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C16 ceramide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138469/adoptive-transfer-of-ceramide-synthase-6-deficient-splenocytes-reduces-the-development-of-colitis
#1
Matthew J Scheffel, Kristi Helke, Ping Lu, Jacob S Bowers, Besim Ogretmen, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Chrystal M Paulos, Christina Voelkel-Johnson
Sphingolipids regulate critical cellular processes including inflammation. Ceramide, which serves a central role in sphingolipid metabolism, is generated by six ceramide synthases (CerS) that differ in substrate specificity. CerS6 preferentially generates C16-ceramide and its mRNA is highly expressed in immune tissues. In this study we analyzed how deficiency of CerS6 impacts on the development of colitis using an adoptive transfer model. Adoptive transfer of CerS6-deficient splenocytes, which have significantly decreased levels of C16-ceramide, showed that CerS6-deficiency protected against the development of colitis...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125130/acid-sphingomyelinase-inhibitors-imipramine-and-zoledronic-acid-increase-skeletal-muscle-tissue-sensitivity-to-insulin-action-at-old-age
#2
Loay Kh M Hassouneh, Olga A Timofiychuk, Nataliya A Babenko
Malfunction of skeletal muscles and dysregulated turnover of sphingolipids in the insulin responsive tissues have been determined at old age. Present article investigates the role of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase)-dependent ceramide accumulation in reduction of the skeletal muscle sensitivity to insulin action at old age. The 3-, 12- and 24-month-old Wistar male rats were used in the experiments. The progressive increase of ceramide content and ceramide/sphingomyeline (SM) ratio was determined in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle during aging of rats...
November 10, 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092959/evidence-of-hydrocarbon-nanodrops-in-highly-ordered-stratum-corneum-model-membranes
#3
Adrian Paz Ramos, Gert Gooris, Joke Bouwstra, Michel Lafleur
The stratum corneum (SC), the top layer of skin, dictates both the rate of water loss through the skin, and absorption of exogenous molecules into the body. The crystalline organization of the lipids in the SC is believed to be a key feature associated with the very limited permeability of the skin. In this work, we characterized the organization of SC lipid models that include, as in native SC, cholesterol, a free fatty acid series (saturated with C16-C24 chains), as well as a ceramide bearing an oleate linked to a very long saturated acyl chain (Cer EOS)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070436/western-diet-increases-cardiac-ceramide-content-in-healthy-and-hypertrophied-hearts
#4
T J Butler, D Ashford, A-M Seymour
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity and cardiac left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are recognised independent risk factors in the development of heart failure (HF). However, the combination of these factors may exacerbate the onset of cardiovascular disease by mechanisms as yet unclear. LVH leads to significant cellular remodelling, including alterations in metabolism which may result in an inappropriate accumulation of lipids and eventual lipotoxicity and apoptosis. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of dietary manipulation on cardiac metabolism in the obese and hypertrophied heart...
September 7, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068380/shiga-toxin-glycosphingolipid-receptors-in-human-caco-2-and-hct-8-colon-epithelial-cell-lines
#5
Ivan U Kouzel, Gottfried Pohlentz, Julia S Schmitz, Daniel Steil, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Helge Karch, Johannes Müthing
Shiga toxins (Stxs) released by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) into the human colon are the causative agents for fatal outcome of EHEC infections. Colon epithelial Caco-2 and HCT-8 cells are widely used for investigating Stx-mediated intestinal cytotoxicity. Only limited data are available regarding precise structures of their Stx receptor glycosphingolipids (GSLs) globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer) and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4Cer), and lipid raft association. In this study we identified Gb3Cer and Gb4Cer lipoforms of serum-free cultivated Caco-2 and HCT-8 cells, chiefly harboring ceramide moieties composed of sphingosine (d18:1) and C16:0, C22:0 or C24:0/C24:1 fatty acid...
October 25, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057873/macrophage-vldlr-mediates-obesity-induced-insulin-resistance-with-adipose-tissue-inflammation
#6
Kyung Cheul Shin, Injae Hwang, Sung Sik Choe, Jeu Park, Yul Ji, Jong In Kim, Gha Young Lee, Sung Hee Choi, Jianhong Ching, Jean-Paul Kovalik, Jae Bum Kim
Obesity is closely associated with increased adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), which contribute to systemic insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism by creating a pro-inflammatory environment. Very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) is involved in lipoprotein uptake and storage. However, whether lipid uptake via VLDLR in macrophages affects obesity-induced inflammatory responses and insulin resistance is not well understood. Here we show that elevated VLDLR expression in ATMs promotes adipose tissue inflammation and glucose intolerance in obese mice...
October 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039121/degradation-of-glycosphingolipids-in-oyster-ceramide-glycanase-and-ceramidase-in-the-hepatopancreas-of-oyster-crassostrea-virginica
#7
Nadejda V Pavlova, Su-Chen Li, Yu-Teh Li
The hepatopancreas of oyster, Crassostrea virginica, was found to contain two unique glycosphingolipid (GSL) cleaving enzymes, ceramide glycanase (CGase) and ceramidase. These two enzymes were found to be tightly associated together through the consecutive purification steps including gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction and cation-exchange chromatographies. They were separated only by preparatory SDS-PAGE. The purified CGase was found to have a molecular mass of 52 kDa and pH optimum of 3.2-3.3. This enzyme prefers to hydrolyze the acidic GSLs, II(3)SO3LacCer and gangliosides over the neutral GSLs...
October 16, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031494/nb-06-from-a-simple-lysosomotropic-asmase-inhibitor-to-tools-for-elucidating-the-role-of-lysosomes-in-signaling-apoptosis-and-lps-induced-inflammation
#8
Markus Blaess, Nelly Bibak, Ralf A Claus, Matthias Kohl, Gabriel A Bonaterra, Ralf Kinscherf, Stefan Laufer, Hans-Peter Deigner
Ceramide generation is involved in signal transduction of cellular stress response, in particular during stress-induced apoptosis in response to stimuli such as minimally modified Low-density lipoproteins, TNFalpha and exogenous C6-ceramide. In this paper we describe 48 diverse synthetic products and evaluate their lysosomotropic and acid sphingomyelinase inhibiting activities in macrophages. A stimuli-induced increase of C16-ceramide in macrophages can be almost completely suppressed by representative compound NB 06 providing an effective protection of macrophages against apoptosis...
September 21, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982973/metabolomic-analysis-of-insulin-resistance-across-different-mouse-strains-and-diets
#9
Jacqueline Stöckli, Kelsey H Fisher-Wellman, Rima Chaudhuri, Xiao-Yi Zeng, Daniel J Fazakerley, Christopher C Meoli, Kristen C Thomas, Nolan J Hoffman, Salvatore P Mangiafico, Chrysovalantou E Xirouchaki, Chieh-Hsin Yang, Olga Ilkayeva, Kari Wong, Gregory J Cooney, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, Deborah M Muoio, David E James
Insulin resistance is a major risk factor for many diseases. However, its underlying mechanism remains unclear in part because it is triggered by a complex relationship between multiple factors including genes and the environment. Here we used metabolomics combined with computational methods to identify factors that classified insulin resistance across individual mice derived from three different mouse strains fed two different diets. Three inbred ILSXISS strains were fed high fat or chow diets and subjected to metabolic phenotyping and metabolomics analysis of skeletal muscle...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979153/novel-phytoceramides-containing-fatty-acids-of-diverse-chain-lengths-are-better-than-a-single-c18-ceramide-n-stearoyl-phytosphingosine-to-improve-the-physiological-properties-of-human-stratum-corneum
#10
Myoung Jin Oh, Young Hoon Cho, So Yoon Cha, Eun Ok Lee, Jin Wook Kim, Sun Ki Kim, Chang Seo Park
Ceramides in the human stratum corneum (SC) are a mixture of diverse N-acylated fatty acids (FAs) with different chain lengths. C24 is the major class of FAs of ceramides. However, there are also other classes of ceramides with diverse chain lengths of FAs, and these lengths generally range from C16 to C26. This study aimed to prepare several types of phytoceramide containing diverse chain lengths of N-acylated FAs and compare them with C18-ceramide N-stearoyl phytosphingosine (NP) in terms of their effects on the physiological properties of the SC...
2017: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977376/plasma-sphingolipids-are-associated-with-gait-parameters-in-the-mayo-clinic-study-of-aging
#11
Alexandra M V Wennberg, Marissa J Schafer, Nathan K LeBrasseur, Rodolfo Savica, Hai H Bui, Clinton E Hagen, John H Hollman, Ronald C Petersen, Michelle M Mielke
Background: Disrupted gait has been associated with an increased risk of frailty, disability, and death, but the causal molecular pathways are not well understood. Sphingolipids, including ceramides, are associated with multiple age-related diseases. Ceramides promote atrophy, necrosis, and proteolysis in cellular and animal models, and ceramide C16:0 levels are negatively correlated with muscle mass in men. However, there is a paucity of evidence examining sphingolipids and physical function...
July 25, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970356/effects-of-meal-ingestion-on-intramyocellular-ceramide-concentrations-and-fractional-de-novo-synthesis-in-humans
#12
Jin Ook Chung, Christina Koutsari, Agnieszka Urszula Blachnio-Zabielska, Kazanna C Hames, Michael D Jensen
We investigated the effects of meal ingestion on intramyofibrillar (IMF) and subsarcolemmal (SS) ceramide metabolism in volunteers ranging from lean to obese. Thirty-eight women and men underwent a steady-state meal ingestion protocol that included a 6.5 h infusion of [U-(13)C] palmitate and muscle biopsies 1.5 h and 6.5 h after starting the tracer infusion. We measured IMF and SS sphingolipid concentrations and the contribution of plasma palmitate to intramyocellular C16:0 ceramide using LC\MS\MS. In response to meal ingestion SS C24 ceramide concentrations, but not C14-C20 concentrations, increased significantly...
September 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950193/potential-application-of-oat-derived-ceramides-in-improving-skin-barrier-function-part-1-isolation-and-structural-characterization
#13
Efrem N Tessema, Tsige Gebre-Mariam, Stefan Lange, Bodo Dobner, Reinhard H H Neubert
The impaired epidermal barrier and skin dryness in chronic skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and aged skin are associated with the depletion of ceramides (CERs) in the stratum corneum. Previously, the beneficial effects of phyto-CERs, mainly from wheat and rice, in replenishing the depleted epidermal CERs and restoring the skin barrier have been shown. However, very few efforts have been made to exploit CERs from other plants for dermal applications. In an attempt to explore alternative plant source of CERs, glucosylceramides (GlcCERs) were isolated from the lipid extract of Ethiopian oat grain (Avena abyssinica)...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865931/age-associated-alterations-in-the-levels-of-cytotoxic-lipid-molecular-species-and-oxidative-stress-in-the-murine-thymus-are-reduced-by-growth-hormone-treatment
#14
Valeria de Mello-Coelho, Roy G Cutler, Allyson Bunbury, Anita Tammara, Mark P Mattson, Dennis D Taub
During age-associated thymic involution, thymocytes decrease and lipid-laden cells accumulate. However, if and how aging affects the thymic lipid profile is not well understood, nor is it known if the hormonal milieu modifies this process. Here we demonstrate a correlation between reduced thymocyte numbers and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress with age. Evaluating the lipidomics profile of the whole thymus, between the ages of 4 (young) and 18 months (old), we found increased amounts of triacylglycerides, free cholesterol, cholesterol ester and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) with age...
September 1, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814641/ceramide-activation-of-rhoa-rho-kinase-impairs-actin-polymerization-during-aggregated-ldl-catabolism
#15
Rajesh K Singh, Abigail S Haka, Alexandria Brumfield, Inna Grosheva, Priya Bhardwaj, Harvey F Chin, Yuquan Xiong, Timothy Hla, Frederick R Maxfield
Macrophages use an extracellular, hydrolytic compartment formed by local actin polymerization to digest aggregated LDL (agLDL). Catabolism of agLDL promotes foam cell formation and creates an environment rich in LDL catabolites, including cholesterol and ceramide. Increased ceramide levels are present in lesional LDL, but the effect of ceramide on macrophage proatherogenic processes remains unknown. Here, we show that macrophages accumulate ceramide in atherosclerotic lesions. Using macrophages from sphingosine kinase 2 KO (SK2KO) mice to mimic ceramide-rich conditions of atherosclerotic lesions, we show that SK2KO macrophages display impaired actin polymerization and foam cell formation in response to contact with agLDL...
October 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800942/plasma-and-ovarian-tissue-sphingolipids-profiling-in-patients-with-advanced-ovarian-cancer
#16
Paweł Knapp, Lubomir Bodnar, Agnieszka Błachnio-Zabielska, Magdalena Świderska, Adrian Chabowski
PURPOSE: The role of lipids in carcinogenesis through induction of abnormal cell lines in the human body is currently undisputable. Based on the literature, bioactive sphingolipids play an essential role in the development and progression of cancer and are involved in the metastatic process. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of selected sphingolipids in patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC, FIGO III/IV, high grade ovarian cancer). METHODS: Seventy-four patients with ovarian cancer were enrolled...
October 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755941/technical-note-characterization-of-ceramide-in-bovine-lipoproteins
#17
Z C Phipps, F Seck, A N Davis, J E Rico, J W McFadden
The hepatic synthesis and export of ceramide is enhanced in diabetic monogastrics. Moreover, ceramide in lipoproteins can mediate the development of insulin resistance. We have previously demonstrated that circulating ceramide increases during the progression of insulin resistance in postpartum dairy cows. Considering that the origins of circulating ceramide required investigation, our objective was to develop a method to characterize the ceramide profile of lipoprotein fractions collected from dairy cows. Serum was collected from 4 nonpregnant and nonlactating Holstein dairy cows...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709768/plasma-sphingosine-1-phosphate-concentrations-are-associated-with-systolic-heart-failure-in-patients-with-ischemic-heart-disease
#18
Amin Polzin, Kerstin Piayda, Petra Keul, Lisa Dannenberg, Annemarie Mohring, Markus Gräler, Tobias Zeus, Malte Kelm, Bodo Levkau
OBJECTIVE: Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid with important functions in immunity, inflammation and cardiovascular biology. S1P is associated with prevalence and severity of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. However, its relevance in ischemic cardiomyopathy is unknown. We aimed to investigate associations of plasma S1P and other sphingolipids with the extent of heart failure in patients with ischemic heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: 74 patients with ischemic heart disease were investigated in this observational study...
September 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699686/ablation-of-ceramide-synthase-2-exacerbates-dextran-sodium-sulphate-induced-colitis-in-mice-due-to-increased-intestinal-permeability
#19
Ye-Ryung Kim, Giora Volpert, Kyong-Oh Shin, So-Yeon Kim, Sun-Hye Shin, Younghay Lee, Sun Hee Sung, Yong-Moon Lee, Jung-Hyuck Ahn, Yael Pewzner-Jung, Woo-Jae Park, Anthony H Futerman, Joo-Won Park
Ceramides mediate crucial cellular processes including cell death and inflammation and have recently been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease. Ceramides consist of a sphingoid long-chain base to which fatty acids of various length can be attached. We now investigate the effect of alerting the ceramide acyl chain length on a mouse model of colitis. Ceramide synthase (CerS) 2 null mice, which lack very-long acyl chain ceramides with concomitant increase of long chain bases and C16-ceramides, were more susceptible to dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis, and their survival rate was markedly decreased compared with that of wild-type littermates...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694327/efficacy-of-nutritional-interventions-to-lower-circulating-ceramides-in-young-adults-fruvedomic-pilot-study
#20
Alice T Mathews, Oluremi A Famodu, Melissa D Olfert, Pamela J Murray, Christopher F Cuff, Marianne T Downes, Norman J Haughey, Sarah E Colby, Paul D Chantler, I Mark Olfert, Joseph W McFadden
The 2010 USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommends a diet largely composed of fruit and vegetables. Consuming a diet high in fruit and vegetables and low in refined carbohydrates and saturated fat may reduce an individual's risk for type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, low-grade chronic inflammation, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Several recent studies have implicated the bioactive sphingolipid ceramide as an associative and causative biomarker for the development of these conditions...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
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