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antigravity muscles

Guido Gambara, Michele Salanova, Stefano Ciciliot, Sandra Furlan, Martina Gutsmann, Gudrun Schiffl, Ute Ungethuem, Pompeo Volpe, Hanns-Christian Gunga, Dieter Blottner
Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice) skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype) but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus)...
2017: PloS One
Florian Grimm, Armin Walter, Martin Spüler, Georgios Naros, Wolfgang Rosenstiel, Alireza Gharabaghi
Brain-machine interface-controlled (BMI) neurofeedback training aims to modulate cortical physiology and is applied during neurorehabilitation to increase the responsiveness of the brain to subsequent physiotherapy. In a parallel line of research, robotic exoskeletons are used in goal-oriented rehabilitation exercises for patients with severe motor impairment to extend their range of motion (ROM) and the intensity of training. Furthermore, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is applied in neurologically impaired patients to restore muscle strength by closing the sensorimotor loop...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Florian Grimm, Alireza Gharabaghi
Stroke patients with severe motor deficits cannot execute task-oriented rehabilitation exercises with their affected upper extremity. Advanced rehabilitation technology may support them in performing such reach-to-grasp movements. The challenge is, however, to provide assistance as needed, while maintaining the participants' commitment during the exercises. In this feasibility study, we introduced a closed-loop neuroprosthesis for reach-to-grasp assistance which combines adaptive multi-channel neuromuscular stimulation with a multi-joint arm exoskeleton...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Juha-Pekka Kulmala, Marko T Korhonen, Luca Ruggiero, Sami Kuitunen, Harri Suominen, Ari Heinonen, Aki Mikkola, Janne Avela
INTRODUCTION: The knee and ankle extensors as human primary antigravity muscle groups are of utmost importance in a wide range of locomotor activities. Yet, we know surprisingly little about how these muscle groups work, and specifically, how close to their maximal capacities they function across different modes and intensity of locomotion. Therefore, to advance our understanding of locomotor constraints, we determined and compared relative operating efforts of the knee and ankle extensors during walking, running, and sprinting...
November 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Yo Shih, Yi-Chun Chen, Yin-Shin Lee, Ming-Sheng Chan, Tzyy-Yuang Shiang
BACKGROUND: The triggers for the transition of gait from walking to running during increasing speed locomotion have been attributed to an energy conservation strategy or a relief of excessive muscle activation. Walking beyond the preferred transition speed (PTS) has been proposed as an exercise protocol for boosting energy consumption. However, the biomechanical factors involved while this protocol is used have not been investigated. Thus, this study investigated the difference between walking and running below, during, and beyond the PTS from a biomechanical perspective...
2016: Gait & Posture
Julien Aniort, Cécile Polge, Agnès Claustre, Lydie Combaret, Daniel Béchet, Didier Attaix, Anne-Elisabeth Heng, Daniel Taillandier
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is frequently encountered in hospitalized patients where it is associated with increased mortality and morbidity notably affecting muscle wasting. Increased protein degradation has been shown to be the main actor of AKI-induced muscle atrophy, but the proteolytic pathways involved are poorly known. The Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) is almost systematically activated in various catabolic situations, and the E3 ligases MuRF1 and MAFbx are generally up regulated in atrophying muscles...
April 18, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Christoph Best, Regine Tschan, Nikola Stieber, Manfred E Beutel, Annegret Eckhardt-Henn, Marianne Dieterich
Patients with somatoform vertigo and dizziness (SVD) disorders often report instability of stance or gait and fear of falling. Posturographic measurements indeed indicated a pathological postural strategy. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psychotherapeutic and psychoeducational short-term intervention (PTI) using static posturography and psychometric examination. Seventeen SVD patients took part in the study. The effects of PTI on SVD were evaluated with quantitative static posturography. As primary endpoint a quotient characterizing the relation between horizontal and vertical sway was calculated (Q H/V ), reflecting the individual postural strategy...
2015: Behavioural Neurology
D Natera-de Benito, A Nascimento, A Abicht, C Ortez, C Jou, J S Müller, T Evangelista, A Töpf, R Thompson, C Jimenez-Mallebrera, J Colomer, H Lochmüller
Congenital myopathies are a group of inherited muscle disorders characterized by hypotonia, weakness and a non-dystrophic muscle biopsy with the presence of one or more characteristic histological features. Neuromuscular transmission defects have recently been reported in several patients with congenital myopathies (CM). Mutations in KLHL40 are among the most common causes of severe forms of nemaline myopathy. Clinical features of affected individuals include fetal akinesia or hypokinesia, respiratory failure, and swallowing difficulties at birth...
March 2016: Journal of Neurology
Lu Xia, Kwok-Kuen Cheung, Simon S Yeung, Ella W Yeung
KEY POINTS: Decreased mechanical loading results in skeletal muscle atrophy. The transient receptor potential canonical type 1 (TRPC1) protein is implicated in this process. Investigation of the regulation of TRPC1 in vivo has rarely been reported. In the present study, we employ the mouse hindlimb unloading and reloading model to examine the involvement of TRPC1 in the regulation of muscle atrophy and regrowth, respectively. We establish the physiological relevance of the concept that manipulation of TRPC1 could interfere with muscle regrowth processes following an atrophy-inducing event...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Valeria Agosti, Carmine Vitale, Dario Avella, Rosaria Rucco, Gabriella Santangelo, Pierpaolo Sorrentino, Pasquale Varriale, Giuseppe Sorrentino
The Global Postural Reeducation (GPR) method is a physical therapy based on the stretching of antigravity muscle chains with the parallel enhancement of the basal tone of antagonistic muscles addressed to improve static and dynamic stability. Through a three-dimensional motion analysis (3DMA) system, our study aims to investigate whether in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients a GPR program results in a more physiological gait pattern. The kinematic parameters of gait of twenty subjects with clinically diagnosed PD were calculated...
April 2016: Neurological Sciences
Kazuya Tanimura, Susumu Sato, Yoshinori Fuseya, Koichi Hasegawa, Kiyoshi Uemasu, Atsuyasu Sato, Tsuyoshi Oguma, Toyohiro Hirai, Michiaki Mishima, Shigeo Muro
RATIONALE: Loss of skeletal muscle mass and physical inactivity are important manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and both are closely related to poor prognoses in patients with COPD. Antigravity muscles are involved in maintaining normal posture and are prone to atrophy with inactivity. The erector spinae muscles (ESM) are one of the antigravity muscle groups, and they can be assessed by chest computed tomography (CT). OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that the cross-sectional area of ESM (ESMCSA) visualized on chest CT images may serve as a predictor of mortality in patients with COPD...
March 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
D J Tomlinson, R M Erskine, C I Morse, K Winwood, Gladys Onambélé-Pearson
Obesity is associated with functional limitations in muscle performance and increased likelihood of developing a functional disability such as mobility, strength, postural and dynamic balance limitations. The consensus is that obese individuals, regardless of age, have a greater absolute maximum muscle strength compared to non-obese persons, suggesting that increased adiposity acts as a chronic overload stimulus on the antigravity muscles (e.g., quadriceps and calf), thus increasing muscle size and strength...
June 2016: Biogerontology
E Sheshaberidze, I Merabishvili, M Loria
The goal of the paper is to substantiate the essence of ridetherapy biomechanics as the pathogenetic therapeutic and prophylactic method at lumbar dysplastic (the I and II degrees) and static (short-legged induced) scoliosis. Uneven lower extremities caused by any reason and asymmetric support induce the change in the arrangement of trochantin to the vertebra and correspondingly the uneven loading of lumbar muscles. The asymmetric strength of lumbar muscles evoked by the change in rotator condition becomes the cause of the formation of scoliosis primary arc which, in its turn, causes a compensatory spinal curvature...
November 2015: Georgian Medical News
Takashi Ohira, Fuminori Kawano, Tomotaka Ohira, Katsumasa Goto, Yoshinobu Ohira
Adaptation of morphological, metabolic, and contractile properties of skeletal muscles to inhibition of antigravity activities by exposure to a microgravity environment or by simulation models, such as chronic bedrest in humans or hindlimb suspension in rodents, has been well reported. Such physiological adaptations are generally detrimental in daily life on earth. Since the development of suitable countermeasure(s) is essential to prevent or inhibit these adaptations, effects of neural, mechanical, and metabolic factors on these properties in both humans and animals were reviewed...
July 2015: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Thomas Brandt, Günter Kugler, Roman Schniepp, Max Wuehr, Doreen Huppert
This review shows that persons with visual height intolerance or acrophobia exhibit typical restrictions of visual exploration and imbalance during stance and locomotion when exposed to heights. Eye and head movements are reduced, and gaze freezes to the horizon. Eye movements tend to be horizontal saccades during stance and vertical saccades during locomotion. Body posture is characterized by a stiffening of the musculoskeletal system with increased open-loop diffusion activity of body sway, a lowered sensory feedback threshold for closed-loop balance control, and increased co-contraction of antigravity leg and neck muscles...
April 2015: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Peng-Tao Xu, Zhen Song, Wen-Cheng Zhang, Bo Jiao, Zhi-Bin Yu
Whether or not the atrophic skeletal muscle induces insulin resistance and its mechanisms are not resolved now. The antigravity soleus muscle showed a progressive atrophy in 1-week, 2-week, and 4-week tail-suspended rats. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp showed that the steady-state glucose infusion rate was lower in 4-week tail-suspended rats than that in the control rats. The glucose uptake rates under insulin- or contraction-stimulation were significantly decreased in 4-week unloaded soleus muscle. The key protein expressions of IRS-1, PI3K, and Akt on the insulin-dependent pathway and of AMPK, ERK, and p38 on the insulin-independent pathway were unchanged in unloaded soleus muscle...
2015: BioMed Research International
Martin Flück, Ruowei Li, Paola Valdivieso, Richard M Linnehan, Josiane Castells, Per Tesch, Thomas Gustafsson
We hypothesised that load-sensitive expression of costameric proteins, which hold the sarcomere in place and position the mitochondria, contributes to the early adaptations of antigravity muscle to unloading and would depend on muscle fibre composition and chymotrypsin activity of the proteasome. Biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis (VL) and soleus (SOL) muscles of eight men before and after 3 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) and subjected to fibre typing and measures for costameric (FAK and FRNK), mitochondrial (NDUFA9, SDHA, UQCRC1, UCP3, and ATP5A1), and MHCI protein and RNA content...
2014: BioMed Research International
Chin-Kai Lin, Bor-Chen Kuo, Huey-Min Wu
In the study of Lin, Wu, Lin, Wu, Wu, Kuo, and Yeung (2012 ), the relationship between the validity of postural movement and bilateral motor integration in terms of sensory integration theory was examined. Postural movement is the ability to use the antigravity postures required for stabilization of the neck, trunk and upper extremities via muscle co-contractions in the neck and upper extremities, and balance. Niklasson's (2013 ) comment argued that postural movement should include primitive reflexes in terms of the general abilities approach...
October 2014: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Akihiko Ishihara, Fumiko Nagatomo, Masahiro Terada, Hidemi Fujino, Hiroyo Kondo, Noriaki Ishioka
INTRODUCTION: In this study we investigated the effects of microgravity on the fiber properties of the mouse triceps brachii, a forelimb muscle that has no antigravity function. METHODS: Mice (n = 7) were exposed to microgravity for 13 days on the space shuttle Atlantis (Space Transportation System-135). The fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) staining intensity of the triceps brachii muscle were compared with those of controls (n = 7)...
July 2015: Muscle & Nerve
Giovanni Nicoletti, Ilaria Passaro, Alberto Malovini, Angela Faga, Elena Dalla Toffola
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was an objective integrated assessment of the functional outcomes of reduction mammaplasty. METHODS: The study involved 17 women undergoing reduction mammaplasty from March 2009 to June 2011. Each patient was assessed before surgery and 2 months postoperatively with the original association of 4 subjective and objective assessment methods: a physiatric clinical examination, the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, the Berg Balance Scale, and a static force platform analysis...
October 2013: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
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