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Ewa Z Gieysztor, Ludwika Sadowska, Anna M Choińska, Małgorzata Paprocka-Borowicz
BACKGROUND: The angle of trunk rotation (ATR) is a measurement that allows an objective assessment of a growing child's spine. Early detection of trunk rotation prevents the progression of scoliosis. One of the factors that predispose children to the formation of faulty posture may be primitive reflexes, which should be integrated in the central nervous system (CNS) by the age of one year. If retained, primitive reflexes affect children's physical development as well as their development at school...
March 14, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Sifan Wu, Tingting Huang, Dan Xie, Jing Wo, Xiaozheng Wang, Zixin Deng, Shuangjun Lin
Xantholipin is a polycyclic xanthone antibiotic that exhibits potent cytotoxic and antibacterial activity. In this study, a new xanthone-type antibiotic, xantholipin B (1), was isolated for the first time along with its known derivative, xantholipin (2), from strain WJN-1, an aminotransferase inactivation mutant of the streptonigrin-producer Streptomyces flocculus CGMCC 4.1223. The structure of 1 was established based on spectroscopic analysis and supports the previously proposed biosynthetic pathway as a key intermediate of 2...
January 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
Dekun Kong, Yi Zou, Zhang Zhang, Fei Xu, Nelson L Brock, Liping Zhang, Zixin Deng, Shuangjun Lin
Streptonigrin is a potent antitumor antibiotic, active against a wide range of mammalian tumor cells. It was reported that its biosynthesis relies on (2S,3R)-β-methyltryptophan as an intermediate. In this study, the biosynthesis of (2S,3R)-β-methyltryptophan and its isomer (2S,3S)-β-methyltryptophan by enzymes from the streptonigrin biosynthetic pathway is demonstrated. StnR is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent aminotransferase that catalyzes a transamination between L-tryptophan and β-methyl indolepyruvate...
February 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
S M Bruijn, F Massaad, M J Maclellan, L Van Gestel, Y P Ivanenko, J Duysens
When a cat's head is rotated in a transverse plane to one side, the legs on that side of the body extend, while on the other side, they flex (asymmetric tonic neck reflexes ATNR). On the contrary, when the head is rotated in a sagittal plane both legs flex when the head flexes, and extend when the head extends (symmetric tonic neck reflexes STNR). These reflexes have also been found in newborn babies and are thought to be a motor primitive, which is suppressed later in life. Still, using a test in which children sit on hand and knees, the ATNR and STNR can be found in children up to 9 years of age...
November 27, 2013: Neuroscience Letters
Jana Konicarova, Petr Bob, Jiri Raboch
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recent and historical findings suggest that later-developed functions during brain ontogenesis related to higher levels of cognitive and motor integration tend to replace the older, more primitive, ones, and the persistence of the older functions may be linked to specific neuropsychiatric disorders. Currently, there is growing evidence to suggest that persisting primitive reflexes may be related to developmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Preliminary data also suggest that persisting primitive reflexes may be specifically linked to attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
2013: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Ashwini Oswal, Peter Brown, Vladimir Litvak
Functional neurosurgical techniques provide a unique opportunity to explore patterns of interaction between the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous work using simultaneous magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and local field potential (LFP) recordings from the region of the subthalamic nucleus (STNr) has characterised resting patterns of connectivity in the alpha and beta frequency bands and their modulation by dopaminergic medication. Recently we have also characterised the effect of movement on patterns of gamma band coherence between the STNr and cortical sites...
April 15, 2013: NeuroImage
Huiling Tan, Alek Pogosyan, Anam Anzak, Thomas Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Ludvic Zrinzo, Keyoumars Ashkan, Marko Bogdanovic, Alexander L Green, Tipu Aziz, Peter Brown
Local field potential recordings made from the basal ganglia of patients undergoing deep brain stimulation have suggested that frequency specific activity is involved in determining the rate of force development and the peak force at the outset of a movement. However, the extent to which the basal ganglia might be involved in motor performance later on in a sustained contraction is less clear. We therefore recorded from the subthalamic nucleus region (STNr) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) as they made maximal voluntary grips...
February 2013: Experimental Neurology
T W Worrell, C R Denegar, S L Armstrong, D H Perrin
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of the supine and prone position on concentric and eccentric isokinetic strength of the hamstring muscle group. Twelve university female lacrosse players were tested for hamstring average torque on a Kinetic Communicator(R) dynamometer at 60 degrees /sec from the supine and prone positions. Analysis of variance indicated average torque generated from the prone was greater than the supine position. Greater torque was also generated during eccentric contraction than during concentric contraction...
1990: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
M M Moore, M D Feist
AIM: To develop a real-time PCR assay for Salmonella spp. targeting the stn gene. METHODS AND RESULTS: The presence of stn in the Salmonella bongori genome was found by a BLAST with Salmonella enterica stn sequence. Manual alignment of stn sequences showed that Salm. bongori had 88% sequence identity with Salm. enterica. Two primers (stnL-433 and stnR-561) and a probe (stnP-452) were designed to target conserved regions in stn and meet the requirements of a 5'-nuclease assay...
February 2007: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Nikolaus Gassler, Ingrid Herr, Martina Keith, Frank Autschbach, Hubertus Schmitz-Winnenthal, Alexis Ulrich, Herwart F Otto, Jürgen Kartenbeck, Kaspar Z'graggen
Recent surgical concepts for primary rectal cancer include the combination of surgery and short-term neoadjuvant radiotherapy (STNR). This is usually given in a dose of 25 Gy over five days in order to reduce local recurrence rates. Clinical studies have shown that local recurrence is found in some patients despite STNR. We identified molecular patterns of the Wnt- and apoptosis pathways as well as expression of junction-associated molecules in rectal cancer specimens of patients who received STNR and in those who did not...
December 2004: International Journal of Oncology
Adriaan Moelker, Ronald A J J Maas, Peter M T Pattynama
PURPOSE: To assess the masking effect of magnetic resonance (MR)-related acoustic noise and the effect of passive hearing protection on speech understanding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acoustic recordings were made at 1.5 T at patient and operator (interventionalist in the MR suite) locations for relevant pulse sequences. In an audiologic laboratory, speech-to-noise ratios (STNRs) were determined, defined as the difference between the absolute sound pressure levels of MR noise and speech...
July 2004: Radiology
A J Capute, R C Wachtel, F B Palmer, B K Shapiro, P J Accardo
In order to assess the evolution of postural reactions in the prone position, a group of 149 normal infants were followed from birth to two years of age. The Landau reflex was present in 44 per cent of two-month-old infants, and in 95 per cent at four months. The tonic labyrinthine response (grades 2 to 4) was seen in 80 per cent of infants at two weeks, with a marked diminution by the age of 24 months. In contrast, the symmetrical tonic neck reflex was detected in fewer than 30 per cent of the infants: the maximum prevalence was at four to six months of age...
June 1982: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
G Müller, H Haberfellner
Effect of socalled tonic reflexes on central processing of acoustic stimuli was studied by stimulating the patterns of tonic reflexes in 18 adults with normal hearing abilities. The parameters were: hearing threshold level, acoustical stapedius reflex and slow auditory evoked potential. Only in three positions-corresponding to the symmetrical tonic neck reflex (STNR) and tonic labyrinthine reflex in supine and prone position a hearing threshold shift of 1 dB could be observed. The level of the stapedius reflex showed an increase of 5 dB in one of these three positions...
1975: Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
A J Capute, P J Accardo, E P Vining, J E Rubenstein, J R Walcher, S Harryman, A Ross
Seven primitive reflexes used by physical and occupational therapists in evaluating children with cerebral palsy were each graded on a 0 to 4+ scale to constitute a Primitive Reflex Profile. The reflexes studied were the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex, the symmetrical tonic neck reflex, the tonic labyrinthine reflex, the positive support reflex, the derotational righting reflex, the Moro reflex, and the Galant reflex. The Primitive Reflex Profile was studied in 53 cerebral palsied patients to assess both the feasibility of its administration and its usefulness in discriminating functional levels of ambulation...
September 1978: Physical Therapy
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