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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443087/a-quantitative-sensory-testing-paradigm-to-obtain-measures-of-pain-processing-in-patients-undergoing-breast-cancer-surgery
#1
Noud van Helmond, Hans Timmerman, Søren S Olesen, Asbjørn M Drewes, Joris Kleinhans, Oliver H Wilder-Smith, Kris C Vissers, Monique A Steegers
Chronic pain following surgery, persistent postsurgical pain, is an important highly prevalent condition contributing to significant symptom burden and lower quality of life. Persistent postsurgical pain is relatively refractory to treatment hence generating a high need for preventive strategies and treatments. Therefore, the identification of patients at risk of developing persistent pain is an area of active ongoing research. Recently it was demonstrated that peri-operative disruptions in central pain processing may be able to predict persistent postsurgical pain at long term follow-up in breast cancer patients...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442559/neural-mechanisms-of-navigation-involving-interactions-of-cortical-and-subcortical-structures
#2
James R Hinman, Holger Dannenberg, Andrew Alexander, Michael E Hasselmo
Animals must perform spatial navigation for a range of different behaviors, including selection of trajectories toward goal locations and foraging for food sources. To serve this function, a number of different brain regions play a role in coding different dimensions of sensory input important for spatial behavior, including the entorhinal cortex, the retrosplenial cortex, the hippocampus and the medial septum. This article will review data concerning the coding of the spatial aspects of animal behavior, including location of the animal within an environment, the speed of movement, the trajectory of movement, the direction of the head in the environment, and the position of barriers and objects both relative to the animal's head direction (egocentric) and relative to the layout of the environment (allocentric)...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441579/brain-anatomy-of-the-4-day-old-european-rabbit
#3
Nanette Y Schneider, Frédérique Datiche, Gérard Coureaud
The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a widely used model in fundamental, medical and veterinary neurosciences. Besides investigations in adults, rabbit pups are relevant to study perinatal neurodevelopment and early behaviour. To date, the rabbit is also the only species in which a pheromone - the mammary pheromone (MP) - emitted by lactating females and active on neonatal adaptation has been described. The MP is crucial since it contributes directly to nipple localisation and oral seizing in neonates, i...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441035/decision-making-strategy-and-the-simultaneous-processing-of-syntactic-dependencies-in-language-and-music
#4
M P Roncaglia-Denissen, Fleur L Bouwer, Henkjan Honing
Despite differences in their function and domain-specific elements, syntactic processing in music and language is believed to share cognitive resources. This study aims to investigate whether the simultaneous processing of language and music share the use of a common syntactic processor or more general attentional resources. To investigate this matter we tested musicians and non-musicians using visually presented sentences and aurally presented melodies containing syntactic local and long-distance dependencies...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438844/top-down-expectation-effects-of-food-labels-on-motivation
#5
Joost Wegman, Ilke van Loon, Paul A M Smeets, Roshan Cools, Esther Aarts
Labels on food packages inform our beliefs, shaping our expectations of food properties, such as its expected taste and healthiness. These beliefs can influence the processing of caloric rewards beyond objective sensory properties and have the potential to impact decision making. However, no studies, within or beyond the food domain, have assessed how written information, such as food labels, affect implicit motivation to obtain rewards, even though choices in daily life might be strongly driven by implicit motivational biases...
February 10, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438595/effects-of-early-alcohol-exposure-on-functional-organization-and-microstructure-of-a-visual-tactile-integrative-circuit
#6
Shiyu Tang, Su Xu, Rao P Gullapalli, Alexandre E Medina
BACKGROUND: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) often have deficits associated with multisensory processing. Because ethanol disrupts activity-dependent neuronal plasticity, a process that is essential for refining connections during cortical development, we hypothesize that early alcohol exposure results in alterations in multisensory cortical networks, which could explain the multisensory processing deficits seen in FASD. Here, we use a gyrencephalic animal model to test the prediction that early alcohol exposure alters the functional connectivity and microstructural features of the rostral posterior parietal cortex (PPr), a visual-tactile integrative area...
February 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436863/proinsulin-expressing-dendritic-cells-in-type-2-neuropathic-diabetic-patients-with-and-without-foot-lesions
#7
Maria Sambataro, Luisa Sambado, Enrica Trevisiol, Matilde Cacciatore, Anna Furlan, Piero Maria Stefani, Elena Seganfreddo, Elisabetta Durante, Stefania Conte, Silvia Della Bella, Agostino Paccagnella, Angelo Paolo Dei Tos
Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes and is frequently associated with foot ischemia and infection, but its pathogenesis is controversial. We hypothesized that proinsulin expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is a process relevant to this condition and could represent a link among hyperglycemia, nerve susceptibility, and diabetic foot lesions. We assessed proinsulin expression by using flow cytometry in dendritic cells from control participants and patients with type 2 diabetic with or without peripheral neuropathy or accompanied by diabetic foot...
February 12, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436853/electrophysiological-response-during-auditory-gap-detection-biomarker-for-sensory-and-communication-alterations-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Jennifer H Foss-Feig, Katherine K M Stavropoulos, James C McPartland, Mark T Wallace, Wendy L Stone, Alexandra P Key
Sensory symptoms, including auditory processing deficits, are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Processing of temporal aspects of auditory input is understudied; yet, deficits in this domain could contribute to language-related impairments. In children with ASD and well-matched controls, this study examined electrophysiological response to silent gaps in auditory stimuli. Results revealed attenuated amplitude of the P2 event-related potential (ERP) component in ASD. The P2 amplitude reduction was also associated with sensory, language, and diagnostic features...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435912/concreteness-norms-for-1-659-french-words-relationships-with-other-psycholinguistic-variables-and-word-recognition-times
#9
Patrick Bonin, Alain Méot, Aurélia Bugaiska
Words that correspond to a potential sensory experience-concrete words-have long been found to possess a processing advantage over abstract words in various lexical tasks. We collected norms of concreteness for a set of 1,659 French words, together with other psycholinguistic norms that were not available for these words-context availability, emotional valence, and arousal-but which are important if we are to achieve a better understanding of the meaning of concreteness effects. We then investigated the relationships of concreteness with these newly collected variables, together with other psycholinguistic variables that were already available for this set of words (e...
February 12, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435262/ecological-drivers-of-song-evolution-in-birds-disentangling-the-effects-of-habitat-and-morphology
#10
Elizabeth Perrault Derryberry, Nathalie Seddon, Graham Earnest Derryberry, Santiago Claramunt, Glenn Fairbanks Seeholzer, Robb Thomas Brumfield, Joseph Andrew Tobias
Environmental differences influence the evolutionary divergence of mating signals through selection acting either directly on signal transmission ("sensory drive") or because morphological adaptation to different foraging niches causes divergence in "magic traits" associated with signal production, thus indirectly driving signal evolution. Sensory drive and magic traits both contribute to variation in signal structure, yet we have limited understanding of the relative role of these direct and indirect processes during signal evolution...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434540/perceptual-color-space-representations-in-the-oculomotor-system-are-modulated-by-surround-suppression-and-biased-selection
#11
Devin H Kehoe, Maryam Rahimi, Mazyar Fallah
The oculomotor system utilizes color extensively for planning saccades. Therefore, we examined how the oculomotor system actually encodes color and several factors that modulate these representations: attention-based surround suppression and inherent biases in selecting and encoding color categories. We measured saccade trajectories while human participants performed a memory-guided saccade task with color targets and distractors and examined whether oculomotor target selection processing was functionally related to the CIE (x,y) color space distances between color stimuli and whether there were hierarchical differences between color categories in the strength and speed of encoding potential saccade goals...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433403/the-essential-role-of-g-protein-coupled-receptor-gpcr-signaling-in-regulating-t-cell-immunity
#12
Dashan Wang
AIM: The aim of this paper is to clarify the critical role of GPCR signaling in T cell immunity. METHODS: The G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most common targets in current pharmaceutical industry, and represent the largest and most versatile family of cell surface communicating molecules. GPCRs can be activated by a diverse array of ligands including neurotransmitters, chemokines as well as sensory stimuli. Therefore, GPCRs are involved in many key cellular and physiological processes, such as sense of light, taste and smell, neurotransmission, metabolism, endocrine and exocrine secretion...
February 12, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433296/what-is-lost-in-translation-a-cross-cultural-study-to-compare-the-concept-of-nuttiness-and-its-perception-in-soymilk-among-korean-chinese-and-western-groups
#13
Sun-Ho Kim, Nina Petard, Jae-Hee Hong
Cross-cultural communication of "nuttiness" can be problematic because the underlying conceptual elements and words used to describe its features may be largely culture-dependent. The present study was conducted to understand similarities and dissimilarities in the concept of nuttiness and its actual perception in our model food system, soymilk, among similar (Korean and Chinese) and dissimilar (Western) food cultures. In total, 110 Koreans, 103 Chinese, and 93 English-speaking, Western consumers were recruited...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433216/effect-of-altitude-on-biochemical-composition-and-quality-of-green-arabica-coffee-beans-can-be-affected-by-shade-and-postharvest-processing-method
#14
Mohammed Worku, Bruno de Meulenaer, Luc Duchateau, Pascal Boeckx
Although various studies have assessed altitude, shade and postharvest processing effects on biochemical content and quality of coffee beans, data on their interactions are scarce. The individual and interactive effects of these factors on the caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGA) and sucrose contents as well as physical and sensory qualities of green coffee beans from large plantations in southwestern Ethiopia were evaluated. Caffeine and CGA contents decreased with increasing altitude; they respectively declined 0...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433213/two-step-rating-based-double-faced-applicability-test-for-sensory-analysis-of-spread-products-as-an-alternative-to-descriptive-analysis-with-trained-panel
#15
In-Ah Kim, Elyn den-Hollander, Hye-Seong Lee
Descriptive analysis with a trained sensory panel has thus far been the most well defined methodology to characterize various products. However, in practical terms, intensive training in descriptive analysis has been recognized as a serious defect. To overcome this limitation, various novel rapid sensory profiling methodologies have been suggested in the literature. Among these, attribute-based methodologies such as check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions showed results comparable to those of conventional sensory descriptive analysis...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433212/application-of-microencapsulation-for-the-safe-delivery-of-green-tea-polyphenols-in-food-systems-review-and-recent-advances
#16
REVIEW
Awa Fanny Massounga Bora, Shaojie Ma, Xiaodong Li, Lu Liu
Green tea has been associated with the prevention and reduction of a wide range of severe health conditions such as cancer, immune, and cardiovascular diseases. The health benefits associated with green tea consumption have been predominantly attributed to green tea polyphenols. The functional properties of green tea polyphenols are mainly anti-oxidative, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, anti-microbial, etc. These excellent properties have recently gained considerable attention in the food industry. However, their application is limited by their sensitivity to factors like temperature, light, pH, oxygen, etc...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432793/the-impact-of-natural-aging-on-computational-and-neural-indices-of-perceptual-decision-making-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Jessica Dully, David P McGovern, Redmond G O'Connell
It is well established that natural aging negatively impacts on a wide variety of cognitive functions and research has sought to identify core neural mechanisms that may account for these disparate changes. A central feature of any cognitive task is the requirement to translate sensory information into an appropriate action - a process commonly known as perceptual decision making. While computational, psychophysical, and neurophysiological research has made substantial progress in establishing the key computations and neural mechanisms underpinning decision making, it is only relatively recently that this knowledge has begun to be applied to research on aging...
February 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432726/co-expression-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-and-protein-gene-product-9-5-surrounding-the-lumen-of-human-schlemm-s-canal
#18
Pingting Ji, Liwen Chen, Jieling Gong, Yuxiang Yuan, Mu Li, Yin Zhao, Hong Zhang
Previous studies of aqueous humor outflow have focused primarily on resistance at the trabecular meshwork (TM), and little is known about the function of Schlemm's canal (SC). Here, we aimed to investigate whether SC is innervated by the peripheral nervous system. Ten eye specimens from eight donors were processed for histological analysis. CD31 was used to identify SC, after which we used protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 as a marker to detect nerve fibers around SC. We then characterized the nerves by double staining for PGP9...
February 9, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432412/hub-connectivity-neuronal-diversity-and-gene-expression-in-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-connectome
#19
Aurina Arnatkevic Iūtė, Ben D Fulcher, Roger Pocock, Alex Fornito
Studies of nervous system connectivity, in a wide variety of species and at different scales of resolution, have identified several highly conserved motifs of network organization. One such motif is a heterogeneous distribution of connectivity across neural elements, such that some elements act as highly connected and functionally important network hubs. These brain network hubs are also densely interconnected, forming a so-called rich club. Recent work in mouse has identified a distinctive transcriptional signature of neural hubs, characterized by tightly coupled expression of oxidative metabolism genes, with similar genes characterizing macroscale inter-modular hub regions of the human cortex...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431216/mast-cell-neural-interactions-contribute-to-pain-and-itch
#20
REVIEW
Kalpna Gupta, Ilkka T Harvima
Mast cells are best recognized for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, but increasing evidence supports their role in neurogenic inflammation leading to pain and itch. Mast cells act as a "power house" by releasing algogenic and pruritogenic mediators, which initiate a reciprocal communication with specific nociceptors on sensory nerve fibers. Consequently, nerve fibers release inflammatory and vasoactive neuropeptides, which in turn activate mast cells in a feedback mechanism, thus promoting a vicious cycle of mast cell and nociceptor activation leading to neurogenic inflammation and pain/pruritus...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
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