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Omega fatty acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344197/effects-of-food-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-omega-3-carboxylic-acids-in-healthy-japanese-male-subjects-a-phase-i-randomized-open-label-three-period-crossover-trial
#1
Hitoshi Shimada, Catarina Nilsson, Yoshinori Noda, Hyosung Kim, Torbjörn Lundström, Toshitaka Yajima
AIMS: Omega-3-carboxylic acids (OM3-CA) contain omega-3 free fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), as carboxylic acids. Food intake is known to affect the bioavailability of ethyl ester fatty acid formulations. We conducted a phase I study to investigate the effects of the timing of OM3-CA administration relative to food intake on the pharmacokinetics of EPA and DHA. METHODS: In this randomized, open-label, three-period crossover study, Japanese healthy male subjects were administered 4×1 g OM3-CA capsules with continued fasting, before a meal, or after a meal...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344195/significance-of-serum-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-level-imbalance-in-patients-with-acute-venous-thromboembolism
#2
Masaru Hiki, Tetsuro Miyazaki, Kazunori Shimada, Yurina Sugita, Megumi Shimizu, Tatsuro Aikawa, Shohei Ouchi, Tomoyuki Shiozawa, Kiyoshi Takasu, Shuhei Takahashi, Atsutoshi Takagi, Katsumi Miyauchi, Hiroyuki Daida
AIM: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) take part in various biological events linked to the pathogenesis of venous thromboembolism (VTE), including inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and hypercoagulability. Several studies have demonstrated the association between PUFAs and the occurrence of VTE. However, the role of PUFAs in the pathogenesis of VTE remains unclear. METHODS: We enrolled 45 patients with acute VTE and 37 age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched healthy volunteers to examine their PUFA levels...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343553/alpha-lipoic-acid-plus-omega-3-fatty-acids-for-vestibulodynia-associated-with-painful-bladder-syndrome
#3
Filippo Murina, Alessandra Graziottin, Raffaele Felice, Dania Gambini
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the effectiveness of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) plus omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in combination with amitriptyline therapy in patients with vestibulodynia/painful bladder syndrome (VBD/PBS). METHODS: Women with VBD/PBS were randomly assigned to receive amitriptyline or amitriptyline plus a commercially available preparation (ALAnerv Age; Alfa Wassermann, Bologna, Italy) containing, in 2 capsules, ALA 600 mg plus docosahexaenoic acid 250 mg and eicosapentaenoic acid 16...
March 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342967/the-effects-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-vitamin-e-co-supplementation-on-clinical-and-metabolic-status-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#4
Mohsen Taghizadeh, Omid Reza Tamtaji, Ehsan Dadgostar, Reza Daneshvar Kakhaki, Fereshteh Bahmani, Javad Abolhassani, Mohammad Hossein Aarabi, Ebrahim Kouchaki, Mohammad Reza Memarzadeh, Zatollah Asemi
The current research was performed to evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on clinical signs and metabolic status in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 60 patients with PD. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either 1000 mg omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil plus 400 IU vitamin E supplements (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 12 weeks. Unified Parkinson's disease rating stage (UPDRS) were recorded at baseline and the after 3-month intervention...
March 22, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341437/lipid-functions-in-skin-differential-effects-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-cutaneous-ceramides-in-a-human-skin-organ-culture-model
#5
Alexandra C Kendall, Magdalena Kiezel-Tsugunova, Luke C Brownbridge, John L Harwood, Anna Nicolaou
Ceramides are important for skin health, with a multitude of species found in both dermis and epidermis. The epidermis contains linoleic acid-Ester-linked Omega-hydroxylated ceramides of 6-Hydroxy-sphingosine, Sphingosine and Phytosphingosine bases (CER[EOH], CER[EOS] and CER[EOP], respectively), that are crucial for the formation of the epidermal barrier, conferring protection from environmental factors and preventing trans-epidermal water loss. Furthermore, a large number of ceramides, derivatives of the same sphingoid bases and various fatty acids, are produced by dermal and epidermal cells and perform signalling roles in cell functions ranging from differentiation to apoptosis...
March 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337705/the-effects-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-antioxidant-vitamins-on-atrial-oxidative-stress-nitrotyrosine-residues-and-connexins-following-extracorporeal-circulation-in-patients-undergoing-cardiac-surgery
#6
Felipe Petersen, Ramón Rodrigo, Manfred Richter, Sawa Kostin
Cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation is characterized by different degrees of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion, which is often associated with postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF). We have previously shown that a novel preventive therapy based on the reinforcement of the antioxidant system using omega-3 fatty acids plus antioxidant vitamin supplementation applied to patients undergoing cardiac surgery reduces POAF occurrence. We hypothesized that oxidative stress and nitrosative stress are involved in the development of an arrhythmogenic substrate by their effect on connexins (Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45) abundance and distribution pattern...
March 23, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336107/enriched-enteral-nutrition-may-improve-short-term-survival-in-stage-iv-gastric-cancer-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Stanislaw Klek, Lucyna Scislo, Elzbieta Walewska, Ryszard Choruz, Aleksander Galas
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine whether the postoperative use of enteral nutrition enriched with arginine, glutamine, and omega-3 fatty acids influences survival in patients diagnosed with stomach cancer. For the purpose of the study, the second wave of the trial performed in 2003 to 2009 was done. METHODS: Ninety-nine patients who underwent surgery for gastric cancer (27 F, 72 M, mean age: 62.9 y) met the inclusion criteria. Of those, 54 were randomized to standard and 45 to enriched enteral nutrition (EEN)...
April 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335075/breastmilk-with-a-high-omega-6-to-omega-3-fatty-acid-ratio-induced-cellular-events-similar-to-insulin-resistance-and-obesity-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#8
H Vaidya, S K Cheema
BACKGROUND: An imbalance of omega (n)-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) during critical periods of development may have adverse effects on the health of the newborn in later life. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that breastmilk with higher n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio will have higher inflammatory cytokines and initiate cellular events similar to insulin resistance and obesity. METHODS: Breastmilk was collected from healthy women who gave natural birth at full term...
March 23, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334528/why-prodrugs-and-propesticides-succeed
#9
John E Casida
What are the advantages of bioactivation in optimizing drugs and pesticides? Why are there so many prodrugs and propesticides? These questions are examined here by considering compounds selected on the basis of economic value or market success. The 100 major drugs and 90 major pesticides are divided into ones acting directly and those definitely or possibly requiring bioactivation. Established or candidate prodrugs accounted for 19% of the total drug sales with corresponding values of 20, 37 and 17% for proinsecticides, proherbicides and profungicides...
March 23, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333693/pediatric-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease
#10
Cathleen M Courtney, Brad W Warner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide updates on the definition, pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) that are relevant to care of pediatric patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Current literature emphasizes the multifactorial nature of IFALD. The pathogenesis is still largely unknown; however, molecular pathways have been identified. Key to these pathways are proinflammatory cytokines involved in hepatic inflammation and bile acids synthesis such as Toll-like receptor 4 and farnesoid X receptor, respectively...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333357/dietary-patterns-foods-and-nutrients-in-male-fertility-parameters-and-fecundability-a-systematic-review-of-observational-studies
#11
Albert Salas-Huetos, Mònica Bulló, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
BACKGROUND: Infertility is a global public health issue, affecting 15% of all couples of reproductive age. Male factors, including decreased semen quality, are responsible for ~25% of these cases. The dietary pattern, the components of the diet and nutrients have been studied as possible determinants of sperm function and/or fertility. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Previous systematic reviews have been made of the few heterogeneous low-quality randomized clinical trials (RCTs) conducted in small samples of participants and investigating the effect of specific nutrients and nutritional supplements on male infertility...
March 10, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333036/apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-specific-imbalance-of-arachidonic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-in-serum-phospholipids-identifies-individuals-with-preclinical-mild-cognitive-impairment-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Laila Abdullah, James E Evans, Tanja Emmerich, Gogce Crynen, Ben Shackleton, Andrew P Keegan, Cheryl Luis, Leon Tai, Mary J LaDu, Michael Mullan, Fiona Crawford, Corbin Bachmeier
This study was designed to explore the influence of apolipoprotein E (APOE) on blood phospholipids (PL) in predicting preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). Lipidomic analyses were also performed on blood from an AD mouse model expressing human APOE isoforms (EFAD) and five AD mutations and from 195 cognitively normal participants, 23 of who converted to mild cognitive impairment (MCI)/AD within 3 years. APOE ε4-carriers converting to MCI/AD had high arachidonic acid (AA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ratios in PL compared to cognitively normal ε4 and non-ε4 carriers...
March 23, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331158/low-serum-levels-of-epa-are-associated-with-the-size-and-growth-rate-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#13
Tatsuro Aikawa, Tetsuro Miyazaki, Kazunori Shimada, Yurina Sugita, Megumi Shimizu, Shohei Ouchi, Tomoyasu Kadoguchi, Yasutaka Yokoyama, Tomoyuki Shiozawa, Masaru Hiki, Shuhei Takahashi, Hamad Al Shahi, Shizuyuki Dohi, Atsushi Amano, Hiroyuki Daida
AIM: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been reported to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, whether omega-3 PUFAs are involved in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) remains unclear. METHODS: We analyzed 67 consecutive patients admitted for the elective surgical repair of AAA. We investigated the association of serum EPA and DHA levels as well as the EPA/AA ratio with the size of AAA assessed using three-dimensional reconstructed computed tomography images...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326519/influence-of-diet-on-the-risk-of-developing-endometriosis
#14
Joanna Jurkiewicz-Przondziono, Magdalena Lemm, Anna Kwiatkowska-Pamuła, Ewa Ziółko, Mariusz K Wójtowicz
Endometriosis is a hormone-dependent chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the presence of endometrium beyond the uterine cavity. The disease affects 5-15% of women of child-bearing age, 30-50% of whom suffer from infertility. Understanding the role of dietary factors in the development of endometriosis is critical to development of effective dietary instructions for prevention. Existing studies concerning nutrition and endometriosis suggest that diet is a potentially modifiable risk factor for endometriosis...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326003/effects-of-organic-food-consumption-on-human-health-the-jury-is-still-out
#15
Marcin Barański, Leonidas Rempelos, Per Ole Iversen, Carlo Leifert
The most recent systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses have indicated significant and nutritionally-relevant composition differences between organic and conventional foods. This included higher antioxidant, but lower cadmium and pesticide levels in organic crops, and higher omega-3 fatty acids concentrations in organic meat and dairy products. Also, results from a small number of human cohort studies indicate that there are positive associations between organic food consumption and reduced risk/incidence of certain acute diseases (e...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323825/association-between-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-the-brain-and-alzheimer-disease-neuropathology-and-cognitive-performance-a-nontargeted-metabolomic-study
#16
Stuart G Snowden, Amera A Ebshiana, Abdul Hye, Yang An, Olga Pletnikova, Richard O'Brien, John Troncoso, Cristina Legido-Quigley, Madhav Thambisetty
BACKGROUND: The metabolic basis of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology and expression of AD symptoms is poorly understood. Omega-3 and -6 fatty acids have previously been linked to both protective and pathogenic effects in AD. However, to date little is known about how the abundance of these species is affected by differing levels of disease pathology in the brain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed metabolic profiling on brain tissue samples from 43 individuals ranging in age from 57 to 95 y old who were stratified into three groups: AD (N = 14), controls (N = 14) and "asymptomatic Alzheimer's disease" (ASYMAD), i...
March 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322000/postprandial-triglyceride-rich-lipoproteins-promote-lipid-accumulation-and-apolipoprotein-b-48-receptor-transcriptional-activity-in-human-circulating-and-murine-bone-marrow-neutrophils-in-a-fatty-acid-dependent-manner
#17
Almudena Ortega-Gómez, Lourdes M Varela, Sergio Lopez, Sergio Montserrat de la Paz, Rosario Sanchez, Francisco J G Muriana, Beatriz Bermúdez, Rocío Abia
SCOPE: Postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) promote atherosclerosis. Recent research points the bone marrow (BM) as a primary site in atherosclerosis. We elucidated how the acute administration of MUFAs, omega-3 PUFAs and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) affects human circulating and murine BM neutrophil lipid accumulation and functionality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia was induced in healthy subjects and Apoe-/- mice by the acute administration of dietary fats enriched in MUFAs, PUFAs or SFAs...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320208/fresh-cheese-as-a-vehicle-for-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-integration-effect-on-physico-chemical-microbiological-and-sensory-characteristics
#18
Barbara Dal Bello, Luisa Torri, Maria Piochi, Marta Bertolino, Giuseppe Zeppa
Five different vegetable oils were used in the production of fresh cheese to increase the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly α-linolenic acid (ALA), the most important omega-3 fatty acid of vegetable origin. Physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of functionalized cheeses were evaluated after 1 and 3 days of ripening at 4 °C while the consumer appreciation was evaluated in the final product at 3 days of ripening. After 3 days, the cheeses with Camelina sativa and Echium plantagineum oils added exhibited the highest retention of PUFAs (mostly ALA) compared to those with flaxseed, raspberry and blackcurrant oils...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317774/development-of-an-up-grading-process-to-produce-mlm-structured-lipids-from-sardine-discards
#19
R Morales-Medina, M Munio, A Guadix, E M Guadix
The aim of the work was to produce MLM structured lipids with caprylic acid (M) as medium chain fatty acid located at the external bonds of the glycerol backbone and concentrated polyunsaturated fatty acids (L) from sardine discards (Sardine pilchardus) in the central bond of the glycerol. To that end, the following steps were conducted: (i) fish oil extraction, (ii) Omega-3 free fatty acids (FFA) concentration (low temperature winterization), (iii) two-steps enzymatic esterification and (iv) triacylglycerols (TAG) purification (liquid column chromatography)...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316988/bioengineered-plants-can-be-a-useful-source-of-omega-3-fatty-acids
#20
REVIEW
Waleed Amjad Khan, Hu Chun-Mei, Nadeem Khan, Amjad Iqbal, Shan-Wu Lyu, Farooq Shah
Omega-3 fatty acids have proven to be very essential for human health due to their multiple health benefits. These essential fatty acids (EFAs) need to be uptaken through diet because they are unable to be produced by the human body. These are important for skin and hair growth as well as for proper visual, neural, and reproductive functions of the body. These fatty acids are proven to be extremely vital for normal tissue development during pregnancy and infancy. Omega-3 fatty acids can be obtained mainly from two dietary sources: marine and plant oils...
2017: BioMed Research International
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