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ocular misalignment

Deniz Somer, Fatma Gul Cinar, Ahmet Kaderli, Firdevs Ornek
PURPOSE: To discuss surgical intervention strategies and innervation among patients with horizontal gaze palsy with concurrent esotropia. METHODS: Five consecutive patients with dorsal pontine lesions are presented. Each patient had horizontal gaze palsy with symptomatic diplopia as a consequence of esotropia in attempted primary gaze and an anomalous head turn to attain single binocular vision. RESULTS: Clinical findings in the first 2 patients led us to presume there was complete loss of rectus muscle function from rectus muscle palsy...
September 17, 2016: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Joshua D Stein, Chris Andrews, David C Musch, Carmen Green, Paul P Lee
Sight-threatening eye diseases such as strabismus (misaligned eyes) and amblyopia (lazy eye) develop during childhood. The earlier in life these diseases are diagnosed and effectively treated, the greater the chance of preventing irreversible long-term sight loss. Using 2001-14 claims data for nearly 900,000 US children with health insurance, we followed a cohort for up to fourteen years from birth, to assess whether household net worth affected rates of visits to ophthalmologists and optometrists or rates of diagnoses of strabismus and amblyopia...
August 1, 2016: Health Affairs
Carles Otero, Meritxell Vilaseca, Montserrat Arjona, Joan A Martínez-Roda, Jaume Pujol
BACKGROUND: The aim was to assess the agreement in the measurement of ocular aberrations between a new Adaptive Optics Vision Analyzer (AOVA, Voptica, Murcia, Spain) and a commercial aberrometer (KR-1 W, Topcon, Tokyo, Japan), both based on the Hartmann-Shack technique. METHODS: One experienced examiner measured 29 healthy right eyes nine consecutive times with the two instruments. The individual Zernike coefficients and the root mean square (RMS) of each order from the second to the fifth order, the higher-order RMS (RMSHOA ), the total RMS (RMSTOT ) and the values of the spherical equivalent (M) and Jackson cross-cylinder (J0 and J45 ) were compared...
July 19, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Fiona Costello
Visual disturbances are frequently encountered in multiple sclerosis (MS), and include problems with how affected individuals see the world (afferent visual pathway symptoms) and how their eyes move together (efferent visual pathway disorders). Optic neuritis is the most common afferent visual pathway manifestation of MS, from which visual recovery is often incomplete. Visual field defects caused by lesions in the retrochiasmal or retrogeniculate regions of the afferent visual pathway also occur, albeit less frequently...
April 2016: Seminars in Neurology
Soh Youn Suh, Alan Le, Robert A Clark, Joseph L Demer
PURPOSE: Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we investigated whether rectus pulleys are significantly displaced in superior oblique (SO) palsy and whether displacements account for strabismus patterns. DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four patients diagnosed with SO palsy based on atrophy of the SO muscle on MRI and 19 age-matched orthotropic control subjects. METHODS: High-resolution, surface coil MRI scans were obtained in multiple, contiguous, quasicoronal planes during monocular central gaze fixation...
June 2016: Ophthalmology
Christian Van Nechel
Reliable knowledge of one's space is a prerequisite for effective action, and only sensory experience, although not alone sufficient, can provide access to knowledge of reality. All the diferent sensory modalities help to make sense of this mental construct, but visual information, when available, is predominant. This requires stable images and constant updating of one's awareness of gaze direction and position in space at the moment of acquisition. The vestibular system is sensitive to angular and linear accelerations and thus acts as a reference for stability--an inertial base which stabilizes and characterizes the gaze direction and encodes the subject's movement tracking...
June 2014: Bulletin de L'Académie Nationale de Médecine
Robert F Hess, Rifeng Ding, Simon Clavagnier, Catherine Liu, Cindy Guo, Catherine Viner, Brendan T Barrett, Krupali Radia, Jiawei Zhou
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop a convenient test of stereopsis in the clinic that is both robust and reliable and capable of providing a measure of variability necessary to make valid comparisons between measurements obtained at different occasions or under different conditions. METHODS: Stereo acuity was measured based on principles derived from the laboratory measurement of stereopsis (i.e., staircase method). Potential premeasurement compensations are described if there is a significant degree of ocular misalignment, reduced visual acuity, or aniseikonia...
March 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Justin D Marsh, Pinar Topcu Yilmaz, David L Guyton
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and surgical management of patients with an "inverted Brown pattern," which is defined clinically as a hypertropia with greatest deviation in down-and-in gaze of the higher eye, having the appearance of superior oblique muscle underaction but without significant inferior oblique muscle overaction. METHODS: The medical records of patients with this misalignment pattern who had cyclovertical muscle surgery at our institution from 2003 through 2015 were retrospectively reviewed; medical records were analyzed for pre- and postoperative motility patterns, fundus torsion, intraoperative findings, and type of strabismus surgery...
February 2016: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Yiannis Iordanous, Alex Mao, Inas Makar
BACKGROUND/AIM: Despite successful ocular realignment, many strabismus patients never develop high levels of stereopsis. The purpose of this study was to determine preoperative factors that affect postoperative stereopsis in patients with acquired partially accommodative esotropia (APAET). METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent successful surgery for APAET. We compared preoperative factors between patients achieving postoperative stereopsis of 100 seconds of arc or better versus those with worse than 100 seconds of arc...
2015: Strabismus
Yehoshua Almog, Merav Ben-David, Arie Y Nemet
Myasthenia gravis may affect any of the six extra-ocular muscles, masquerading as any type of ocular motor pathology. The frequency of involvement of each muscle is not well established in the medical literature. This study was designed to determine whether a specific muscle or combination of muscles tends to be predominantly affected. This retrospective review included 30 patients with a clinical diagnosis of myasthenia gravis who had extra-ocular muscle involvement with diplopia at presentation. The diagnosis was confirmed by at least one of the following tests: Tensilon test, acetylcholine receptor antibodies, thymoma on chest CT scan, or suggestive electromyography...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Marousa Pavlou, James Acheson, Despina Nicolaou, Clare L Fraser, Adolfo M Bronstein, Rosalyn A Davies
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Customized vestibular rehabilitation incorporating optokinetic (OK) stimulation improves visual vertigo (VV) symptoms; however, the degree of improvement varies among individuals. Binocular vision abnormalities (misalignment of ocular axis, ie, strabismus) may be a potential risk factor. This study aimed to investigate the influence of binocular vision abnormalities on VV symptoms and treatment outcome. METHODS: Sixty subjects with refractory peripheral vestibular symptoms underwent an orthoptic assessment after being recruited for participation in an 8-week customized program incorporating OK training via a full-field visual environment rotator or video display, supervised or unsupervised...
October 2015: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Mario Manto, Peter Mariën
Schmahmann's syndrome represents a novel clinical condition consisting of a constellation of cognitive and affective deficits following cerebellar disease. The complex was first described in 1998 as cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS) on the basis of a careful neurological examination, detailed bedside mental state tests, neuropsychological investigations and anatomical neuroimaging of a group of 20 patients with focal cerebellar disorders. The syndrome was characterized by four clusters of symptoms including: (a) impairment of executive functions such as planning, set-shifting, verbal fluency, abstract reasoning and working memory, (b) impaired visuo-spatial cognition, (c) personality changes with blunting of affect or abnormal behaviour, and (d) language deficits including agrammatism, wordfinding disturbances, disruption of language dynamics and dysprosodia...
2015: Cerebellum & Ataxias
Ananda Kalevar, Stephan Ong Tone, Michael Flanders
OBJECTIVE: To further define the clinical features of Duane syndrome and analyze the surgical outcomes in a subset of these patients. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective chart review of 75 patients with Duane syndrome was performed. METHODS: Complete ophthalmologic and orthoptic data were extracted from the patients' charts, and patients were classified into group I, II, or III based on forced primary position (PP) deviation...
August 2015: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Florian T A Kretz, Detlev Breyer, Karsten Klabe, Gerd U Auffarth, Hakan Kaymak
PURPOSE: To evaluate the visual, refractive, and aberrometric outcomes of a bitoric intraocular lens (IOL) and its stability and alignment within the capsular bag. METHODS: A retrospective study including 41 eyes of 24 patients with preexisting corneal astigmatism of 0.75 diopters or greater undergoing cataract surgery with implantation of the bitoric IOL AT TORBI 709M (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany). Visual and refractive outcomes were evaluated during a 3-month follow-up period...
July 2015: Journal of Refractive Surgery
Avery H Weiss, John P Kelly, Richard A Hopper, James O Phillips
PURPOSE: To characterize conjugate eye movements in Crouzon syndrome (CS) patients with and without strabismus. METHODS: Smooth pursuit, saccades, horizontal optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), and horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) were recorded using binocular video-oculography (VOG) in 10 children with CS (5 orthotropic, 5 strabismic) and 12 age-matched controls. Hess-Lancaster plots were generated from Orbit 1.8 using rectus muscle pulley locations from computed tomography imaging...
July 2015: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Julia N Eron, Natan Davidovics, Charles C Della Santina
Sudden unilateral loss of vestibular afferent input causes nystagmus, ocular misalignment, postural instability and vertigo, all of which improve significantly over the first few days after injury through a process called vestibular compensation (VC). Efferent neuronal signals to the labyrinth are thought to be required for VC. To better understand efferent contributions to VC, we compared the time course of VC in wild-type (WT) mice and α9 knockout (α9(-/-)) mice, the latter lacking the α9 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which is thought to represent one signaling arm activated by the efferent vestibular system (EVS)...
August 18, 2015: Neuroscience Letters
Young-Joon Kim, Jimin Maeng, Pedro P Irazoqui
We present a contact lens-like platform that is wirelessly powered by an external coil embedded in eyeglasses via magnetic resonance coupling at 13.56 MHz. The platform is composed of a transparent parylene film as a host substrate, an embedded spiral inductor as a power receiving coil, and metal interconnects for additional electronics. A multilayer thin-film parylene packaging process is used to meet the form factor of a contact lens. A 36 μm-thick metal plating technique is employed on a parylene film to enhance the quality factor (Q) of the receiving coil (Q = 27...
August 2015: Biomedical Microdevices
Michela Fresina, Emilio C Campos
PURPOSE: This current review highlights some of the literature published in the past year from April 2013 to May 2014. DESIGN: Literature Review. METHODS: The present review is based on an extended search for pertinent articles on amblyopia and strabismus published during the specified period. RESULTS: Many articles are often not very comparable to one another because of a lack of randomized clinical trials with most of the studies being retrospective in nature...
November 2014: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Florian Bodranghien, Amy Bastian, Carlo Casali, Mark Hallett, Elan D Louis, Mario Manto, Peter Mariën, Dennis A Nowak, Jeremy D Schmahmann, Mariano Serrao, Katharina Marie Steiner, Michael Strupp, Caroline Tilikete, Dagmar Timmann, Kim van Dun
The cerebellum is involved in sensorimotor operations, cognitive tasks and affective processes. Here, we revisit the concept of the cerebellar syndrome in the light of recent advances in our understanding of cerebellar operations. The key symptoms and signs of cerebellar dysfunction, often grouped under the generic term of ataxia, are discussed. Vertigo, dizziness, and imbalance are associated with lesions of the vestibulo-cerebellar, vestibulo-spinal, or cerebellar ocular motor systems. The cerebellum plays a major role in the online to long-term control of eye movements (control of calibration, reduction of eye instability, maintenance of ocular alignment)...
June 2016: Cerebellum
Suzanne Ftouni, Tracey L Sletten, Christian L Nicholas, David J Kennaway, Steven W Lockley, Shantha M W Rajaratnam
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The study examined the relationship between the circadian rhythm of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) and ocular measures of sleepiness and neurobehavioral performance in shift workers undergoing a simulated night shift. METHODS: Twenty-two shift workers (mean age 33.4, SD 11.8 years) were tested at approximately the beginning (20:00) and the end (05:55) of a simulated night shift in the laboratory. At the time point corresponding to the end of the simulated shift, 14 participants were classified as being within range of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) acrophase--defined as 3 hours before or after aMT6s peak--and 8 were classified as outside aMT6s acrophase range...
October 2015: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
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