade, Lami Yeo, Gaurav Bhatti, Percy Pacora, Eli Maymon, Sonia S Hassan
BACKGROUND: The assessment of fetal growth disorders requires a standard. Current nomograms for the assessment of fetal growth in African American women have been derived either from neonatal (rather than fetal) biometry data or have not been customized for maternal ethnicity, weight, height, and parity and fetal sex. OBJECTIVE: We sought to (1) develop a new customized fetal growth standard for African American mothers; and (2) compare such a standard to 3 existing standards for the classification of fetuses as small (SGA) or large (LGA) for gestational age...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Tomoyuki Irino, Saga Persson, Lars Lundell, Magnus Nilsson, Jon A Tsai, Ioannis Rouvelas
BACKGROUND: Tubularized stomach is a common substitute used after oesophageal resection. The risk for gastric conduit ischemia, as well as the mechanisms and dynamics for the occurrence of deficient tissue perfusion during the critical construction of a gastric tube, is poorly understood. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients that underwent oesophagectomy were studied with transmural pulse oximetry of different parts of the stomach, and at predefined preparatory steps during the construction of the gastric conduit...
February 7, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
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