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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822229/vasculogenesis-and-angiogenesis-initiation-under-normoxic-conditions-through-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-gliomas
#1
Alexandre Vallée, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is up-regulated in gliomas and involved in proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Nuclear β-catenin accumulation correlates with malignancy. Hypoxia activates hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α by inhibiting HIF-1α prolyl hydroxylation, which promotes glycolytic energy metabolism, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, whereas HIF-1α is degraded by the HIF prolyl hydroxylase under normoxic conditions. We focus this review on the links between the activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway and the mechanisms underlying vasculogenesis and angiogenesis through HIF-1α under normoxic conditions in gliomas...
August 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818668/a-bipolar-role-of-the-transcription-factor-erg-for-cnidarian-germ-layer-formation-and-apical-domain-patterning
#2
Aldine R Amiel, Hereroa Johnston, Taylor Chock, Paul Dahlin, Marta Iglesias, Michael Layden, Eric Röttinger, Mark Q Martindale
Germ layer formation and axial patterning are biological processes that are tightly linked during embryonic development of most metazoans. In addition to canonical WNT, it has been proposed that ERK-MAPK signaling is involved in specifying oral as well as aboral territories in cnidarians. However, the effector and the molecular mechanism underlying latter phenomenon is unknown. By screening for potential effectors of ERK-MAPK signaling in both domains, we identified a member of the ETS family of transcription factors, Nverg that is bi-polarily expressed prior to gastrulation...
August 14, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817124/directed-differentiation-and-long-term-maintenance-of-epicardial-cells-derived-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-under-fully-defined-conditions
#3
Xiaoping Bao, Xiaojun Lian, Tongcheng Qian, Vijesh J Bhute, Tianxiao Han, Sean P Palecek
Here, we describe how to efficiently direct human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) differentiation into self-renewing epicardial cells in a completely defined, xeno-free system by temporal modulation of regulators of canonical Wnt signaling. Appropriate differentiation-stage-specific application of Gsk3 inhibitor, Wnt inhibitor, and Gsk3 inhibitor (GiWiGi) is sufficient to produce cells expressing epicardial markers and exhibiting epicardial phenotypes with a high yield and purity from multiple hPSC lines in 16 d...
September 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810055/impact-of-mir-26b-on-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-in-p19-cells-through-regulating-canonical-non-canonical-wnt-signalling
#4
Duo Wang, Chang Liu, Yumei Wang, Wenjing Wang, Kang Wang, Xiujuan Wu, Zhigang Li, Cuimei Zhao, Li Li, Luying Peng
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The control of cardiomyocyte differentiation is tightly linked to microRNAs (miRNAs), which have been emerging as important players in heart development. However, the regulation mechanisms mediated by miRNAs in early heart development remains speculative. Here, we evaluated the impact of miR-26b during the progression of cardiomyocyte differentiation from the P19 cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The overexpression of miR-26b in P19 cells was performed by transduction with lentivirus vector...
August 15, 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808056/the-crystal-structure-of-full-length-sizzled-from-xenopus-laevis-yields-insights-into-wnt-antagonistic-function-of-secreted-frizzled-related-proteins
#5
Qixin Bu, Zhiqiang Li, Junying Zhang, Fei Xu, Jianmei Liu, Heli Liu
The Wnt signaling pathway is crucial to cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. The secreted frizzled-related proteins (sFRPs) represent the largest family of secreted Wnt inhibitors. However, their function in antagonizing Wnt signaling has remained somewhat controversial. Here we report the crystal structure of Sizzled from Xenopus laevis, the first full-length structure of an sFRP. Tethered by an inter-domain disulfide bond and a linker, the N-terminal CRD domain and the C-terminal NTR domain of Sizzled are arranged in a tandem fashion, with the NTR domain occluding the groove of CRD for Wnt accessibility...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807667/inhibition-of-beta-catenin-signaling-in-the-skin-rescues-cutaneous-adipogenesis-in-systemic-sclerosis-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-c-82
#6
Robert Lafyatis, Julio C Mantero, Jessica Gordon, Nina Kishore, Mary Carns, Howard Dittrich, Robert Spiera, Robert W Simms, John Varga
Several studies have suggested that Wnts might contribute to skin fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc) by affecting the differentiation of pluripotent dermal cells. We tested C-82, a therapeutic that inhibits canonical Wnt signaling by blocking the interaction of cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein with β-Catenin and inhibiting Wnt-activated genes. We utilized previously unreported trial design, formulating C-82 for topical application and conducting a placebo controlled, double-blinded clinical trial in which patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc were treated with C-82 or placebo on opposite forearms...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802143/extrinsic-control-of-wnt-signaling-in-the-intestine
#7
REVIEW
Stefan Koch
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is a central regulator of development and tissue homeostasis. In the intestine, Wnt signaling is primarily known as the principal organizer of epithelial stem cell identity and proliferation. Within the last decade, numerous scientific breakthroughs have shed light on epithelial self-organization in the gut, and organoids are now routinely used to study stem cell biology and intestinal pathophysiology. The contribution of non-epithelial cells to Wnt signaling in the gut has received less attention...
August 5, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798480/magnesium-chloride-promotes-osteogenesis-through-notch-signaling-activation-and-expansion-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#8
Juan M Díaz-Tocados, Carmen Herencia, Julio M Martínez-Moreno, Addy Montes de Oca, Maria E Rodríguez-Ortiz, Noemi Vergara, Alfonso Blanco, Sonja Steppan, Yolanda Almadén, Mariano Rodríguez, Juan R Muñoz-Castañeda
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are osteoblasts progenitors and a variety of studies suggest that they may play an important role for the health in the field of bone regeneration. Magnesium supplementation is gaining importance as adjuvant treatment to improve osteogenesis, although the mechanisms involving this process are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of magnesium on MSC differentiation. Here we show that in rat bone marrow MSC, magnesium chloride increases MSC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner promoting osteogenic differentiation and mineralization...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798413/structural-basis-for-ccd1-auto-inhibition-in-the-wnt-pathway-through-homomerization-of-the-dix-domain
#9
Shin-Ichi Terawaki, Shohei Fujita, Takuya Katsutani, Kensuke Shiomi, Kazuko Keino-Masu, Masayuki Masu, Kaori Wakamatsu, Naoki Shibata, Yoshiki Higuchi
Wnt signaling plays an important role in governing cell fate decisions. Coiled-coil-DIX1 (Ccd1), Dishevelled (Dvl), and Axin are signaling proteins that regulate the canonical pathway by controlling the stability of a key signal transducer β-catenin. These proteins contain the DIX domain with a ubiquitin-like fold, which mediates their interaction in the β-catenin destruction complex through dynamic head-to-tail polymerization. Despite high sequence similarities, mammalian Ccd1 shows weaker stimulation of β-catenin transcriptional activity compared with zebrafish (z) Ccd1 in cultured cells...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798381/transcriptional-hallmarks-of-cancer-cell-lines-reveal-an-emerging-role-of-branched-chain-amino-acid-catabolism
#10
Ieva Antanavičiūtė, Valeryia Mikalayeva, Ieva Ceslevičienė, Gintarė Milašiūtė, Vytenis Arvydas Skeberdis, Sergio Bordel
A comparative analysis between cancer cell lines and healthy dividing cells was performed using data (289 microarrays and 50 RNA-seq samples) from 100 different cancer cell lines and 6 types of healthy stem cells. The analysis revealed two large-scale transcriptional events that characterize cancer cell lines. The first event was a large-scale up-regulation pattern associated to epithelial-mesenchymal transition, putatively driven by the interplay of the SP1 transcription factor and the canonical Wnt signaling pathway; the second event was the failure to overexpress a diverse set of genes coding membrane and extracellular proteins...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796246/identification-and-characterization-of-a-new-source-of-adult-human-neural-progenitors
#11
Jinan Behnan, Biljana Stangeland, Tiziana Langella, Gaetano Finocchiaro, Giovanni Tringali, Torstein R Meling, Wayne Murrell
Adult neural progenitor cells (aNPCs) are a potential source for cell based therapy for neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain injuries. These cells have been traditionally isolated from hippocampus, subventricular zone and white matter. However, there is still a need for an easily accessible source with better yield to counter the limitations of small surgical samples of previously characterized aNPCs. Here we show that ultrasonic aspirate (UA) samples currently considered as 'biological waste after surgery,' offer a good source for aNPCs...
August 10, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794794/sfrp2-enhances-the-osteogenic-differentiation-of-apical-papilla-stem-cells-by-antagonizing-the-canonical-wnt-pathway
#12
Luyuan Jin, Yu Cao, Guoxia Yu, Jinsong Wang, Xiao Lin, Lihua Ge, Juan Du, Liping Wang, Shu Diao, Xiaomeng Lian, Songlin Wang, Rui Dong, Zhaochen Shan
BACKGROUND: Exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying directed differentiation is helpful in the development of clinical applications of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Our previous study on dental tissue-derived MSCs demonstrated that secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2), a Wnt inhibitor, could enhance osteogenic differentiation in stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs). However, how SFRP2 promotes osteogenic differentiation of dental tissue-derived MSCs remains unclear...
2017: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782520/direct-interaction-of-menin-leads-to-ubiquitin-proteasomal-degradation-of-%C3%AE-catenin
#13
Byungho Kim, Tae-Yang Song, Kwan Young Jung, Seul Gi Kim, Eun-Jung Cho
Menin, encoded by the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene, is a tumor suppressor and transcription regulator. Menin interacts with various proteins as a scaffold protein and is proposed to play important roles in multiple physiological and pathological processes by controlling gene expression, proliferation, and apoptosis. The mechanisms underlying menin's suppression of tumorigenesis are largely elusive. In this study, we showed that menin was essential for the regulation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cultured cells...
August 3, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777797/alteration-of-wnt5a-expression-and-of-the-non-canonical-wnt-pcp-and-wnt-pkc-ca2-pathways-in-human-osteoarthritis-osteoblasts
#14
Xavier Martineau, Élie Abed, Johanne Martel-Pelletier, Jean-Pierre Pelletier, Daniel Lajeunesse
OBJECTIVE: Clinical and in vitro studies suggest that subchondral bone sclerosis due to abnormal osteoblasts (Ob) is involved in the progression and/or onset of osteoarthritis (OA). Human Ob isolated from sclerotic subchondral OA bone tissue show an altered phenotype, a decreased canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway (cWnt), and a reduced mineralization in vitro. In addition to the cWnt pathway, at least two non-canonical signaling pathways, the Wnt/PKC and Wnt/PCP pathway have been described...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776719/inhibition-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-proliferation-via-wnt-signaling-activation
#15
Jung-Sun Moon, Hyun-Mi Ko, Ji-Il Park, Jae-Hyung Kim, Sun-Hun Kim, Min-Seok Kim
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), characterized by rapid in vitro expandability and multi-differentiation potential, have been widely used in the clinical field of tissue engineering. Recent studies have shown that various signaling networks are involved in the growth and differentiation of hMSCs. Although Wnts and their downstream signaling components have been implicated in the regulation of hMSCs, the role of Wnt signaling in hMSC self-renewal is still controversial. Here, it was observed that activation of endogenous canonical Wnt signaling with LiCl, which decreased β-catenin phosphorylation, leads to a decrease in hMSC proliferation...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774883/the-cardiac-microenvironment-uses-non-canonical-wnt-signaling-to-activate-monocytes-after-myocardial-infarction
#16
Ingmar Sören Meyer, Andreas Jungmann, Christoph Dieterich, Min Zhang, Felix Lasitschka, Susann Werkmeister, Jan Haas, Oliver J Müller, Michael Boutros, Matthias Nahrendorf, Hugo A Katus, Stefan E Hardt, Florian Leuschner
A disturbed inflammatory response following myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with poor prognosis and increased tissue damage. Monocytes are key players in healing after MI, but little is known about the role of the cardiac niche in monocyte activation. This study investigated microenvironment-dependent changes in inflammatory monocytes after MI RNA sequencing analysis of murine Ly6C(high) monocytes on day 3 after MI revealed differential regulation depending on location. Notably, the local environment strongly impacted components of the WNT signaling cascade...
August 3, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773103/in-vitro-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-response-to-ionic-dissolution-products-from-lithium-containing-45s5-bioactive-glass
#17
Luis A Haro Durand, Gabriela E Vargas, Rosa Vera-Mesones, Alberto Baldi, María P Zago, María A Fanovich, Aldo R Boccaccini, Alejandro Gorustovich
Since lithium (Li⁺) plays roles in angiogenesis, the localized and controlled release of Li⁺ ions from bioactive glasses (BGs) represents a promising alternative therapy for the regeneration and repair of tissues with a high degree of vascularization. Here, microparticles from a base 45S5 BG composition containing (wt %) 45% SiO₂, 24.5% Na₂O, 24.5% CaO, and 6% P₂O₅, in which Na₂O was partially substituted by 5% Li₂O (45S5.5Li), were obtained. The results demonstrate that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) have greater migratory and proliferative response and ability to form tubules in vitro after stimulation with the ionic dissolution products (IDPs) of the 45S5...
July 3, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763746/rhein-ameliorates-adenomyosis-by-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#18
Tingting Feng, Shaobin Wei, Yan Wang, Xianyun Fu, Ling Shi, Liyuan Qu, Xiaoxue Fan
In the present study, we examined the effects of rhein on pituitary gland implantation-induced adenomyosis, an animal model which mimics human adenomyosis. Oral administration of rhein dose-dependently attenuated hyperplastic and hypertrophic myometrium and improved adenomyosis. The activation of NF-κB and β-catenin signaling pathway was observed in the ectopic endometria. While, rhein dose dependently inhibited the expressions of p-p65, p-AKT and actived Rac1. As Rac1 activation controlled nuclear localization of β-catenin during canonical Wnt signaling, we found that the degradation complex of β-catenin was improved by rhein...
July 29, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762636/blockage-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-by-nanoparticles-reduces-survival-and-proliferation-of-cll-cells-in-vitro-preliminary-study
#19
Ida Franiak-Pietryga, Henryk Maciejewski, Barbara Ziemba, Dietmar Appelhans, Brigitte Voit, Tadeusz Robak, Magdalena Jander, Jacek Treliński, Maria Bryszewska, Maciej Borowiec
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is shown to play a significant role in the control of the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. Studies have confirmed that aberrant activation of canonical Wnt signaling occurs in various forms of leukemia, and is crucial for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) pathogenesis. The aim of the study is to evaluate the influence of maltotriose (M3) modified fourth generation poly(propylene imine) dendrimers (PPI-G4) on Wnt/β-catenin pathway gene expression in CLL (MEC-1) cells and to compare these findings with those obtained with fludarabine (FA)...
August 1, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761148/membrane-targeting-of-disheveled-can-bypass-the-need-for-arrow-lrp5
#20
Prameet Kaur, Vanessa Yuk Man Lam, Anirudh Gautam Mannava, Jahnavi Suresh, Andreas Jenny, Nicholas S Tolwinski
The highly conserved Wnt signaling pathway regulates cell proliferation and differentiation in vertebrates and invertebrates. Upon binding of a Wnt ligand to a receptor of the Fz family, Disheveled (Dsh/Dvl) transduces the signal during canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling. The specific details of how this process occurs have proven difficult to study, especially as Dsh appears to function as a switch between different branches of Wnt signaling. Here we focus on the membrane-proximal events that occur once Dsh is recruited to the membrane...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
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