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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909048/serotonin-in-the-gut-blessing-or-a-curse
#1
REVIEW
Suhrid Banskota, Jean-Eric Ghia, Waliul I Khan
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) once most extensively studied as a neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, is seen to be predominantly secreted in the gut. About 95% of 5-HT is estimated to be found in gut mainly within the enterochromaffin cells whereas about 5% is found in the brain. 5-HT is an important enteric signaling molecule and is well known for playing a key role in sensory-motor and secretory functions in the gut. In recent times studies uncovering various new functions of gut-derived 5-HT indicate that many more are yet to be discovered in coming days...
June 14, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908973/response-learning-stimulates-dendritic-spine-growth-on-dorsal-striatal-medium-spiny-neurons
#2
Brandy A Briones, Vincent D Tang, Amanda E Haye, Elizabeth Gould
Increases in the number and/or the size of dendritic spines, sites of excitatory synapses, have been linked to different types of learning as well as synaptic plasticity in several brain regions, including the hippocampus, sensory cortex, motor cortex, and cerebellum. By contrast, a previous study reported that training on a maze task that requires the dorsal striatum has no effect on medium spiny neuron dendritic spines in the dorsal striatum. These findings might suggest brain region-specific differences in levels of plasticity as well as different cellular processes underlying different types of learning...
June 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908936/white-matter-connectivity-between-occipital-and-temporal-regions-involved-in-face-and-voice-processing-in-hearing-and-early-deaf-individuals
#3
Stefania Benetti, Lisa Novello, Chiara Maffei, Giuseppe Rabini, Jorge Jovicich, Olivier Collignon
Neuroplasticity following sensory deprivation has long inspired neuroscience research in the quest of understanding how sensory experience and genetics interact in developing the brain functional and structural architecture. Many studies have shown that sensory deprivation can lead to cross-modal functional recruitment of sensory deprived cortices. Little is known however about how structural reorganization may support these functional changes. In this study, we examined early deaf, hearing signer and hearing non-signer individuals using diffusion MRI to evaluate the potential structural connectivity linked to the functional recruitment of the temporal voice area by face stimuli in deaf individuals...
June 14, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908310/individual-differences-in-aesthetic-engagement-are-reflected-in-resting-state-fmri-connectivity-implications-for-stress-resilience
#4
Paula G Williams, Kimberley T Johnson, Brian J Curtis, Jace B King, Jeffrey S Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Individual differences in aesthetic engagement-the propensity to be moved by art, nature, and beauty-are associated with positive health outcomes, as well as stress resilience. The purpose of the current study was to identify potential neural substrate mechanisms underlying individual differences in aesthetic engagement and reported proneness to aesthetic chill. METHODS: Data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) 1200 Subjects Release were utilized...
June 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908300/acute-and-chronic-escitalopram-alter-eeg-gamma-oscillations-differently-relevance-to-therapeutic-effects
#5
Noémi Papp, Szilvia Vas, Emese Bogáthy, Zita Kátai, Diána Kostyalik, György Bagdy
Brain oscillations in the gamma frequency band of the electroencephalogram (EEG) have been implicated in several sensory and cognitive processes, and have also been associated with numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. The widely prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), similarly to other antidepressants, are known to produce markedly different effects on sleep and behavioral measures with acute and chronic administration. Although there are studies examining the acute effect of escitalopram on slower (<30 Hz) oscillations, we hardly could find any data about the effect of the drug on higher-frequency EEG oscillations (>30 Hz) in different sleep-wake stages, particularly comparing the acute and chronic effects of the drug concerning gamma oscillations...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908165/consequences-of-tuning-network-function-by-tonic-and-phasic-locus-coeruleus-output-and-stress-regulating-detection-and-discrimination-of-peripheral-stimuli
#6
David M Devilbiss
Flexible and adaptive behaviors have evolved with increasing complexity and numbers of neuromodulator systems. The neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is central to regulating cognitive function in a behaviorally-relevant and arousal-dependent manner. Through its nearly ubiquitous efferent projections, the LC-NE system acts to modulate neuron function on a cell-by-cell basis and exert a spectrum of actions across different brain regions to optimize target circuit function. As LC neuron activity, NE signaling, and arousal level increases, cognitive performance improves over an inverted-U shaped curve...
June 13, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908164/bilateral-cortical-representation-of-tactile-roughness
#7
C Genna, C Oddo, C Fanciullacci, C Chisari, S Micera, F Artoni
Roughness is the most important feature for texture discrimination. Here we investigate how the bilateral cortical representation of touch is modulated by tactile roughness by analyzing the neural responses elicited by stimuli with various coarseness levels ranging from fine to medium. A prolonged stimulation was delivered to 10 healthy subjects by passively sliding a tactile stimuli under the fingertip while recording the EEG to study the modulation of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SEPs) as well as activity in the theta and alpha bands...
June 13, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907663/reorganization-of-destabilized-nodes-of-ranvier-in-%C3%AE-iv-spectrin-mutants-uncovers-critical-timelines-for-nodal-restoration-and-prevention-of-motor-paresis
#8
Julia Saifetiarova, Qian Shi, Martin Paukert, Masayuki Komada, Manzoor A Bhat
Disorganization of nodes of Ranvier is associated with motor and sensory dysfunctions. Mechanisms that allow nodal recovery during pathological processes remain poorly understood. A highly enriched nodal cytoskeletal protein βIV Spectrin anchors and stabilizes the nodal complex to actin cytoskeleton. Loss of murine βIV Spectrin allows the initial nodal organization, but causes gradual nodal destabilization. Mutations in human βIV SPECTRIN cause auditory neuropathy and impairment in motor coordination and similar phenotypes are caused by nodal disruption due to demyelination...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907639/t-type-calcium-channels-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-mediate-sensory-integration-as-measured-using-a-spontaneous-oddity-task-in-rats
#9
Wendie N Marks, Madeline E Parker, Nadine K Zabder, Quentin Greba, Terrance P Snutch, John G Howland
The roles of low-voltage-activated (T-type) calcium channels in brain diseases have been studied extensively. Less is known regarding the involvement of T-type channels in cognition and behavior. Sensory integration (SI) is a cognitive process whereby the brain uses unimodal or multimodal sensory features to create a comprehensive representation of the environment. The multisensory object oddity (MSO) task assesses SI using combinations of sensory features of objects, either in the same or different sensory modalities...
July 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906840/multiscale-neural-connectivity-during-human-sensory-processing-in-the-brain
#10
Vladimir A Maksimenko, Anastasia E Runnova, Nikita S Frolov, Vladimir V Makarov, Vladimir Nedaivozov, Alexey A Koronovskii, Alexander Pisarchik, Alexander E Hramov
Stimulus-related brain activity is considered using wavelet-based analysis of neural interactions between occipital and parietal brain areas in alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) frequency bands. We show that human sensory processing related to the visual stimuli perception induces brain response resulted in different ways of parieto-occipital interactions in these bands. In the alpha frequency band the parieto-occipital neuronal network is characterized by homogeneous increase of the interaction between all interconnected areas both within occipital and parietal lobes and between them...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905932/quality-and-consumer-acceptance-of-berry-fruit-pomace-fortified-specialty-mustard
#11
Lissa Davis, Jooyeoun Jung, Ann Colonna, Aimee Hasenbeck, Virginia Gouw, Yanyun Zhao
Blueberry pomace (BP) and cranberry pomace (CP) are good sources of dietary fiber and phenolics. This study aimed to develop berry fruit pomace (FP)-fortified specialty mustard with elevated bioactive compounds and ascertain consumer acceptance of a new product. Wet BP and CP were ground and incorporated into Dijon-style mustard at concentrations of 15%, 20%, and 25% (w/w). Total dietary fiber (TDF), total phenolic content (TPC), and radical scavenging activity (RSA) were evaluated for samples obtained from both chemical extraction (CE) and simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905649/multivariate-pattern-classification-of-brain-white-matter-connectivity-predicts-classic-trigeminal-neuralgia
#12
Jidan Zhong, David Qixiang Chen, Peter S P Hung, Dave J Hayes, Kevin E Liang, Karen D Davis, Mojgan Hodaie
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a severe form of chronic facial neuropathic pain. Increasing interest in the neuroimaging of pain has highlighted changes in the root entry zone in TN, but also group level CNS grey and white matter abnormalities. Group differences in neuroimaging data are frequently evaluated with univariate statistics, however this approach is limited because it is based on single, or clusters of, voxels. In contrast, multivariate pattern analyses consider all the model's neuroanatomical features to capture a specific distributed spatial pattern...
June 13, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904791/weighted-integration-of-short-term-memory-and-sensory-signals-in-the-oculomotor-system
#13
Nicolas Deravet, Gunnar Blohm, Jean-Jacques Orban de Xivry, Philippe Lefèvre
Oculomotor behaviors integrate sensory and prior information to overcome sensory-motor delays and noise. After much debate about this process, reliability-based integration has recently been proposed and several models of smooth pursuit now include recurrent Bayesian integration or Kalman filtering. However, there is a lack of behavioral evidence in humans supporting these theoretical predictions. Here, we independently manipulated the reliability of visual and prior information in a smooth pursuit task. Our results show that both smooth pursuit eye velocity and catch-up saccade amplitude were modulated by visual and prior information reliability...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903970/neural-scene-representation-and-rendering
#14
S M Ali Eslami, Danilo Jimenez Rezende, Frederic Besse, Fabio Viola, Ari S Morcos, Marta Garnelo, Avraham Ruderman, Andrei A Rusu, Ivo Danihelka, Karol Gregor, David P Reichert, Lars Buesing, Theophane Weber, Oriol Vinyals, Dan Rosenbaum, Neil Rabinowitz, Helen King, Chloe Hillier, Matt Botvinick, Daan Wierstra, Koray Kavukcuoglu, Demis Hassabis
Scene representation-the process of converting visual sensory data into concise descriptions-is a requirement for intelligent behavior. Recent work has shown that neural networks excel at this task when provided with large, labeled datasets. However, removing the reliance on human labeling remains an important open problem. To this end, we introduce the Generative Query Network (GQN), a framework within which machines learn to represent scenes using only their own sensors. The GQN takes as input images of a scene taken from different viewpoints, constructs an internal representation, and uses this representation to predict the appearance of that scene from previously unobserved viewpoints...
June 15, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903631/-evidence-of-sensory-bladder-inhibitor-reflex
#15
F Charoenwong, A Charlanes, C Chesnel, D Menoux, D Motavasseli, E Tan, F Le Breton, G Amarenco
INTRODUCTION: Need to void level depends on two parameters, bladder volume and attentional process. If it is well known that the maximum voluntary contraction of the perineal muscles may transiently inhibit the micturition reflex itself, no work demonstrates the effect of this contraction on the intensity of the need itself. METHODS: An experimental, prospective, open, monocentric study was conducted between March and April 2017. In total, 15 subjects with no neurological history or neuro-perineal disorders consulting for functional constipation were included...
June 11, 2018: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902945/-express-acute-and-chronic-pain-affects-local-field-potential-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-different-band-neural-oscillations
#16
Bo Fu, Shao-Nan Wen, Kun Wang, Shao-Jun Liu, Ji-Yan Zhang, Bin Wang
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in the process of sensory discrimination. In this study, we examined the local field potential (LFP) activity response to the different stages of pain in the Prl, which is a sub-region of the mPFC. Recent studies revealed extensive information about neural oscillations, but there is limited information on the LFP profiles for acute or chronic pain, particularly in freely moving animals. This study showed that acute mechanical pain increases alpha oscillation, and decreases beta and gamma oscillations before spared nerve injury (SNI) surgery...
January 1, 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902194/predictive-modeling-for-odor-character-of-a-chemical-using-machine-learning-combined-with-natural-language-processing
#17
Yuji Nozaki, Takamichi Nakamoto
Recent studies on machine learning technology have reported successful performances in some visual and auditory recognition tasks, while little has been reported in the field of olfaction. In this paper we report computational methods to predict the odor impression of a chemical from its physicochemical properties. Our predictive model utilizes nonlinear dimensionality reduction on mass spectra data and performs the clustering of descriptors by natural language processing. Sensory evaluation is widely used to measure human impressions to smell or taste by using verbal descriptors, such as "spicy" and "sweet"...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901787/dysfunctional-autism-risk-genes-cause-circuit-specific-connectivity-deficits-with-distinct-developmental-trajectories
#18
Valerio Zerbi, Giovanna D Ielacqua, Marija Markicevic, Matthias Georg Haberl, Mark H Ellisman, Arjun A-Bhaskaran, Andreas Frick, Markus Rudin, Nicole Wenderoth
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a set of complex neurodevelopmental disorders for which there is currently no targeted therapeutic approach. It is thought that alterations of genes regulating migration and synapse formation during development affect neural circuit formation and result in aberrant connectivity within distinct circuits that underlie abnormal behaviors. However, it is unknown whether deviant developmental trajectories are circuit-specific for a given autism risk-gene. We used MRI to probe changes in functional and structural connectivity from childhood to adulthood in Fragile-X (Fmr1-/y) and contactin-associated (CNTNAP2-/-) knockout mice...
July 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899398/touch-induced-face-conditioning-is-mediated-by-genetic-variation-in-opioid-but-not-oxytocin-receptors
#19
Yu Fu, Emre Selcuk, Sarah R Moore, Richard A Depue
Soft touch possesses strong prosocial effects that facilitate social bonding and group cohesion in animals. Touch activates opioids (OP) and oxytocin (OXT), two neuromodulators involved in affiliative behaviors and social bonding. We examined whether touch serves as an unconditioned reward in affective conditioning of human faces, a basic process in social bonding, and whether this process is mediated by variation in mu-OP (OPRM1) and OXT (rs53576) receptor genes. Participants viewed affectively-neutral human faces, half of which were paired with a brief soft brushing on the forearm as an unconditioned stimulus (US)...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899029/comparison-of-decision-related-signals-in-sensory-and-motor-preparatory-responses-of-neurons-in-area-lip
#20
S Shushruth, Mark Mazurek, Michael N Shadlen
Neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) of Macaques exhibit both sensory and oculomotor preparatory responses. During perceptual decision making, the preparatory responses have been shown to track the state of the evolving evidence leading to the decision. The sensory responses are known to reflect categorical properties of visual stimuli, but it is not known if these responses also track evolving evidence. We recorded neural responses from LIP of two female rhesus monkeys during a direction discrimination task...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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