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Ewa Z Gieysztor, Ludwika Sadowska, Anna M Choińska, Małgorzata Paprocka-Borowicz
BACKGROUND: The angle of trunk rotation (ATR) is a measurement that allows an objective assessment of a growing child's spine. Early detection of trunk rotation prevents the progression of scoliosis. One of the factors that predispose children to the formation of faulty posture may be primitive reflexes, which should be integrated in the central nervous system (CNS) by the age of one year. If retained, primitive reflexes affect children's physical development as well as their development at school...
March 14, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Ben Sidaway, Derek Bonenfant, Jesse Jandreau, Andrew Longley, Kayla Osborne, David Anderson
We sought to determine if the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex influences the accuracy of self-selected arm positioning without vision and to ascertain if such accuracy is influenced by a pre-contraction of the prime movers. Participants reproduced an arm position using their abductors with the head in midline, rotated towards and away from the arm. Arm movements were made with and without a pre-contraction of the abductors. Twenty participants performed eight trials in each of the six different conditions. Compared to the midline position, participants undershot the reference position with the head turned away and overshot the position with the head rotated towards the arm...
January 2015: Acta Psychologica
Toshiki Tazoe, Monica A Perez
It has been proposed that ipsilateral motor pathways play a role in the control of ipsilateral movements and recovery of function after injury. However, the extent to which ipsilateral motor pathways are engaged in voluntary activity in intact humans remains largely unknown. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation over the arm representation of the primary motor cortex, we examined ipsilateral motor-evoked potentials (iMEPs) in a proximal arm muscle during increasing levels of unilateral and bilateral isometric force in a sitting position...
October 15, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
J L Lacey, D Henderson-Smart, D Edwards, B Storey
Neurological assessment at preterm age of 105 infants born at < 34 weeks gestation is discussed. The development of the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR) was studied. There was no consistent post-menstrual age at which the 7 allocated grades occurred. The diagnostic significance of the preterm ATNR response for motor development (until 2 years) was considered. The incidence of an imposable reflex dominating spontaneous movement was significantly different (p<0.001) in the normal (n = 89) versus the abnormal development group (n = 16;13 having spastic cerebral palsy)...
1987: Australian Journal of Physiotherapy
Nuala Livingstone, Martin McPhillips
Persistence of the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR) was examined in children with partial hearing (aged 6-12 years). Core literacy skills were also assessed. Three groups of children were selected from three schools with special units for children with partial hearing. All children completed an upright ATNR test protocol and standardized tests of reading and spelling. Children with partial hearing had significant levels of ATNR persistence, and significant reading and spelling difficulties. The findings suggest that persistence of an early sub-cortical reflex system may be associated with some of the motor and cognitive difficulties experienced by children with partial hearing...
2014: Developmental Neuropsychology
Koichi Maruyama, Mizue Iai, Hiroshi Arai, Kenji Yokochi
OBJECTIVE: Persons with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) caused by injury to the developing brain sometimes present generalized hypertonia in a specific position with extreme muscle overactivity persisting for most of the time during wakefulness. This "persistent generalized muscle contraction" is often associated with bad humor, sleep disturbance, hyperhidrosis, wasting, elevation of serum creatine kinase levels, regular daytime use of hypnotic or sedative medication, and the necessity to maintain the neck or hip in a flexed position manually...
January 2014: No to Hattatsu. Brain and Development
Kevin Parfrey, Sean G T Gibbons, Eric J Drinkwater, David G Behm
BACKGROUND: Individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP) have altered activations patterns of the anterior trunk musculature when performing the abdominal hollowing manœuvre (attempt to pull umbilicus inward and upward towards the spine). There is a subgroup of individuals with CLBP who have high neurocognitive and sensory motor deficits with associated primitive reflexes (PR). The objective of the study was to determine if orienting the head and extremities to positions, which mimic PR patterns would alter anterior trunk musculature activation during the hollowing manoeuvre...
2014: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
S M Bruijn, F Massaad, M J Maclellan, L Van Gestel, Y P Ivanenko, J Duysens
When a cat's head is rotated in a transverse plane to one side, the legs on that side of the body extend, while on the other side, they flex (asymmetric tonic neck reflexes ATNR). On the contrary, when the head is rotated in a sagittal plane both legs flex when the head flexes, and extend when the head extends (symmetric tonic neck reflexes STNR). These reflexes have also been found in newborn babies and are thought to be a motor primitive, which is suppressed later in life. Still, using a test in which children sit on hand and knees, the ATNR and STNR can be found in children up to 9 years of age...
November 27, 2013: Neuroscience Letters
Seray Nural Sığan, Tuğçe Aksu Uzunhan, Nur Aydınlı, Emine Eraslan, Barış Ekici, Mine Calışkan
AIM: Oral motor dysfunction is a common issue in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Drooling, difficulties with sucking, swallowing, and chewing are some of the problems often seen. In this study, we aimed to research the effect of oral motor therapy on pediatric CP patients with feeding problems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Included in this single centered, randomized, prospective study were 81 children aged 12-42 months who had been diagnosed with CP, had oral motor dysfunction and were observed at the Pediatric Neurology outpatient clinic of the Children's Health and Diseases Department, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul University...
July 2013: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Jana Konicarova, Petr Bob, Jiri Raboch
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recent and historical findings suggest that later-developed functions during brain ontogenesis related to higher levels of cognitive and motor integration tend to replace the older, more primitive, ones, and the persistence of the older functions may be linked to specific neuropsychiatric disorders. Currently, there is growing evidence to suggest that persisting primitive reflexes may be related to developmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Preliminary data also suggest that persisting primitive reflexes may be specifically linked to attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
2013: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Kiran Kumar Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay Kumar, Bijoy Bhattacharjya, Kuladip Mukhopadhyay
Eleven cases of chronic (neglected) Monteggia lesion, presented after 6 months of injury, were treated with angulation distraction osteotomy of ulna and annular ligament reconstruction from January 2003 to June 2008 atNRS Medical College, Kolkata. Patients were followed up for a mean period of 56 months, assessed on deformity, pain, function and range of motion. There were terminal restriction of at least 15 degrees pronation in each case.
November 2012: Journal of the Indian Medical Association
Jana Konicarova, Petr Bob
One of the particularly important postnatal developmental reflexes that diminish in later stages of development is asymmetric tonic neck reflex (ATNR), which belongs among the so-called primitive reflexes. According to current evidence, certain later developed functions during ontogenesis of the central nervous system tend to replace the primitive reflexes, and their persistence is related to certain specific neuropsychiatric or neurological disorders. According to current knowledge, there is no evidence to which extent persistence of these reflexes may play a role in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
November 2013: International Journal of Neuroscience
Michiyuki Kawakami, Meigen Liu, Tomoyoshi Otsuka, Ayako Wada, Ken Uchikawa, Asako Aoki, Yohei Otaka
OBJECTIVE: Asymmetrical skull deformity is frequently seen in children with cerebral palsy, and may contribute to postural abnormalities and deformities. The aim of this cross-sectional- survey was to determine the frequency of asymmetrical skull deformity and its correlation with clinical parameters. METHODS: A 10-item checklist for asymmetrical skull deformity, postural abnormalities, and deformities was developed, and its inter-rater reliability was tested. A total of 110 participants aged 1-18 years (mean age 9...
February 2013: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Michael D Ellis, Justin Drogos, Carolina Carmona, Thierry Keller, Julius P A Dewald
The effect of reticular formation excitability on maximum voluntary torque (MVT) generation and associated muscle activation at the shoulder and elbow was investigated through natural elicitation (active head rotation) of the asymmetric tonic neck reflex (ATNR) in 26 individuals with stroke and 9 age-range-matched controls. Isometric MVT generation at the shoulder and elbow was quantified with the head rotated (face pointing) contralateral and ipsilateral to the paretic (stroke) and dominant (control) arm. Given the dominance of abnormal torque coupling of elbow flexion with shoulder abduction (flexion synergy) in stroke and well-developed animal models demonstrating a linkage between reticular formation and ipsilateral elbow flexors and shoulder abductors, we hypothesized that constituent torques of flexion synergy, specifically elbow flexion and shoulder abduction, would increase with contralateral head rotation...
December 2012: Journal of Neurophysiology
Elisa G Hamer, Arend F Bos, Mijna Hadders-Algra
AIM: Abnormal general movements at around 3 months corrected age indicate a high risk of cerebral palsy (CP). We aimed to determine whether specific movement characteristics can improve the predictive power of definitely abnormal general movements. METHOD: Video recordings of 46 infants with definitely abnormal general movements at 9 to 13 weeks corrected age (20 males; 26 females; median gestational age 30wks; median birthweight 1200g) were analysed for the following characteristics: presence of fidgety, cramped synchronized, stiff, or jerky movements and asymmetrical tonic neck reflex pattern...
August 2011: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Céline Scola, Jacques Vauclair
Studies have revealed a preference for the left hemibody in infant holding in 65-85% of cases. Several investigations have linked this preference to maternal asymmetries. The main goal of the present study was to assess manual and hemispheric asymmetries in both mother and child and delineate their respective influence on holding-side biases. Holding side was assessed by direct observation, and by use of a questionnaire within populations of mother-child dyads. Maternal asymmetries were handedness and hemispheric specialization for perceiving emotions...
July 2010: Developmental Psychobiology
S Lee, J Yao, A M Acosta, J A Dewald
Previous studies and clinical observations reveal that stroke survivors show the resurgence of the asymmetric tonic neck reflex (ATNR) both in static and dynamic conditions during maximal efforts. This observation may imply more reliance on the brainstem pathways following stroke. However, the effect of ATNR during a dynamic condition that represents more natural movement, such as reaching, has not been studied before. During reaching movements, the application of a robot controlled haptic environment is important to quantify the effect of ATNR following stroke...
2009: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
R Stücker
The typical asymmetry in infancy is recognized 2-4 weeks after birth and follows the development of a plagiocephaly. The unilateral flattening of the occiput leads to a permanent rotation of the head to one side, shortening of neck muscles and a triggering of the asymmetric tonic neck reflex (ATNR), also known as fencer response. Subsequently a muscle tone increase is forming on the side of the face while a decrease in tone is seen at the occiput side. Clinical signs like increasing neck stiffness, flexible positional scoliosis and pelvic obliquity may ultimately develop...
July 2009: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Martin McPhillips, Julie-Anne Jordan-Black
The primary reflex system emerges during fetal life and is inhibited during the first year after birth. Our aim was to examine the effects of persistence of this early neurological system on the attainment of core literacy skills in dyslexic and non-dyslexic poor readers. We assessed the prevalence of a persistent primary reflex in a cross-sectional, representative sample of children (n=739) aged 7-9 years old attending mainstream primary school in Northern Ireland using standardised educational tests, and a clinical diagnostic test for a primary reflex (the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR))...
March 2, 2007: Neuropsychologia
Mary Pope Grattan, Michael N Nelson, Rosemary C White-Traut, Ushanalini Vasan, Guo-Guang Gu, Susan Littau
High-risk premature infants are likely to show altered patterns in the development of reflexes and postural reactions. This study used the Modified-Measure of Behavioral Laterality (M-MOBL) neonatal assessment to explore differences in reflex and postural reactions among 26 male and female high-risk, premature infants born between 23 and 26 weeks gestational age. M-MOBL scores at 33-36.5 weeks were compared to those at 36.5-40 weeks of age, shortly before hospital discharge. The M-MOBL data were analyzed using the categorical method (CATMOD) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVAs) to compare the development of asymmetric movement patterns in: (1) non-injured and CNS-injured high-risk, premature infants, (2) control and experimental infants who received multi-sensory stimulation, and (3) males and female infants...
2005: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
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