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sensory processing

Michael Brecht, Constanze Lenschow, Rajnish P Rao
How does social and sexual information processing map onto cortical circuits? Addressing this question has been difficult, because of a lack of circuit-oriented social neuroscience and an absence of measurements from interacting brains. Recent work showed social information is already differentially processed in the primary sensory cortices. Converging evidence suggests that prefrontal areas contribute to social interaction processing and determining social hierarchies. In social interactions, we identify gender in split seconds, but after centuries of anatomy we are still unable to distinguish male and female cortices...
April 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Ukpong B Eyo, Mingshu Mo, Min-Hee Yi, Madhuvika Murugan, Junting Liu, Rohan Yarlagadda, David J Margolis, Pingyi Xu, Long-Jun Wu
Microglia are an exquisitely tiled and self-contained population in the CNS that do not receive contributions from circulating monocytes in the periphery. While microglia are long-lived cells, the extent to which their cell bodies are fixed and the molecular mechanisms by which the microglial landscape is regulated have not been determined. Using chronic in vivo two-photon imaging to follow the microglial population in young adult mice, we document a daily rearrangement of the microglial landscape. Furthermore, we show that the microglial landscape can be modulated by severe seizures, acute injury, and sensory deprivation...
April 24, 2018: Cell Reports
Rogier B Poorthuis, Karzan Muhammad, Mantian Wang, Matthijs B Verhoog, Stephan Junek, Anne Wrana, Huibert D Mansvelder, Johannes J Letzkus
Inhibitory interneurons govern virtually all computations in neocortical circuits and are in turn controlled by neuromodulation. While a detailed understanding of the distinct marker expression, physiology, and neuromodulator responses of different interneuron types exists for rodents and recent studies have highlighted the role of specific interneurons in converting rapid neuromodulatory signals into altered sensory processing during locomotion, attention, and associative learning, it remains little understood whether similar mechanisms exist in human neocortex...
April 24, 2018: Cell Reports
Christina Labarrera, Yair Deitcher, Amir Dudai, Benjamin Weiner, Adi Kaduri Amichai, Neta Zylbermann, Michael London
The excitability of the apical tuft of layer 5 pyramidal neurons is thought to play a crucial role in behavioral performance and synaptic plasticity. We show that the excitability of the apical tuft is sensitive to adrenergic neuromodulation. Using two-photon dendritic Ca2+ imaging and in vivo whole-cell and extracellular recordings in awake mice, we show that application of the α2A-adrenoceptor agonist guanfacine increases the probability of dendritic Ca2+ events in the tuft and lowers the threshold for dendritic Ca2+ spikes...
April 24, 2018: Cell Reports
Sebastian-Alexander Stamatis, Katrine Worsaae, Anders Garm
Cubozoans have the most intricate visual apparatus within Cnidaria. It comprises four identical sensory structures, the rhopalia, each of which holds six eyes of four morphological types. Two of these eyes are camera-type eyes that are, in many ways, similar to the vertebrate eye. The visual input is used to control complex behaviors, such as navigation and obstacle avoidance, and is processed by an elaborate rhopalial nervous system. Several studies have examined the rhopalial nervous system, which, despite a radial symmetric body plan, is bilaterally symmetrical, connecting the two sides of the rhopalium through commissures in an extensive neuropil...
February 2018: Biological Bulletin
Sayuri Hara-Kuge, Tomonobu Nishihara, Tomoki Matsuda, Tomohiro Kitazono, Takayuki Teramoto, Takeharu Nagai, Takeshi Ishihara
Sensory processing is regulated by the coordinated excitation and inhibition of neurons in neuronal circuits. The analysis of neuronal activities has greatly benefited from the recent development of genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators (GECIs). These molecules change their fluorescence intensities or colours in response to changing levels of Ca2+ and can, therefore, be used to sensitively monitor intracellular Ca2+ concentration, which enables the detection of neuronal excitation, including action potentials...
2018: PloS One
Anna-Maria Maier, Heinz Breer, Jörg Strotmann
The OR37 subsystem is characterized by a variety of unique features. The odorant receptors (ORs) of this subfamily are selectively tuned to specific ligands which are supposed to play a role in social communication. OR37 expressing sensory neurons project their axons to a single receptor specific glomerulus per bulb which have been shown to be unusually stable in size and to possess a distinct repertoire of periglomerular cells. Since the neuronal network surrounding glomeruli is typically modified by the integration of adult born neurons, in this study it was investigated whether the number of adult born cells might be different for OR37 glomeruli compared to other OR-specific glomeruli...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Noor Ismael, Lisa Mische Lawson, Julie Hartwell
Research measuring sensory processing in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has shown variability in terms of measures used and participant ages, contributing to difficulty in interpreting and summarizing the findings of these studies. In an attempt to clarify the status of the literature, we conducted a systematic review of studies that focused on participation in daily occupations and evaluated sensory processing in children with ASD aged 5-13 yr using Dunn's sensory processing framework. Evidence from 7 studies shows that sensory processing has a significant impact on participation in daily life of children with ASD...
May 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Laurie C Delatour, Pamela W Yeh, Hermes H Yeh
Deficits in sensory processing in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) implicate dysfunction in the somatosensory cortex. However, the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on the development of this region await elucidation. Here, we used an established mouse model of FASD with binge-type ethanol exposure from embryonic day 13.5-16.5 to investigate the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on pyramidal neurons in the somatosensory cortex. Specifically, we focused on the radial migration of primordial pyramidal neurons during embryonic corticogenesis and their morphology and function during active synaptogenesis in early postnatal development...
April 24, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Gautam Reddy, Joseph D Zak, Massimo Vergassola, Venkatesh N Murthy
Natural environments feature mixtures of odorants of diverse quantities, qualities and complexities. Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) are the first layer in the sensory pathway and transmit the olfactory signal to higher regions of the brain. Yet, the response of ORNs to mixtures is strongly non-additive, and exhibits antagonistic interactions among odorants. Here, we model the processing of mixtures by mammalian ORNs, focusing on the role of inhibitory mechanisms. We show how antagonism leads to an effective 'normalization' of the ensemble ORN response, that is, the distribution of responses of the ORN population induced by any mixture is largely independent of the number of components in the mixture...
April 24, 2018: ELife
Fei Yu, Li Qiang Zhu, Wan Tian Gao, Yang Ming Fu, Hui Xiao, Jian Tao, Ju Mei Zhou
Recently, surrounding friendly electronic devices are attracting increasing interests. "Green" artificial synapses with learning abilities are also interesting for neuromorphic platforms. Here, solution processed chitosan-based polysaccharide electrolyte gated indium tin oxide (ITO) synaptic transistors are fabricated on PET substrate. Good transistor performances against mechanical stress are observed. Short-term synaptic plasticities are mimicked on the proposed ITO synaptic transistor. When applying pre-synaptic and post-synaptic spikes on gate electrode and drain electrode respectively, spiking timing dependent plasticity function is mimicked on the synaptic transistor...
April 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Alex M Boldin, Romin Geiger, Lauren L Emberson
Prematurity alters developmental trajectories in preterm infants even in the absence of medical complications. Here, we use fNIRS and learning tasks to probe the nature of the developmental differences between preterm and full-term born infants. Our recent work has found that prematurity disrupts the ability to engage in top-down sensory prediction after learning. We now examine the neural changes during the learning that precede prediction. In full-terms, we found modulation of all cortical regions examined during learning (temporal, frontal, and occipital)...
April 24, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
P Liu, Y Fan, Y Wei, F Zeng, R Li, N Fei, W Qin
BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common functional gastrointestinal disease. Neuroimaging studies have identified that insula is involved in the pathogenesis of FD. However, less is known about structural and functional connectivity of insula in FD. METHODS: In this study, 67 FD patients and 46 healthy controls (HCs) underwent structural MRI, resting-state functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans, and clinical assessment. We used the 3 neuroimaging modalities to investigate structural and functional connectivity of insula between FD patients and HCs, and we examined relationships between the neuroimaging findings and clinical symptoms...
April 23, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Martin Häring, Amit Zeisel, Hannah Hochgerner, Puneet Rinwa, Jon E T Jakobsson, Peter Lönnerberg, Gioele La Manno, Nilesh Sharma, Lotta Borgius, Ole Kiehn, Malin C Lagerström, Sten Linnarsson, Patrik Ernfors
The dorsal horn of the spinal cord is critical to processing distinct modalities of noxious and innocuous sensation, but little is known of the neuronal subtypes involved, hampering efforts to deduce principles governing somatic sensation. Here we used single-cell RNA sequencing to classify sensory neurons in the mouse dorsal horn. We identified 15 inhibitory and 15 excitatory molecular subtypes of neurons, equaling the complexity in cerebral cortex. Validating our classification scheme in vivo and matching cell types to anatomy of the dorsal horn by spatial transcriptomics reveals laminar enrichment for each of the cell types...
April 23, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Zoltán Csiki-Sava, Mátyás Vremir, Jin Meng, Stephen L Brusatte, Mark A Norell
The island effect is a well-known evolutionary phenomenon, in which island-dwelling species isolated in a resource-limited environment often modify their size, anatomy, and behaviors compared with mainland relatives. This has been well documented in modern and Cenozoic mammals, but it remains unclear whether older, more primitive Mesozoic mammals responded in similar ways to island habitats. We describe a reasonably complete and well-preserved skeleton of a kogaionid, an enigmatic radiation of Cretaceous island-dwelling multituberculate mammals previously represented by fragmentary fossils...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Wolfgang Schobersberger, Cornelia Blank, Friedrich Hanser, Andrea Griesmacher, Markus Canazei, Veronika Leichtfried
BACKGROUND: Bright light (BL) has been shown to be effective in enhancing both cognitive and physical performances. Alterations in nighttime melatonin levels have also been observed. However, evaluations of light-induced changes in the preceding biochemical processes are absent. Therefore, the impact of a single morning BL exposure on sensorimotor and visuomotor performance, as well as tryptophan (trp) and trp metabolites, was evaluated in this study. METHODS: In a crossover design, 33 healthy volunteers were randomly exposed to 30 min of < 150 lx at eye level (office light, OL) and 5000 lx at eye level (bright light, BL) of 6500 K in the morning hours...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Magdalena Del Río, Mark W Greenlee, Gregor Volberg
Sensory input to the human visual system often becomes accessible to cognition and overt report during processing. We investigated neural precursors of conscious vision using EEG recordings and the popular breaking continuous flash suppression (bCFS) paradigm. In this technique, a mask consisting of high-contrast dynamic patterns is presented to one eye, predominating over a target stimulus presented to the other eye. The time needed for the target stimulus to overcome the suppression is thought to reflect the transition from unconscious to conscious perception...
April 20, 2018: NeuroImage
Arthur J Kuipers, Jeroen Middelbeek, Kirsten Vrenken, Carlos Pérez-González, Geert Poelmans, Jeffrey Klarenbeek, Kees Jalink, Xavier Trepat, Frank N van Leeuwen
Mechanically induced signaling pathways are important drivers of tumor progression. However, if and how mechanical signals affect metastasis or therapy response remains poorly understood. We previously found that the channel-kinase TRPM7, a regulator of cellular tension implicated in mechano-sensory processes, is required for breast cancer metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that TRPM7 contributes to maintaining a mesenchymal phenotype in breast cancer cells by tensional regulation of the EMT transcription factor SOX4...
April 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Sungkean Kim, Hyeonjin Jeon, Kuk-In Jang, Yong-Wook Kim, Chang-Hwan Im, Seung-Hwan Lee
Introduction: Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a measure of automatic neurophysiological brain processes for detecting unexpected sensory stimuli. This study investigated MMN reduction in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and examined whether cortical thickness is associated with MMN, for exploratory purposes. Methods: Electroencephalograms were recorded in 38 patients with schizophrenia, 37 patients with bipolar disorder, and 32 healthy controls (HCs) performing a passive auditory oddball paradigm...
April 19, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Sonia Bansal, Judith M Ford, Miriam Spering
Humans and other primates are equipped with neural mechanisms that allow them to automatically make predictions about future events, facilitating processing of expected sensations and actions. Prediction-driven control and monitoring of perceptual and motor acts are vital to normal cognitive functioning. This review provides an overview of corollary discharge mechanisms involved in predictions across sensory modalities and discusses consequences of predictive coding for cognition and behavior. Converging evidence now links impairments in corollary discharge mechanisms to neuropsychiatric symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions...
April 23, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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