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SCI, Immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896143/new-avenues-for-reducing-intensive-care-needs-in-patients-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#1
EDITORIAL
Pierre A Guertin
Relatively soon after their accident, patients suffering a spinal cord injury (SCI) begin generally experiencing the development of significant, often life-threatening secondary complications. Many of which are associated with chronic physical inactivity-related immune function problems and increasing susceptibility to infection that repeatedly requires intensive care treatment. Therapies capable of repairing the spinal cord or restoring ambulation would normally prevent many of these problems but, as of now, there is no cure for SCI...
November 4, 2016: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810921/gut-dysbiosis-impairs-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Kristina A Kigerl, Jodie C E Hall, Lingling Wang, Xiaokui Mo, Zhongtang Yu, Phillip G Popovich
The trillions of microbes that exist in the gastrointestinal tract have emerged as pivotal regulators of mammalian development and physiology. Disruption of this gut microbiome, a process known as dysbiosis, causes or exacerbates various diseases, but whether gut dysbiosis affects recovery of neurological function or lesion pathology after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is unknown. Data in this study show that SCI increases intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation from the gut. These changes are associated with immune cell activation in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs) and significant changes in the composition of both major and minor gut bacterial taxa...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775474/characterization-of-the-antibody-response-after-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Antigona Ulndreaj, Apostolia Tzekou, Andrea J Mothe, Ahad Siddiqui, Rachel Dragas, Charles Tator, Emina Torlakovic, Michael Fehlings
The immune system plays a critical and complex role in the pathobiology of spinal cord injury (SCI), exerting both beneficial and detrimental effects. Increasing evidence suggests that there are injury level-dependent differences in the immune response to SCI. Patients with traumatic SCI have elevated levels of circulating autoantibodies against components of the central nervous system (CNS), but the role of these antibodies in SCI outcomes remains unknown. In rodent models of mid-thoracic SCI, antibody-mediated autoimmunity appears to be detrimental to recovery...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750479/changes-in-gene-expression-and-metabolism-in-the-testes-of-the-rat-following-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Ryan D Fortune, Raymond J Grill, Christine Beeton, Mark Tanner, Redwan Huq, David S Loose
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in devastating changes to almost all aspects of a patient's life. In addition to a permanent loss of sensory and motor function, males also will frequently exhibit a profound loss of fertility through poorly understood mechanisms. We demonstrate that SCI causes measureable pathology in the testis both acutely (24 h) and chronically up to 1.5 years post-injury, leading to loss in sperm motility and viability. SCI has been shown in humans and rats to induce leukocytospermia, with the presence of inflammatory cytokines, anti-sperm antibodies, and reactive oxygen species found within the ejaculate...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739045/modeling-proteolytically-driven-tumor-lymphangiogenesis
#5
Georgios Lolas, Lasse Jensen, George C Bourantas, Vasiliki Tsikourkitoudi, Konstantinos Syrigos
With the exception of a limited number of sites in the body, primary tumors infrequently lead to the demise of cancer patients. Instead, mortality and a significant degree of morbidity result from the growth of secondary tumors in distant organs. Tumor survival, growth and dissemination are associated with the formation of both new blood vessels (angiogenesis) and new lymph vessels (lymphagenesis or lymphangiogenesis). Although intensive research in tumor angiogenesis has been going on for the past four decades, experimental results in tumor lymphangiogenesis began to appear only in the last 10 years...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716334/multiple-organ-dysfunction-and-systemic-inflammation-after-spinal-cord-injury-a-complex-relationship
#6
Xin Sun, Zachary B Jones, Xiao-Ming Chen, Libing Zhou, Kwok-Fai So, Yi Ren
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event that results in significant physical disabilities for affected individuals. Apart from local injury within the spinal cord, SCI patients develop a variety of complications characterized by multiple organ dysfunction or failure. These disorders, such as neurogenic pain, depression, lung injury, cardiovascular disease, liver damage, kidney dysfunction, urinary tract infection, and increased susceptibility to pathogen infection, are common in injured patients, hinder functional recovery, and can even be life threatening...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701152/tissue-engineering-approaches-to-modulate-the-inflammatory-milieu-following-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Courtney M Dumont, Daniel J Margul, Lonnie D Shea
Tissue engineering strategies have shown promise in promoting healing and regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI); however, these strategies are limited by inflammation and the immune response. Infiltration of cells of the innate and adaptive immune responses and the inflammation that follows cause secondary damage adjacent to the injury, increased scarring, and a potently inhibitory environment for the regeneration of damaged neurons. While the inflammation that ensues is typically associated with limited regeneration, the immune response is a crucial element in the closing of the blood-brain barrier, minimizing the spread of injury, and initiating healing...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679827/antioxidant-and-protective-effects-of-royal-jelly-on-histopathological-changes-in-testis-of-diabetic-rats
#8
Elham Ghanbari, Vahid Nejati, Mozafar Khazaei
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease. It has adverse effects on male reproductive function. Royal Jelly (RJ) has antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects and show protective effects against diabetes. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of RJ on histopathological alterations of the testicular tissue in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, 28 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (C), royal jelly (R), diabetic (D) and RJ-treated diabetic (D+R) groups...
August 2016: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677546/increased-macrophage-intermediate-m1-m2-type-polarization-and-improved-cognition-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients-on-%C3%AF-3-supplementation
#9
Sam Famenini, Elizabeth A Rigali, Henry M Olivera-Perez, Johnny Dang, Michael To Chang, Ramesh Halder, Rammohan V Rao, Matteo Pellegrini, Verna Porter, Dale Bredesen, Milan Fiala
Monocyte/macrophages of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) are defective in phagocytosis and degradation amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ1-42), but are improved by ω-3 fatty acids (ω-3). The hypothesis of this study was that active Aβ1-42 phagocytosis by macrophages prevents brain amyloidosis and thus maintains cognition. We studied the effects of self-supplementation with a drink with ω-3, antioxidants, and resveratrol on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, macrophage M1M2 phenotype (the ratio of inflammatory CD54+CD80 and proresolution markers CD163+CD206), and Aβ1-42 phagocytosis in patients initially diagnosed as having MCI or subjective cognitive impairment (SCI)...
September 27, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665969/functional-expression-of-tlr5-in-murine-salivary-gland-epithelial-cells
#10
Satoko Iwasa, Hirotaka Ota, Kensuke Nishio, Mariko Ohtsu, Masafumi Kusunoki, Takahiro Gojoubori, Tetsuo Shirakawa, Masatake Asano
Toll-like receptors (TLR) recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns and induce the innate immune response. Among them, TLR5 recognizes the Gram-negative bacterial component flagellin. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of TLR5 in mouse salivary gland (SG). The SG was excised from 8- to 10-week-old female C57BL/6 mice. Salivary gland epithelial cells (SGECs) were purified and subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Western blotting was performed to detect TLR5 expression at the protein level in several organs...
2016: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650169/spinal-cord-injury-suppresses-cutaneous-inflammation-implications-for-peripheral-wound-healing
#11
Jessica M Marbourg, Anna Bratasz, Xiaokui Mo, Phillip G Popovich
People who suffer a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) are at increased risk for developing dermatological complications. These conditions increase cost of care, incidence of rehospitalization, and the risk for developing other infections. The consequences of dermatological complications after SCI are likely exacerbated further by post-injury deficits in neural-immune signaling. Indeed, a functional immune system is essential for optimal host defense and tissue repair. Here, we tested the hypothesis that SCI at high spinal levels, which causes systemic immune suppression, would suppress cutaneous inflammation below the level of injury...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633782/therapeutic-antibodies-for-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Dan-Yang Tang, Wei-Jiang Zhao
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is long-lasting damage in the spinal cord that leads to paraparesis, paraplegia, quadriplegia and other lifetime disabilities. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the failure of axonal regeneration after SCI remain only partially understood. Although a spectrum of medical treatments has been made available for this disease, the therapeutic effects remain disappointing. The emergence of antibody treatment has paved a new pathway for the management of SCI. In this current review, we summarized the application of antibodies in SCI in studies of myelin repair, neuroprotection, axon outgrowth, and anti-immune reaction...
September 15, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623692/immunocap%C3%A2-isac-and-microtest-for-multiplex-allergen-testing-in-people-with-difficult-to-manage-allergic-disease-a-systematic-review-and-cost-analysis
#13
Marie Westwood, Bram Ramaekers, Shona Lang, Nigel Armstrong, Caro Noake, Shelley de Kock, Manuela Joore, Johan Severens, Jos Kleijnen
BACKGROUND: Allergy is a form of immune-mediated exaggerated sensitivity (hypersensitivity) to a substance that is either inhaled, swallowed, injected or comes into contact with the skin. Foreign substances that provoke allergies are called allergens. It has been claimed that multiplex allergen testing may help in diagnosing the cause of symptoms in patients with an unclear cause of allergy or who are allergic to more than one substance. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate multiplex allergen testing [devices that can measure the presence of multiple immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies in a patient's blood at the same time], by assessing (1) clinical effectiveness (allergy symptoms, incidence of acute exacerbations, mortality, adverse events of testing and treatment, health-care presentations or admissions, health-related quality of life); (2) effects on treatment (diet, immunotherapy medications, other potential testing); (3) any additional diagnostic information provided by multiplex allergen testing; and (4) cost-effectiveness (cost of different assessment strategies)...
September 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618987/natural-killer-nk-cell-functionality-after-human-spinal-cord-injury-sci-protocol-of-a-prospective-longitudinal-study
#14
Inês Laginha, Marcel A Kopp, Claudia Druschel, Klaus-Dieter Schaser, Benedikt Brommer, Rick C Hellmann, Ralf Watzlawick, Ramin-Raul Ossami-Saidi, Harald Prüss, Vieri Failli, Christian Meisel, Thomas Liebscher, Erik Prilipp, Andreas Niedeggen, Axel Ekkernkamp, Ulrike Grittner, Sophie K Piper, Ulrich Dirnagl, Monica Killig, Chiara Romagnani, Jan M Schwab
BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK) cells comprise the main components of lymphocyte-mediated nonspecific immunity. Through their effector function they play a crucial role combating bacterial and viral challenges. They are also thought to be key contributors to the systemic spinal cord injury-induced immune-deficiency syndrome (SCI-IDS). SCI-IDS increases susceptibility to infection and extends to the post-acute and chronic phases after SCI. METHODS AND DESIGN: The prospective study of NK cell function after traumatic SCI was carried out in two centers in Berlin, Germany...
September 13, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596954/aescin-reduces-oxidative-stress-and-provides-neuroprotection-in-experimental-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Peng Cheng, Fang Kuang, Gong Ju
Aescin has many physiological functions that are highly relevant to spinal cord injury (SCI), including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-oedema, and enhancing vascular tone. The present study investigated the putative therapeutic value of aescin in SCI, with a focus on its neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative properties. Sodium aescinate (1.0mg/kg body weight) or equivalent volume of saline was administered 30min after injury by intravenous injection, with an additional dose daily for seven consecutive days after moderate SCI in rats...
September 2, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586469/effect-of-canine-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-overexpressing-heme-oxygenase-1-in-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Seung Hoon Lee, Yongsun Kim, Daeun Rhew, Ahyoung Kim, Kwang Rae Jo, Yongseok Yoon, Kyeung Uk Choi, Taeseong Jung, Wan Hee Kim, Oh-Kyeong Kweon
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress-responsive enzyme that modulate immune response and oxidative stress associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). This study aimed to investigate neuronal regeneration by transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) overexpressing HO-1. Canine MSCs overexpressing HO-1 were generated using a lentivirus packaging protocol. Eight beagle dogs with experimentally-induced SCI were GFP-labeled MSCs (MSC-GFP) and HO-1 overexpressed MSCs (MSC-HO-1) groups. MSCs (1 × 107 cells) were transplanted at 1 week after SCI...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531634/harnessing-the-power-of-cell-transplantation-to-target-respiratory-dysfunction-following-spinal-cord-injury
#17
REVIEW
Brittany A Charsar, Mark W Urban, Angelo C Lepore
The therapeutic benefit of cell transplantation has been assessed in a host of central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including disorders of the spinal cord such as traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). The promise of cell transplantation to preserve and/or restore normal function can be aimed at a variety of therapeutic mechanisms, including replacement of lost or damaged CNS cell types, promotion of axonal regeneration or sprouting, neuroprotection, immune response modulation, and delivery of gene products such as neurotrophic factors, amongst other possibilities...
January 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523920/it-takes-nerve-to-fight-back-the-significance-of-neural-innervation-of-the-bone-marrow-and-spleen-for-immune-function
#18
Won-Cheol Jung, Jean-Pierre Levesque, Marc J Ruitenberg
Inflammation is a natural part of wound healing but it can also cause secondary (bystander) damage and/or negatively interfere with endogenous repair mechanisms if non-resolving. Regulation of inflammation is traditionally looked at from the perspective of danger signals, cytokines and chemokines, and their respective receptors. A neuronal contribution to the regulation of inflammation is, however, increasingly appreciated, and this has important implications for the bodily response under conditions where the nervous system itself may be damaged...
August 11, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492951/translational-relevance-of-swine-models-of-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Dominic T Schomberg, Gurwattan S Miranpuri, Abhishek Chopra, Kush Patel, Jennifer J Meudt, Armando Tellez, Daniel K Resnick, Dhanansayan Shanmuganayagam
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a physically and psychologically devastating clinical condition. The typical treatment regimens of decompressive surgery and rehabilitation therapy still leave many patients with permanent disability. The development of new therapies and devices can be accelerated if relevant translational animal models are more effectively used in pre-clinical stages. Swine is a highly relevant model for SCI research, especially with respect to spine and spinal cord anatomy, spine vasculature, immune responses to injury, and functional assessments...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386499/ivig-attenuates-complement-and-improves-spinal-cord-injury-outcomes-in-mice
#20
Faith H Brennan, Nyoman D Kurniawan, Jana Vukovic, Perry F Bartlett, Fabian Käsermann, Thiruma V Arumugam, Milan Basta, Marc J Ruitenberg
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) elicits immediate neural cell death, axonal damage, and disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier, allowing circulating immune cells and blood proteins into the spinal parenchyma. The inflammatory response to SCI involves robust complement system activation, which contributes to secondary injury and impairs neurological recovery. This study aimed to determine whether intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), an FDA-approved treatment for inflammatory conditions, can scavenge complement activation products and improve recovery from contusive SCI...
July 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
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