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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527368/effects-of-parsley-extract-powder-as-an-alternative-for-the-direct-addition-of-sodium-nitrite-in-the-production-of-mortadella-type-sausages-impact-on-microbiological-physicochemical-and-sensory-aspects
#1
Greta Riel, Annika Boulaaba, Johanna Popp, Guenter Klein
Increasing concern about chemical additives in processed meat has led to an increased market of uncured and alternatively cured meat products. However, the use of vegetable extracts or the exclusion of curing salt may increase the risk of greater bacterial growth and alteration of several physicochemical parameters. Therefore, in this study mortadella-type sausages, manufactured with 1.07 (V3), 2.14 (V4) and 4.29 (V5) g parsley extract powder/kg sausage meat were produced. These sausage variants were compared to an uncured (V2) and a traditionally nitrite-cured control (V1)...
May 12, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526578/barrel-cortex-what-is-it-good-for
#2
REVIEW
Maik C Stüttgen, Cornelius Schwarz
The rodent whisker system, with barrel cortex as its most prominent structure, has evolved into a powerful model system to study sensory processing. However, despite the vast amount of data collected on barrel cortex neural activity patterns, as well as its circuitry and plasticity, the precise behavioral and cognitive operations for which this structure is needed are still elusive. Proposed functions of barrel cortex include detection, discrimination, coordination of whisker movements during exploratory locomotion or active touch, and associative learning...
May 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525749/how-does-familiarity-breed-contempt
#3
Kevin Mann, Thomas R Clandinin
Classifying sensory experiences as either novel or familiar represents a fundamental challenge to neural processing. In this issue of Cell, Hattori et al. describe a circuit mechanism by which a novel stimulus that initially interests a fruit fly turns into a familiar one.
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525709/sensory-and-behavioral-responses-of-a-model-fish-to-oil-sands-process-affected-water-with-and-without-treatment
#4
Megan Reichert, Brian Blunt, Tia Gabruch, Tanja Zerulla, Allison Ralph, Mohamed Gamal El-Din, Bruce R Sutherland, Keith Tierney
If oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is to be returned to the environment, a desire is that it not adversely affect aquatic life. We investigated whether a relevant model fish (rainbow trout; Oncorhynchus mykiss) could detect OSPW using its olfactory sense (smell), and whether exposure to it would result in behavioural changes. We also investigated whether ozonation of OSPW, which lowers the concentration of organic compounds attributed with toxicity (naphthenic acids), would ameliorate any observed adverse effects...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525560/activity-dependent-gene-expression-in-the-mammalian-olfactory-epithelium
#5
Qiang Wang, William B Titlow, Declan A McClintock, Arnold J Stromberg, Timothy S McClintock
Activity-dependent processes are important to olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in several ways, such as cell survival and the specificity of axonal convergence. The identification of activity-dependent mRNAs has contributed to our understanding of OSN axon convergence, but has revealed surprisingly little about other processes. Published studies of activity-dependent mRNAs in olfactory mucosae overlap poorly, but by combining these agreements with meta-analysis of existing data we identify 443 mRNAs that respond to methods that alter OSN activity...
May 19, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524817/functional-dissociation-of-stimulus-intensity-encoding-and-predictive-coding-of-pain-in-the-insula
#6
Stephan Geuter, Sabrina Boll, Falk Eippert, Christian Büchel
The computational principles by which the brain creates a painful experience from nociception are still unknown. Classic theories suggest that cortical regions either reflect stimulus intensity or additive effects of intensity and expectations, respectively. By contrast, predictive coding theories provide a unified framework explaining how perception is shaped by the integration of beliefs about the world with mismatches resulting from the comparison of these believes against sensory input. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a probabilistic heat pain paradigm, we investigated which computations underlie pain perception...
May 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524068/detection-of-magnetic-field-properties-using-distributed-sensing-a-computational-neuroscience-approach
#7
Brian K Taylor, Sönke Johnsen, Kenneth J Lohmann
Diverse taxa use Earth's magnetic field to aid both short- and long-distance navigation. Study of these behaviors has led to a variety of postulated sensory and processing mechanisms that remain unconfirmed. Although several models have been proposed to explain and understand these mechanisms' underpinnings, they have not necessarily connected a putative sensory signal to the nervous system. Using mathematical software simulation, hardware testing and the computational neuroscience tool of dynamic neural fields, the present work implements a previously developed conceptual model for processing magnetite-based magnetosensory data...
May 19, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524017/effect-of-homogenisation-in-formation-of-thermally-induced-aggregates-in-a-non-and-low-fat-milk-model-system-with-microparticulated-whey-proteins
#8
Isabel Celigueta Torres, Gema Nieto, Tommy Nylander, Adam Cohen Simonsen, Alexander Tolkach, Richard Ipsen
The objective of the research presented in this paper was to investigate how different characteristics of whey protein microparticles (MWP) added to milk as fat replacers influence intermolecular interactions occurring with other milk proteins during homogenisation and heating. These interactions are responsible for the formation of heat-induced aggregates that influence the texture and sensory characteristics of the final product. The formation of heat-induced complexes was studied in non- and low-fat milk model systems, where microparticulated whey protein (MWP) was used as fat replacer...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523496/imaging-ms-of-rodent-ocular-tissues-and-the-optic-nerve
#9
David M G Anderson, Wendi Lambert, David J Calkins, Zsolt Ablonczy, Rosalie K Crouch, Richard M Caprioli, Kevin L Schey
The visual system is comprised of many specialized cell types that are essential for relaying sensory information about an animal's surroundings to the brain. The cells present in ocular tissue are notoriously delicate, making it particularly challenging to section thin slices of unfixed tissue. Maintaining the morphology of the native tissue is crucial for accurate observations by either conventional staining techniques or in this instance matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI IMS) or imaging using mass spectrometry...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522998/genetic-polymorphism-in-wine-yeasts-mechanisms-and-methods-for-its-detection
#10
REVIEW
José M Guillamón, Eladio Barrio
The processes of yeast selection for using as wine fermentation starters have revealed a great phenotypic diversity both at interspecific and intraspecific level, which is explained by a corresponding genetic variation among different yeast isolates. Thus, the mechanisms involved in promoting these genetic changes are the main engine generating yeast biodiversity. Currently, an important task to understand biodiversity, population structure and evolutionary history of wine yeasts is the study of the molecular mechanisms involved in yeast adaptation to wine fermentation, and on remodeling the genomic features of wine yeast, unconsciously selected since the advent of winemaking...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522390/mango-kernel-starch-as-a-novel-edible-coating-for-enhancing-shelf-life-of-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-fruit
#11
Anjum Nawab, Feroz Alam, Abid Hasnain
Mango kernel starch (MKS) coatings containing different plasticizers were used to extend the shelf life of tomato. The coating slurry was prepared by gelatinizing 4% mango kernel starch, plasticized with glycerol, sorbitol and their 1:1 mixture (50% of starch weight; db). The samples were kept at room temperature (20°C) and analyzed for shelf life. Significant difference in coated and control fruits were observed and all the coated fruits delayed ripening process that was characterized by reduction in weight loss and restricted changes in soluble solids concentration, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content, firmness and decay percentage compared to uncoated sample...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521245/the-light-from-above-prior-is-intact-in-autistic-children
#12
Abigail Croydon, Themelis Karaminis, Louise Neil, David Burr, Elizabeth Pellicano
Sensory information is inherently ambiguous. The brain disambiguates this information by anticipating or predicting the sensory environment based on prior knowledge. Pellicano and Burr (2012) proposed that this process may be atypical in autism and that internal assumptions, or "priors," may be underweighted or less used than in typical individuals. A robust internal assumption used by adults is the "light-from-above" prior, a bias to interpret ambiguous shading patterns as if formed by a light source located above (and slightly to the left) of the scene...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521136/dopamine-depletion-impairs-bilateral-sensory-processing-in-the-striatum-in-a-pathway-dependent-manner
#13
M Ketzef, G Spigolon, Y Johansson, A Bonito-Oliva, G Fisone, G Silberberg
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder caused by the loss of dopaminergic innervation, particularly to the striatum. PD patients often exhibit sensory impairments, yet the underlying network mechanisms are unknown. Here we examined how dopamine (DA) depletion affects sensory processing in the mouse striatum. We used the optopatcher for online identification of direct and indirect pathway projection neurons (MSNs) during in vivo whole-cell recordings. In control mice, MSNs encoded the laterality of sensory inputs with larger and earlier responses to contralateral than ipsilateral whisker deflection...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521007/computing-the-social-brain-connectome-across-systems-and-states
#14
Daniel Alcalá-López, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies, Frank Van Overwalle, Kai Vogeley, Rogier B Mars, Bruce I Turetsky, Angela R Laird, Peter T Fox, Simon B Eickhoff, Danilo Bzdok
Social skills probably emerge from the interaction between different neural processing levels. However, social neuroscience is fragmented into highly specialized, rarely cross-referenced topics. The present study attempts a systematic reconciliation by deriving a social brain definition from neural activity meta-analyses on social-cognitive capacities. The social brain was characterized by meta-analytic connectivity modeling evaluating coactivation in task-focused brain states and physiological fluctuations evaluating correlations in task-free brain states...
May 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520773/development-of-the-highly-sensitive-dog-questionnaire-to-evaluate-the-personality-dimension-sensory-processing-sensitivity-in-dogs
#15
Maya Braem, Lucy Asher, Sibylle Furrer, Isabel Lechner, Hanno Würbel, Luca Melotti
In humans, the personality dimension 'sensory processing sensitivity (SPS)', also referred to as "high sensitivity", involves deeper processing of sensory information, which can be associated with physiological and behavioral overarousal. However, it has not been studied up to now whether this dimension also exists in other species. SPS can influence how people perceive the environment and how this affects them, thus a similar dimension in animals would be highly relevant with respect to animal welfare. We therefore explored whether SPS translates to dogs, one of the primary model species in personality research...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520725/reading-positional-codes-with-fmri-problems-and-solutions
#16
Kristjan Kalm, Dennis Norris
Neural mechanisms which bind items into sequences have been investigated in a large body of research in animal neurophysiology and human neuroimaging. However, a major problem in interpreting this data arises from a fact that several unrelated processes, such as memory load, sensory adaptation, and reward expectation, also change in a consistent manner as the sequence unfolds. In this paper we use computational simulations and data from two fMRI experiments to show that a host of unrelated neural processes can masquerade as sequence representations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520647/altered-brain-structure-and-function-associated-with-sensory-and-affective-components-of-classic-trigeminal-neuralgia
#17
Yuan Wang, Dong-Yuan Cao, Bethany Remeniuk, Samuel Krimmel, David A Seminowicz, Ming Zhang
Classic trigeminal neuralgia (CTN) is a chronic neuropathic pain state characterized by intense, piercing spasms of the orofacial region, and may be attributable to abnormal pain processing in the central nervous system. Our study investigated neuronal alterations using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), diffuse tensor imaging (DTI), and resting state functional connectivity in 38 CTN patients and 38 matched healthy controls. For VBM analyses, CTN patients displayed gray matter volume (GMV) reductions in the anterior and mid cingulate cortex (ACC and MCC), insula, secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), primary motor cortex (M1), premotor area (PMA), and several regions in the temporal lobe...
May 16, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515289/learning-temporal-context-shapes-the-prestimulus-alpha-oscillations-and-improves-the-visual-discrimination-performance
#18
Tahereh Toosi, Ehsan K Tousi, Hossein Esteky
Time is an inseparable component of every physical event that we perceive, yet it is not clear how the brain processes time or how the neuronal representation of time affects our perception of events. Here, we asked subjects to perform a visual discrimination task, while we changed the temporal context in which the stimuli were presented. We collected electroencephalography (EEG) signals in two temporal contexts. Predictable blocks: stimuli were presented after a constant delay relative to a visual cue, and unpredictable blocks: stimuli were presented after variable delays relative to the visual cue...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515011/sustained-activity-encoding-working-memories-not-fully-distributed
#19
REVIEW
Matthew L Leavitt, Diego Mendoza-Halliday, Julio C Martinez-Trujillo
Working memory (WM) is the ability to remember and manipulate information for short time intervals. Recent studies have proposed that sustained firing encoding the contents of WM is ubiquitous across cortical neurons. We review here the collective evidence supporting this claim. A variety of studies report that neurons in prefrontal, parietal, and inferotemporal association cortices show robust sustained activity encoding the location and features of memoranda during WM tasks. However, reports of WM-related sustained activity in early sensory areas are rare, and typically lack stimulus specificity...
May 14, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513860/cortical-contributions-to-sensory-gating-in-the-ipsilateral-somatosensory-cortex-during-voluntary-activity
#20
Yuming Lei, Monica A Perez
An important principle in the organization of the somatosensory cortex is that it processes afferent information from the contralateral side of the body. The role of the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex (iS1) in sensory gating in humans remains largely unknown. Using electroencephalographic recordings over the iS1 and electrical stimulation of the ulnar nerve at the wrist we examined somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs; P14/N20, N20/P25, and P25/N33 components) and paired-pulse SSEPs between (interhemispheric inhibition) and within (intracortical inhibition) the iS1 at rest and during tonic index finger voluntary activity...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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