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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227903/sensory-processing-difficulties-in-school-age-children-born-very-preterm-an-exploratory-study
#1
Tinka Bröring, Marsh Königs, Kim J Oostrom, Harrie N Lafeber, Anniek Brugman, Jaap Oosterlaan
BACKGROUND: Very preterm birth has a detrimental impact on the developing brain, including widespread white matter brain abnormalities that threaten efficient sensory processing. Yet, sensory processing difficulties in very preterm children are scarcely studied, especially at school age. AIMS: To investigate somatosensory registration, multisensory integration and sensory modulation. PARTICIPANTS: 57 very preterm school-age children (mean age=9...
December 8, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226965/brain-reflections-a-circuit-based-framework-for-understanding-information-processing-and-cognitive-control
#2
Gabriele Gratton
Here, I propose a view of the architecture of the human information processing system, and of how it can be adapted to changing task demands (which is the hallmark of cognitive control). This view is informed by an interpretation of brain activity as reflecting the excitability level of neural representations, encoding not only stimuli and temporal contexts, but also action plans and task goals. The proposed cognitive architecture includes three types of circuits: open circuits, involved in feed-forward processing such as that connecting stimuli with responses and characterized by brief, transient brain activity; and two types of closed circuits, positive feedback circuits (characterized by sustained, high-frequency oscillatory activity), which help select and maintain representations, and negative feedback circuits (characterized by brief, low-frequency oscillatory bursts), which are instead associated with changes in representations...
December 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226549/fasting-induces-astroglial-plasticity-in-the-olfactory-bulb-glomeruli-of-rats
#3
Virginie Daumas-Meyer, Gaëlle Champeil-Potokar, Catherine Chaumontet, Patrice Dahirel, Catherine Papillon, Patrice Congar, Isabelle Denis
The detection of food odors by the olfactory system, which plays a key role in regulating food intake and elaborating the hedonic value of food, is reciprocally influenced by the metabolic state. Fasting increases olfactory performance, notably by increasing the activity of olfactory bulb (OB) neurons. The glutamatergic synapses between olfactory sensory neurons and mitral cells in the OB glomeruli are regulated by astrocytes, periglomerular neurons, and centrifugal afferents. We compared the expansion of astroglial processes by quantifying GFAP-labeled areas in fed and fasted rats to see whether OB glomerular astrocytes are involved in the metabolic sensing and adaptation of the olfactory system...
December 11, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225467/altered-emotional-recognition-and-expression-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Yazhou Jin, Zhiqi Mao, Zhipei Ling, Xin Xu, Zhiyuan Zhang, Xinguang Yu
Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients exhibit deficits in emotional recognition and expression abilities, including emotional faces and voices. The aim of this study was to explore emotional processing in pre-deep brain stimulation (pre-DBS) PD patients using two sensory modalities (visual and auditory). Methods: Fifteen PD patients who needed DBS surgery and 15 healthy, age- and gender-matched controls were recruited as participants. All participants were assessed by the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces database 50 Faces Recognition test...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225040/differential-neuromodulatory-role-of-endocannabinoids-in-the-rodent-trigeminal-sensory-ganglion-and-cerebral-cortex-relevant-to-pain-processing
#5
Francesca Eroli, Inge C M Loonen, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Else A Tolner, Andrea Nistri
Endocannabinoids are suggested to control pain, even though their clinical use is not fully validated and the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. To clarify the targets of endocannabinoid actions, we studied how activation of the endocannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) affects neuronal responses in two in vitro preparations of rodents, namely the trigeminal sensory ganglion (TG) in culture and a coronal slice of the cerebral cortex. On TG small-medium size neurons, we tested whether submicromolar concentrations of the endogenous CB1R agonist anandamide (AEA) modulated inhibitory GABAA receptors and excitatory ATP-gated P2X3 receptors...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224982/perceptual-learning-induces-changes-in-early-and-late-visual-evoked-potentials
#6
Maryam Ahmadi, Elizabeth A McDevitt, Michael A Silver, Sara C Mednick
Studies of visual cortical responses following visual perceptual learning (VPL) have produced diverse results, revealing neural changes in early and/or higher-level visual cortex as well as changes in regions responsible for higher cognitive processes such as attentional control. In this study, we investigated substrates of VPL in the human brain by recording visual evoked potentials with high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG) before (Session 1) and after (Session 2) training on a texture discrimination task (TDT), with two full nights of sleep between sessions...
December 7, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224726/decoding-a-decision-process-in-the-neuronal-population-of-dorsal-premotor-cortex
#7
Román Rossi-Pool, Antonio Zainos, Manuel Alvarez, Jerónimo Zizumbo, José Vergara, Ranulfo Romo
When trained monkeys discriminate the temporal structure of two sequential vibrotactile stimuli, dorsal premotor cortex (DPC) showed high heterogeneity among its neuronal responses. Notably, DPC neurons coded stimulus patterns as broader categories and signaled them during working memory, comparison, and postponed decision periods. Here, we show that such population activity can be condensed into two major coding components: one that persistently represented in working memory both the first stimulus identity and the postponed informed choice and another that transiently coded the initial sensory information and the result of the comparison between the two stimuli...
December 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224721/synergistic-processing-of-visual-contours-across-cortical-layers-in-v1-and-v2
#8
Rujia Chen, Feng Wang, Hualou Liang, Wu Li
Visual cortical areas are interconnected via layer-specific feedforward and feedback projections. Such intricate connections are thought to be essential for parsing complex visual images, but the synergy among different layers in different cortical areas remains unclear. By simultaneously mapping neuronal activities across cortical depths in V1 and V2 of behaving monkeys, we identified spatiotemporally dissociable processes for grouping contour fragments and segregating background components. These processes generated and amplified contour signals within specific layers in V1 and V2...
November 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223770/rhythmic-facilitation-of-sensory-processing-a-critical-review
#9
REVIEW
Saskia Haegens, Elana Zion Golumbic
Here we review the role of brain oscillations in sensory processing. We examine the idea that neural entrainment of intrinsic oscillations underlies the processing of rhythmic stimuli in the context of simple isochronous rhythms as well as in music and speech. This has been a topic of growing interest over recent years; however, many issues remain highly controversial: how do fluctuations of intrinsic neural oscillations-both spontaneous and entrained to external stimuli-affect perception, and does this occur automatically or can it be actively controlled by top-down factors? Some of the controversy in the literature stems from confounding use of terminology...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223695/the-role-of-space-in-patients-experience-of-an-emergency-department-a-qualitative-study
#10
Margo Annemans, Chantal Van Audenhove, Hilde Vermolen, Ann Heylighen
INTRODUCTION: Nurses are increasingly involved in the design of health care facilities. Although their experience differs from that of patients, they are often expected to represent patients in design processes. Especially in the context of an emergency department, patients' states of mind alter their experiences. Knowledge about the role of space in ED patients' experience is limited. Our study aims to gain insight into this role and thus provide ED nurses with information to better represent ED patients' perspectives in design...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223014/differentiation-of-dry-cured-hams-from-different-processing-methods-by-means-of-volatile-compounds-physico-chemical-and-sensory-analysis
#11
Sandra Petričević, Nives Marušić Radovčić, Katarina Lukić, Eddy Listeš, Helga Medić
The aim of this study was to characterize dry-cured hams from four different processing methods (differences in primary leg treatment, salting and smoking phase). Volatile compounds were isolated by using headspace-solid phase microextraction and analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Samples were also evaluated by sensory and physico-chemical characteristics (moisture, protein, fat and NaCl content, aw, colour). 149 volatile compounds of dry-cured hams were identified and 15 of them were quantified...
December 5, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222517/input-dependent-regulation-of-excitability-controls-dendritic-maturation-in-somatosensory-thalamocortical-neurons
#12
Laura Frangeul, Vassilis Kehayas, Jose V Sanchez-Mut, Sabine Fièvre, K Krishna-K, Gabrielle Pouchelon, Ludovic Telley, Camilla Bellone, Anthony Holtmaat, Johannes Gräff, Jeffrey D Macklis, Denis Jabaudon
Input from the sensory organs is required to pattern neurons into topographical maps during development. Dendritic complexity critically determines this patterning process; yet, how signals from the periphery act to control dendritic maturation is unclear. Here, using genetic and surgical manipulations of sensory input in mouse somatosensory thalamocortical neurons, we show that membrane excitability is a critical component of dendritic development. Using a combination of genetic approaches, we find that ablation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors during postnatal development leads to epigenetic repression of Kv1...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222423/voluntary-modulation-of-mental-effort-investment-an-fmri-study
#13
Omar T Khachouf, Gang Chen, Davide Duzzi, Carlo A Porro, Giuseppe Pagnoni
Mental effort is a common phenomenological construct deeply linked to volition and self-control. While it is often assumed that the amount of exertion invested in a task can be voluntarily regulated, the neural bases of such faculty and its behavioural effects are yet insufficiently understood. In this study, we investigated how the instructions to execute a demanding cognitive task either "with maximum exertion" or "as relaxed as possible" affected performance and brain activity. The maximum exertion condition, compared to relaxed execution, was associated with speeded motor responses without an accuracy trade-off, and an amplification of both task-related activations in dorsal frontoparietal and cerebellar regions, and task-related deactivations in default mode network (DMN) areas...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221986/streptococcus-pneumoniae-two-component-regulatory-systems-the-interplay-of-the-pneumococcus-with-its-environment
#14
REVIEW
Alejandro Gómez-Mejia, Gustavo Gámez, Sven Hammerschmidt
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathobiont possessing a diverse array of multifunctional proteins essential for bacterial fitness and virulence. Gene expression is tightly controlled by regulatory components and among the pneumococcal sensorial tools, two‑component regulatory systems (TCS) are the most widespread and conserved. This review aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of original studies on pneumococcal TCS on a functional level. Despite a rather chaotic nomenclature, the current available information on pneumococcal regulation by these systems can be conveniently addressed, according to the regulation of pathophysiological cell processes and the responses to detectable environmental signals...
November 26, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221834/emotion-and-sex-of-facial-stimuli-modulate-conditional-automaticity-in-behavioral-and-neuronal-interference-in-healthy-men
#15
Nils Kohn, Guillén Fernández
Our surrounding provides a host of sensory input, which we cannot fully process without streamlining and automatic processing. Levels of automaticity differ for different cognitive and affective processes. Situational and contextual interactions between cognitive and affective processes in turn influence the level of automaticity. Automaticity can be measured by interference in Stroop tasks. We applied an emotional version of the Stroop task to investigate how stress as a contextual factor influences the affective valence-dependent level of automaticity...
December 5, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220308/learning-midlevel-auditory-codes-from-natural-sound-statistics
#16
Wiktor Młynarski, Josh H McDermott
Interaction with the world requires an organism to transform sensory signals into representations in which behaviorally meaningful properties of the environment are made explicit. These representations are derived through cascades of neuronal processing stages in which neurons at each stage recode the output of preceding stages. Explanations of sensory coding may thus involve understanding how low-level patterns are combined into more complex structures. To gain insight into such midlevel representations for sound, we designed a hierarchical generative model of natural sounds that learns combinations of spectrotemporal features from natural stimulus statistics...
December 8, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220202/comparison-of-uv-c-and-pulsed-uv-light-treatments-for-reduction-of-salmonella-listeria-monocytogenes-and-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-on-eggs
#17
Askild L Holck, Kristian H Liland, Signe M Drømtorp, Mats Carlehög, Anette McLEOD
Ten percent of all strong-evidence foodborne outbreaks in the European Union are caused by Salmonella related to eggs and egg products. UV light may be used to decontaminate egg surfaces and reduce the risk of human salmonellosis infections. The efficiency of continuous UV-C (254 nm) and pulsed UV light for reducing the viability of Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on eggs was thoroughly compared. Bacterial cells were exposed to UV-C light at fluences from 0...
January 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218455/the-primary-cilium-once-a-rudimentary-organelle-that-is-now-a-ubiquitous-sensory-cellular-structure-involved-in-many-pathological-disorders
#18
Denys N Wheatley
This article looks mostly at the steps that have led to the primary cilium finding its place in our understanding of cell biology, developmental biology, and medical syndromes due to its aberrations. It is a personal account that stresses, if nothing else, the value of the adage "stick to your guns". My obsession with this organelle, following on from fascination with the centriole, has led to a whole career devoted to determining the nature and role of primary cilia in basic cell biology, which has proved much more important than had been appreciated for almost a century...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218022/association-between-unintentional-interpersonal-postural-coordination-produced-by-interpersonal-light-touch-and-the-intensity-of-social-relationship
#19
Tomoya Ishigaki, Ryota Imai, Shu Morioka
Interpersonal postural coordination (IPC) produced by interpersonal light touch (ILT), whereby time-series variations in the postural sway between two people unintentionally resemble each other, may be a possible social interaction. From a sociopsychological standpoint, close mutual behavioral coordination is recognized as "social glue," which represents the closeness of relationships and contributes to the building of a good rapport. Therefore, we hypothesized that if IPC functions as social glue, then IPC produced by ILT also represents a social relationship...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218004/decoding-of-self-paced-lower-limb-movement-intention-a-case-study-on-the-influence-factors
#20
Dong Liu, Weihai Chen, Ricardo Chavarriaga, Zhongcai Pei, José Del R Millán
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have been applied as new rehabilitation tools for motor disabled individuals. Active involvement of cerebral activity has been shown to enhance neuroplasticity and thus to restore mobility. Various studies have focused on the detection of upper-limb movement intention, while the fewer study has investigated the lower-limb movement intention decoding. This study presents a BMI to decode the self-paced lower-limb movement intention, with 10 healthy subjects participating in the experiment...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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