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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895024/tuberculosis-meningitis
#1
REVIEW
Kassem Bourgi, Christina Fiske, Timothy R Sterling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the most severe form of tuberculosis (TB), TB meningitis disproportionately affects developing countries and results in significant morbidity and mortality. In this report, we review recent updates in the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of TB meningitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Young children and people living with HIV continue to be at highest risk for TB meningitis. Early diagnosis remains challenging, especially since conventional diagnostic tests have sub-optimal sensitivity and specificity...
September 11, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843114/clinical-and-radiological-predictors-of-outcome-in-tubercular-meningitis-a-prospective-study-of-209-patients
#2
M Modi, K Sharma, S Prabhakar, M K Goyal, A Takkar, N Sharma, A Garg, S Faisal, N Khandelwal, P Singh, J Sachdeva, R Shree, V Rishi, V Lal
OBJECTIVES: The predictors of poor outcome in tuberculous meningitis (TBM) remain to be delineated. We determined role of various clinical, radiological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters in prediction of outcome in TBM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Current study was a prospective observational study including 209 patients of TBM. All patients underwent detailed evaluation including Gadolinium enhanced Magnetic resonance imaging (GdMRI) of brain as well as tests to detect evidence of tuberculosis elsewhere in body...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820170/paradoxical-worsening-of-a-case-of-tb-subretinal-abscess-with-serpiginous-like-choroiditis-following-the-initiation-of-antitubercular-therapy
#3
Sudha K Ganesh, B Sowkath Ali
A 37-year-old immunocompetent male patient presented with the blurring of vision, both eyes for the past1 year. Fundus examination revealed bilateral multiple subretinal abscesses with areas of healed serpiginous-like choroiditis. Laboratory investigations showed positive tuberculin skin test, positive QuantiFERON TB-Gold Test, and high resolution computed tomography chest showed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. The aqueous sample revealed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) (MPB64 genome)...
August 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798995/splenic-tuberculosis-and-multifocal-serpiginoid-choroiditis
#4
Pradeep Kumar, Prateek Kakkar, Raghav Ravani, R Karthikeya, Atul Kumar
Serpiginoid multifocal choroiditis is a distinct morphological identity with a reported causal association with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We report a case of serpiginoid multifocal choroiditis in a 17-year-old boy who was suffering from isolated splenic tuberculosis. He was treated with systemic steroids along with anti-tubercular treatment with good visual recovery. This case was unique as no other organs except spleen and choroid showed tubercular involvement. We hereby emphasize association of extrapulmonary sites with multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis and propose a thorough investigation for primary to be included in routine protocol of choroiditis workup...
August 10, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776591/presumed-tuberculosis-associated-uveitis-rising-incidence-and-widening-criteria-for-diagnosis-in-a-non-endemic-area
#5
N Krassas, J Wells, C Bell, M Woodhead, N Jones
PurposeTo assess the incidence, clinical ocular involvement and effectiveness of anti-tuberculous treatment in patients with chronic uveitis presumed to be associated with tuberculosis in a non-endemic community.Patients and methodsRetrospective case series of patients with uveitis and evidence of tuberculosis, with no other identified cause of uveitis, who underwent a 6-month course of standard anti-tuberculosis treatment between 2008 and 2015. The response to treatment was assessed at 6 and 12 months after initiation of treatment...
August 4, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765186/tuberculous-pericarditis-treated-with-steroid-in-a-dialysis-patient
#6
Rie Aoyama, Joji Ishikawa, Kazumasa Harada, Yayoi Tukada
Mycobacterium tuberculosis has spread worldwide and its mortality rate had been very high. The prevention technology and antituberculosis (TB) chemotherapy has improved its prognosis. However, immunocompromised patients, such as those who had HIV infection, older age and on haemodialysis, are still at high risk of TB infection. TB pericarditis is a common cause of constrictive pericarditis and its mortality remains high. Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy are critical to improve mortality...
August 1, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764227/portal-venous-thrombosis-disseminated-tuberculosis-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#7
Vasanthi Natarajan, Kevin John, David Jose, Pradeep Kalaiselvan, Ashok Kumar Das
Vascular thrombosis is one of the complications of tuberculosis. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thrombosis have been reported with pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Splenic involvement in abdominal tuberculosis is among the rarest manifestations. Disseminated tuberculosis is predominantly reported in rheumatoid arthritis following ingestion of biological agents. Here, we report a case of disseminated tuberculosis in a rheumatoid arthritis patient who was on steroids and methotrexate for a long period, presenting with multiple splenic lesion and portal vein thrombosis, which was not reported earlier...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756294/vitamin-d-cod-liver-oil-sunshine-and-phototherapy-safe-effective-and-forgotten-tools-for-treating-and-curing-tuberculosis-infections-a-comprehensive-review
#8
REVIEW
Patrick J McCullough, Douglas S Lehrer
Tuberculosis remains an epidemic throughout the world, with over 2 billion people, or more than one third of the world's population, infected with TB. In 2015, there were an estimated 10.4 million new cases of tuberculosis, and 1.8 million deaths, making TB one of the top ten causes of death worldwide. Approximately 95% of new TB cases occur in developing countries, where the costs of treatment force many patients and their families into poverty. The United Nations and the World Health Organization are working to end this global epidemic...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735154/accuracy-of-c-reactive-protein-as-a-bacterial-infection-marker-in-critically-immunosuppressed-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Vanessa Martins de Oliveira, Rafael Barberena Moraes, Airton Tetelbom Stein, Eliana Márcia Wendland
BACKGROUND: There is a need for a better understanding of the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a valid marker for the detection of bacterial infections in critically immunosuppressed patients. A high negative predictive value of CRP is also needed to rule out sepsis and bacterial infections in immunocompetent patients. However, few studies have evaluated the performance of CRP in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of CRP as a marker of infection in critically immunosuppressed patients...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718933/treatment-of-hidradenitis-suppurativa-with-rifampicin-have-we-forgotten-tuberculosis
#10
P Mendes-Bastos, R Macedo, R Duarte
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, recurrent and debilitating skin disease of the hair follicle that is accompanied by systemic inflammation. Treating HS is challenging, and therapeutic tools as diverse as topical and systemic antibiotics, biologics, intralesional steroids, surgical procedures or light and laser therapies are frequently needed. The combination of oral clindamycin and rifampicin (R+C) has been suggested as a possible treatment regimen (level of evidence III, strength of recommendation C)...
July 18, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713389/non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-as-host-directed-therapy-for-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Vera M Kroesen, Matthias I Gröschel, Neil Martinson, Alimuddin Zumla, Markus Maeurer, Tjip S van der Werf, Cristina Vilaplana
Lengthy, antimicrobial therapy targeting the pathogen is the mainstay of conventional tuberculosis treatment, complicated by emerging drug resistances. Host-directed therapies, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), in contrast, target host factors to mitigate disease severity. In the present Systematic Review, we investigate whether NSAIDs display any effects as therapy of TB and discuss possible mechanisms of action of NSAIDs as adjunctive therapy of TB. Ten studies, seven preclinical studies in mice and three clinical trials, were included and systematically reviewed...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672783/vitamin-d-and-infectious-diseases-simple-bystander-or-contributing-factor
#12
REVIEW
Pedro Henrique França Gois, Daniela Ferreira, Simon Olenski, Antonio Carlos Seguro
Vitamin D (VD) is a fat-soluble steroid essential for life in higher animals. It is technically a pro-hormone present in few food types and produced endogenously in the skin by a photochemical reaction. In recent decades, several studies have suggested that VD contributes to diverse processes extending far beyond mineral homeostasis. The machinery for VD production and its receptor have been reported in multiple tissues, where they have a pivotal role in modulating the immune system. Similarly, vitamin D deficiency (VDD) has been in the spotlight as a major global public healthcare burden...
June 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670225/management-of-ulcerative-colitis-in-taiwan-consensus-guideline-of-the-taiwan-society-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#13
REVIEW
Shu-Chen Wei, Ting-An Chang, Te-Hsin Chao, Jinn-Shiun Chen, Jen-Wei Chou, Yenn-Hwei Chou, Chiao-Hsiung Chuang, Wen-Hung Hsu, Tien-Yu Huang, Tzu-Chi Hsu, Chun-Chi Lin, Hung-Hsin Lin, Jen-Kou Lin, Wei-Chen Lin, Yen-Hsuan Ni, Ming-Jium Shieh, I-Lun Shih, Chia-Tung Shun, Yuk-Ming Tsang, Cheng-Yi Wang, Horng-Yuan Wang, Meng-Tzu Weng, Deng-Chyang Wu, Wen-Chieh Wu, Hsu-Heng Yen, Jau-Min Wong
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease characterized by chronic mucosal inflammation of the colon, and the prevalence and incidence of UC have been steadily increasing in Taiwan. A steering committee was established by the Taiwan Society of Inflammatory Bowel Disease to formulate statements on the diagnosis and management of UC taking into account currently available evidence and the expert opinion of the committee. Accurate diagnosis of UC requires thorough clinical, endoscopic, and histological assessment and careful exclusion of differential diagnoses, particularly infectious colitis...
July 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589071/a-case-report-on-complicated-tuberculous-meningitis
#14
Nadia Jawad, Saira Jafri, Syeda Naqvi, Syed Masroor Ahmad, Shabnam Naveed, Zeeshan Ali
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is associated with significant complications of central nervous system. It is accompanied by nonspecific and heterogeneous clinical symptoms. We focused on the significance of early diagnosis and prompt treatment. We describe a case of TBM in a 19-year-old Asian female. She had a progressive motor weakness with no sensory findings. She was started on antituberculous therapy. Her magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast of dorsolumbar spine showed syringomyelia. Her culture and sensitivity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) came negative...
May 4, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586583/eales-disease
#15
Mohammad Naeem Khan, Syed Shahmeer Raza, Shayan Qadir, Hana Rehman, Amer Kamal Hussain, Muhammad Daniyal Nadeem, Farhan Ullah
Eales disease is an eponym after a British ophthalmologist Henry Eales. The aetiology behind Eales disease is ill-understood and stands controversial. Various systemic diseases associated with peripheral retinal revascularization and Retinal vasculitis could imitate the proliferative and inflammatory phases of Eales' disease, respectively. We present a case of a 30 years old female patient with Eales disease and discuss the clinical features, treatment plan and its outcome in our patient. Tuberculosis appears to be the cause of Eales disease but the relation is yet to be established and clinically proven...
October 2016: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572226/a-clinical-enigma-of-ongoing-constrictive-pericarditis
#16
Deacon Zhao Jun Lee, Reshma Amin, John Baksi, Robert Gerber
A 59-year-old lady presented with a 1-week history of orthopnoea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea, night sweats and a productive cough. She had no recent history of travel. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed preserved left ventricular systolic function with abnormal pericardial thickening and restrictive left ventricular filling consistent with pericardial constriction. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a globally thickened pericardium and showed evidence of pericardial inflammation and constrictive physiology...
June 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557287/epidemiology-and-clinical-features-of-inflammatory-retinal-vascular-occlusions-pooled-data-from-two-tertiary-referral-institutions
#17
Aniruddha Agarwal, Samendra Karkhur, Kanika Aggarwal, Alessandro Invernizzi, Ramandeep Singh, Mangat R Dogra, Vishali Gupta, Amod Gupta, Diana V Do, Quan D Nguyen
IMPORTANCE: In a subset of patients with retinal vasculitis, there is occlusion of blood flow through the retinal vessels. These eyes are at high risk of sight-threatening complications. BACKGROUND: To characterize epidemiology, clinical course, treatment and outcomes of occlusive retinal vasculitis (ORV). DESIGN: Retrospective study PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-seven uveitis patients with ORV at two large tertiary-care institutions (the USA and India)...
May 29, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540624/need-for-different-cutoff-values-for-reading-mantoux-test-with-2tu-and-5tu-ppd
#18
Savitha M Ramaraj, K Nagendra, Girish Gopal, Sumanth Mallikarjuna Majgi
OBJECTIVE: To compare the tuberculin reaction of 2 tuberculin unit (TU) with 5TU purified protein derivative (PPD) (both calibrated against RT 23) in healthy children. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study done in the pediatric outpatient department of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Seventy healthy siblings of the children attending pediatric outpatient department in the age group of 1 to 12 y were enrolled. The exclusion criteria included previously diagnosed tuberculosis patients, malnutrition diagnosed according to the WHO classification, history of drug intake like steroids, recent history of measles, any skin lesions over forearm, history of fever, contact with tuberculosis and previous mantoux testing...
May 25, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534271/optic-disc-granuloma-with-epididymitis-a-diagnostic-challenge
#19
Parthopratim Dutta Majumder, Sowkath Ali, Jyotirmay Biswas
BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis and tuberculosis (TB) share epidemiological, immunological, and molecular features common to both, and often, it becomes difficult to differentiate them especially in a highly TB-endemic country like India. We report a case of optic disc granuloma along with epididymitis and infertility in a male who showed a response to treatment with anti-tuberculosis therapy and steroids. RESULTS: A 35-year-old Indian male who presented with complaints of blurring vision in the right eye for 6 months and treated elsewhere with two intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF was found to have optic disc granuloma in the right eye...
December 2017: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500120/the-clinical-conundrum-of-diagnosing-and-treating-systemic-sarcoidosis-in-a-high-tb-burden-area
#20
Krishnadas Thulasidoss, Lavanya Asokan, Piyush Chandra, Pravinkumar Rejliwal
A 53-year-old woman from Southern India presented with weight loss, anorexia, fever and asthenia. Whole body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) showed fluorodeoxyglucose-avid mediastinal and abdominal lymphadenopathy with hepatic, splenic, parotid and lacrimal glandular inflammations. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of subcarinal lymph node showed non-caseating granulomas. Initial serum ACE level was elevated but with normal calcium. Despite the suspicion of sarcoidosis, a trial of antituberculosis therapy was started empirically due to similar presentations of disseminated tuberculosis (TB) in this high endemic area...
May 12, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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