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SCI, bone

Hai-Juan Liu, Hua Yan, Jun Yan, Hao Li, Liang Chen, Li-Ren Han, Xiao-Fei Yang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a significant amount of bone loss, which results in osteoporosis (OP). The neuropeptide substance P (SP) and SP receptors may play important roles in the pathogenesis of OP after SCI. To identify the roles of SP in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell derived osteoblasts (BMSC-OB) in SCI rats, we investigated the expression of neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R) in BMSC-OB and the effects of SP on bone formation by development of BMSC-OB cultures. Sixty young male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups: SHAM and SCI...
2016: PloS One
A Ireland, R F Capozza, G R Cointry, L Nocciolino, J L Ferretti, J Rittweger
: Fibula response to disuse is unknown; we assessed fibula bone in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients and able-bodied counterparts. Group differences were smaller than in the neighbouring tibia which could not be explained by bone geometry. Differential adaptation of the shank bones may indicate previously unknown mechanoadaptive behaviours of bone. INTRODUCTION: The fibula supports only a small and highly variable proportion of shank compressive load (-8 to +19 %), and little is known about other kinds of stresses...
October 12, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Can Jiang, Dong Zheng, Yun-Lu Feng, Jun Guo, Hai-Rui Li, Ai-Dong Zhang
<strong>Objective</strong> To investigate the short- and long-term therapeutic efficacies of intravenous trans- plantation of bone marrow stem cells (MSCs) in rats with experimental myocardial infarction by meta- analysis. <strong>Methods</strong> Randomized controlled trials were systematically searched from PubMed, Science Citation Index (SCI), Chinese journal full-text database (CJFD) up to December 2014. While the experimental groups (MSCs groups) were injected MSCs intravenously, the control groups were injected Delubecco's minimum essential medium (DMEM) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS)...
September 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
Isabel C S Carvalho, Carolina da S M Martinelli, Noala V M Milhan, Adriana M P da S Marchini, Tamires P Dutra, Daniela M de Souza, Rosilene F da Rocha
Previous studies suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure affects fetal bone development, including bone quality. This study evaluated the chemical composition of mandibles from newborn rats after maternal 20% alcohol consumption before and throughout gestation. Nine rats were initially distributed into three groups: an Alcohol group, Pair-fed group, and Control group. The groups were fed prespecified diets for 8 weeks before and the 3 weeks during pregnancy. At age 5 days, eight newborns from each group were euthanized (total, n = 24)...
2016: Journal of Oral Science
Kyozo Sasaki, Mitsuru Motoyoshi, Eri Horinuki, Yoshinori Arai, Noriyoshi Shimizu
This study examined the effects of a bite-jumping appliance combined with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) stimulation on the mandibular condyle of growing rats using micro CT (mCT) and histological examinations. Twelve Wistar rats were divided into three groups of four individuals each: Group 1 was an untreated control group, Group 2 received bite-jumping appliances, and Group 3 received bite-jumping appliances and LIPUS stimulation (15 min/day, 2 weeks) to the temporomandibular region. We measured the length and three-dimensional bone volume of each rat's mandibular condyle using mCT...
2016: Journal of Oral Science
Kosaku Sawada, Richard J Miron, Dominic Leiser, Jordi Caballé-Serrano, Dieter D Bosshardt, Benoit Schaller, Daniel Buser, Reinhard Gruber
Extracorporeal irradiation sterilizes resected tumor bone used as autografts in reconstruction surgery. Therapeutic irradiation is a standard technique in head and neck cancer therapy that aims to preserve organ function. Bone irradiation has a complex, mostly inhibitory, effect on remodeling and regeneration, although the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. It remains unclear if extracorporeal irradiation affects the paracrine-like activity of the corresponding autografts. We recently reported that bone-conditioned medium from autogenous bone chips contains a number of factors that might affect cell activity...
2016: Journal of Oral Science
J Lamarche, G Mailhot
STUDY DESIGN: Narrative review. OBJECTIVES: This review provides an overview of the etiological factors and consequences of vitamin D insufficiency in relation to spinal cord injury (SCI) as well as important considerations for vitamin D supplementation. SETTING: Montreal, Canada. METHODS: Literature search. RESULTS: Vitamin D insufficiency is common in SCI individuals owing to the presence of many contributing factors including limited sun exposure and intake, use of medication and endocrine perturbations...
September 20, 2016: Spinal Cord
I-Y Jung, H-R Kim, S M Chun, J-H Leigh, H-I Shin
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of severe lower extremity spasticity on anthropometric dimensions, body composition and metabolic profiles in persons with chronic motor complete spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Outpatient clinic. METHODS: Fifty-five of the 61 participants were divided into two groups (no or mild spasticity group, 28; severe spasticity group, 27) based on the assessment of the extensor muscle spasticity according to the modified Ashworth scale...
September 13, 2016: Spinal Cord
X Yang, D Hao, H Zhang, B Liu, M Yang, B He
: Treatment with hydrogen sulfide mitigates spinal cord injury-induced sublesional bone loss, possibly through abating oxidative stress, suppressing MMP activity, and activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. INTRODUCTION: Spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced sublesional bone loss represents the most severe osteoporosis and is resistant to available treatments to data. The present study was undertaken to explore the therapeutic potential of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) against osteoporosis in a rodent model of motor complete SCI...
September 3, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Tomonori Morita, Masanori Sasaki, Yuko Kataoka-Sasaki, Masahito Nakazaki, Hiroshi Nagahama, Shinichi Oka, Tsutomu Oshigiri, Tsuneo Takebayashi, Toshihiko Yamashita, Jeffery D Kocsis, Osamu Honmou
Intravenous infusion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from adult bone marrow improves behavioral function in rat models of spinal cord injury (SCI). However, most studies have focused on the acute or subacute phase of SCI. In the present study, MSCs derived from bone marrow of rats were intravenously infused 10weeks after the induction of a severe contusive SCI. Open field locomotor function was assessed weekly until 20weeks post-SCI. Motor recovery was greater in the MSC-treated group with rapid improvement beginning in earlier post-infusion times than in the vehicle-treated group...
October 29, 2016: Neuroscience
Zhijian Cheng, Wen Zhu, Kai Cao, Fei Wu, Jin Li, Guoyu Wang, Haopen Li, Ming Lu, Yi Ren, Xijing He
Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation has been proposed to promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury. However, a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of how NSCs exert their therapeutic plasticity is lacking. We transplanted mouse NSCs into the injured spinal cord seven days after SCI, and the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) score was performed to assess locomotor function. The anti-inflammatory effects of NSC transplantation was analyzed by immunofluorescence staining of neutrophil and macrophages and the detection of mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-12 (IL-12)...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Won-Cheol Jung, Jean-Pierre Levesque, Marc J Ruitenberg
Inflammation is a natural part of wound healing but it can also cause secondary (bystander) damage and/or negatively interfere with endogenous repair mechanisms if non-resolving. Regulation of inflammation is traditionally looked at from the perspective of danger signals, cytokines and chemokines, and their respective receptors. A neuronal contribution to the regulation of inflammation is, however, increasingly appreciated, and this has important implications for the bodily response under conditions where the nervous system itself may be damaged...
August 11, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Fernanda Rosene Melo, Raul Bardini Bressan, Stefânia Forner, Alessandra Cadete Martini, Michele Rode, Priscilla Barros Delben, Giles Alexander Rae, Claudia Pinto Figueiredo, Andrea Gonçalves Trentin
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurologic disorder with significant impacts on quality of life, life expectancy, and economic burden. Although there are no fully restorative treatments yet available, several animal and small-scale clinical studies have highlighted the therapeutic potential of cellular interventions for SCI. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-which are conventionally isolated from the bone marrow-recently emerged as promising candidates for treating SCI and have been shown to provide trophic support, ameliorate inflammatory responses, and reduce cell death following the mechanical trauma...
August 10, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Zin Z Khaing, Lindsay N Cates, Amanda E Fischedick, Abbi M McClintic, Pierre D Mourad, Christoph P Hofstetter
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) often leads to permanent neurological impairment. Currently, the only clinically effective intervention for patients with acute SCI is surgical decompression by removal of impinging bone fragments within 24 hours after injury. Recent clinical studies suggest that elevated intraparenchymal spinal pressure (ISP) limits functional recovery following SCI. Here, we report on the temporal and spatial patterns of elevated ISP following a moderate rodent contusion SCI. Compared to physiological ISP in the intact cord (2...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Kiyotaka Arai, Yasuji Harada, Hiroyuki Tomiyama, Masaki Michishita, Nobuo Kanno, Takuya Yogo, Yoshihisa Suzuki, Yasushi Hara
Intramedullary bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell (BM-MNC) transplantation has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in the chronic stage of spinal cord injury (SCI). However, no previous study has evaluated its effects in the acute stage, even though cell death occurs mainly within 1week after injury in all neuronal cells. Moreover, the mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the survival of intramedullary transplanted allogeneic BM-MNCs and the production of growth factors after transplantation to clarify the therapeutic potential of intramedullary transplanted BM-MNCs and their protective effects in acute SCI...
August 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Pamela D Moore, Ashraf S Gorgey, Rodney C Wade, Refka E Khalil, Timothy D Lavis, Rehan Khan, Robert A Adler
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) are effective rehabilitation strategies to attenuate muscle atrophy and evoke hypertrophy in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). However both interventions might increase heterotopic ossification (HO) size in SCI patients. We present the results of two men with chronic traumatic motor complete SCI who also had pre-existing HO and participated in a study investigating the effects of TRT or TRT plus NMES resistance training (RT) on body composition...
July 16, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Cases
W Qin, W Zhao, X Li, Y Peng, L M Harlow, J Li, Y Qin, J Pan, Y Wu, L Ran, H Z Ke, C P Cardozo, W A Bauman
: Bone loss after spinal cord injury (SCI) is rapid, severe, and refractory to interventions studied to date. Mice with sclerostin gene deletion are resistant to the severe sublesional bone loss induced by SCI, further indicating pharmacological inhibition of sclerostin may represent a promising novel approach to this challenging medical problem. INTRODUCTION: The bone loss secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with several unique pathological features, including the permanent immobilization, neurological dysfunction, and systemic hormonal alternations...
July 20, 2016: Osteoporosis International
L R Morse, N Nguyen, R A Battaglino, A J Guarino, D R Gagnon, R Zafonte, E Garshick
: We identified a protective bone effect at the knee with lipophilic statin use in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury. Lipophilic statin users gained bone at the knee compared to non-users and wheelchair users lost bone compared to walkers. Ambulation and or statins may be effective osteogenic interventions in chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). INTRODUCTION: SCI increases the risk of osteoporosis and low-impact fractures, particularly at the knee. However, during the chronic phase of SCI, the natural history and factors associated with longitudinal change in bone density remain poorly characterized...
July 13, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Christina L Ross, Ishaq Syed, Thomas L Smith, Benjamin S Harrison
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is typically the result of direct mechanical impact to the spine, leading to fracture and/or dislocation of the vertebrae along with damage to the surrounding soft tissues. Injury to the spinal cord results in disruption of axonal transmission of signals. This primary trauma causes secondary injuries that produce immunological responses such as neuroinflammation, which perpetuates neurodegeneration and cytotoxicity within the injured spinal cord. To date there is no FDA-approved pharmacological agent to prevent the development of secondary SCI and induce regenerative processes aimed at healing the spinal cord and restoring neurological function...
July 11, 2016: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
L-L Xiong, Y Li, F-F Shang, S-W Chen, H Chen, S-M Ju, Y Zou, H-L Tian, T-H Wang, C-Z Luo, X-Y Wang
STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated whether combination of chondroitinase (chABC) administration and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation could provide an optimal effect for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) subjected to complete transection. OBJECTIVES: Behavioral assessments and DBA tracing were used to evaluate the effects of combination of chABC administration and BDNF-MSC transplantation on axonal regeneration and functional improvement in SCT rats...
June 28, 2016: Spinal Cord
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