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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053832/reward-deficits-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-include-insensitivity-to-negative-stimuli
#1
David C Perry, Samir Datta, Virginia E Sturm, Kristie A Wood, Jessica Zakrzewski, William W Seeley, Bruce L Miller, Joel H Kramer, Howard J Rosen
During reward processing individuals weigh positive and negative features of a stimulus to determine whether they will pursue or avoid it. Though patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia display changes in their pursuit of rewards, such as food, alcohol, money, and sex, the basis for these shifts is not clearly established. In particular, it is unknown whether patients' behaviour results from excessive focus on rewards, insensitivity to punishment, or to dysfunction in a particular stage of reward processing, such as anticipation, consumption, or action selection...
October 7, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053558/in-vivo-confocal-microscopy-reveals-corneal-reinnervation-after-treatment-of-neurotrophic-keratopathy-with-corneal-neurotization
#2
Simon S M Fung, Joseph Catapano, Uri Elbaz, Ronald M Zuker, Gregory H Borschel, Asim Ali
PURPOSE: To document the presence and location of new sensory nerve fibers after corneal neurotization using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) in 2 patients with neurotrophic keratopathy (NK). METHODS: Two patients with unilateral advanced NK received corneal neurotization to surgically reinnervate the cornea. IVCM was used to identify subbasal nerve fibers and document corneal reinnervation. In 1 patient (case 1), IVCM was performed before and after corneal neurotization; in the second patient (case 2), IVCM was performed after neurotization and corneal transplantation...
October 17, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052606/the-evolution-of-eyes-major-steps-the-keeler-lecture-2017-centenary-of-keeler-ltd
#3
I R Schwab
Ocular evolution is an immense topic, and I do not expect to cover all the details of this process in this manuscript. I will present some concepts about some of the major steps in the evolutionary process to stimulate your thinking about this interesting and complex topic. In the prebiotic soup, vision was not inevitable. Eyes were not preordained. Nor were their shapes, sizes, or current physiology. Sight is an evolutionary gift but it was not ineluctable. The existence of eyes is so basic to our profession that we often do not consider how and why vision appeared or evolved on earth at all...
October 20, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052033/a-random-perturbation-therapy-in-chronic-non-specific-low-back-pain-patients-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Adamantios Arampatzis, Arno Schroll, Maria Moreno Catalá, Gunnar Laube, Sabine Schüler, Karsten Dreinhofer
The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a specific rehabilitation therapy for chronic non-specific low-back pain patients, based on a random/irregular functional perturbation training induced by force disturbances to the spine. Forty patients (20 controls and 20 in the perturbation-based group) finished the whole experimental design. A random-perturbation exercise, which included variable and unpredictable disturbances, was implemented in the therapy of the perturbation-based group (13 weeks, two times per week and 1...
October 19, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051661/effects-of-hydrogen-peroxide-modified-atmosphere-and-their-combination-on-quality-of-minimally-processed-cluster-beans
#5
Roji B Waghmare, Uday S Annapure
The aim of this study was to determine the potential of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on quality of fresh-cut cluster beans. Fresh-cut cluster beans were dipped in a solution of 2% H2O2 for 2 min, packed in an atmosphere of (5% O2, 10% CO2, 85% N2) and stored in polypropylene bags at 5 °C for 35 days. Passive MAP was created by consuming O2 and producing CO2 by fresh-cut cluster beans. The combined effect of H2O2 and MAP on physico-chemical analysis (Headspace gas, weight loss, chlorophyll, hardness and color), microbial quality (mesophilic aerobics and yeasts and molds) and sensory analysis were studied...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051651/use-of-high-pressure-technology-for-the-development-of-novel-jam-and-its-quality-evaluation-during-storage
#6
V J Sravani, N Ravi, N Roopa, S Kumar, A K Pandey, O P Chauhan
Jam like product was prepared using high pressure (HP) processing technology and was compared with thermally processed one for quality attributes. Strawberry pulp was mixed with pectin (1%) and sugar and packed in low density polyethylene pouches (50 g pack size) and processed at 200, 400 and 600 MPa for 30 min at 50 °C. Ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activities were found to be significantly retained to a better extent in HP processed jams as compared to thermally processed one...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051646/effect-of-fiber-blends-total-solids-heat-treatment-whey-protein-concentrate-and-stage-of-sugar-incorporation-on-dietary-fiber-fortified-kheer
#7
Simran Kaur Arora, A A Patel
Owing to the proven beneficial role of dietary fiber (DF) on human health, feasibility of incorporating commercially available soluble and insoluble DF preparations into rice-milk-pudding (kheer, a popular Indian delicacy) was studied through process modification. The novel approach of preparing reduced fat DF-fortified-kheer (DFFK) by developing liquid/cream phase and particulate/rice phase separately, and subsequently blending the two was developed. The major processing variables studied were total solids (TS) in the liquid phase, type of fiber blend, flavor-simulation through heat treatment or added whey protein, and the presence of sugar in water for pre-cooking of rice...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051605/milling-overrides-cultivar-leavening-agent-and-baking-mode-on-chemical-and-rheological-traits-and-sensory-perception-of-durum-wheat-breads
#8
Donatella Bianca Maria Ficco, Sergio Saia, Romina Beleggia, Mariagiovanna Fragasso, Valentina Giovanniello, Pasquale De Vita
Smell and aroma are important determinants of consumer acceptance, so gaining deeper insight into bread smell and aroma perception is a research goal. Sixteen combinations of four variables were investigated, to evaluate the contributions of bread chemical and rheological properties and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) towards sensory acceptability of breads: genotypes (landrace vs. modern); types of flour (wholemeal vs. semolina); leavening agents (brewing yeast vs. sourdough starter); and baking modes (gas-fired vs...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050394/cortical-neurons-and-networks-are-dormant-but-fully-responsive-during-isoelectric-brain-state
#9
Tristan Altwegg-Boussac, Adrien E Schramm, Jimena Ballestero, Fanny Grosselin, Mario Chavez, Sarah Lecas, Michel Baulac, Lionel Naccache, Sophie Demeret, Vincent Navarro, Séverine Mahon, Stéphane Charpier
A continuous isoelectric electroencephalogram reflects an interruption of endogenously-generated activity in cortical networks and systematically results in a complete dissolution of conscious processes. This electro-cerebral inactivity occurs during various brain disorders, including hypothermia, drug intoxication, long-lasting anoxia and brain trauma. It can also be induced in a therapeutic context, following the administration of high doses of barbiturate-derived compounds, to interrupt a hyper-refractory status epilepticus...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050393/distinct-processing-of-ambiguous-speech-in-people-with-non-clinical-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#10
Ben Alderson-Day, César F Lima, Samuel Evans, Saloni Krishnan, Pradheep Shanmugalingam, Charles Fernyhough, Sophie K Scott
Auditory verbal hallucinations (hearing voices) are typically associated with psychosis, but a minority of the general population also experience them frequently and without distress. Such 'non-clinical' experiences offer a rare and unique opportunity to study hallucinations apart from confounding clinical factors, thus allowing for the identification of symptom-specific mechanisms. Recent theories propose that hallucinations result from an imbalance of prior expectation and sensory information, but whether such an imbalance also influences auditory-perceptual processes remains unknown...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049311/a-kinase-inhibitor-library-screen-identifies-novel-enzymes-involved-in-ototoxic-damage-to-the-murine-organ-of-corti
#11
Matthew Ryals, Kwang Pak, Rahul Jalota, Arwa Kurabi, Allen F Ryan
Ototoxicity is a significant side effect of a number of drugs, including the aminoglycoside antibiotics and platinum-based chemotherapeutic agents that are used to treat life-threatening illnesses. Although much progress has been made, the mechanisms that lead to ototoxic loss of inner ear sensory hair cells (HCs) remains incompletely understood. Given the critical role of protein phosphorylation in intracellular processes, including both damage and survival signaling, we screened a library of kinase inhibitors targeting members of all the major families in the kinome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048536/neurobiology-of-female-mate-choice-in-frogs-auditory-filtering-and-valuation
#12
Sabrina S Burmeister
Mate choice is a decision making process with profound implication for the reproductive success of both the sender and the chooser. Preferences for conspecific over heterospecific males and for some conspecifics over others are typically mediated by a female's response to signals produced by males. And although one can experimentally describe a female's preference function, there is relatively little understood about the neural mechanisms mediating these preferences. In anurans, mating preferences have often been explained in terms of sensory biases...
October 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048534/neural-circuitry-for-target-selection-and-action-selection-in-animal-behavior
#13
Kim L Hoke, Eileen A Hebets, Daizaburo Shizuka
Animal behaviorists have long strived for a comprehensive understanding of the proximate and ultimate causes of complex behavior, and we propose that recent advances in neurobiology can help reshape or clarify this behavior-oriented understanding. We begin with an overview of current views of neural circuit mechanisms that mediate target selection and action selection. In target selection, different stimuli compete for priority in sensory-motor processing. Action selection is the process by which multiple possible motor actions compete for priority in a manner which balances the needs of the animal with opportunities or threats in the environment...
October 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046424/passive-sensorimotor-stimulation-triggers-long-lasting-alpha-band-fluctuations-in-visual-perception
#14
Alice Tomassini, Alessandro D'Ausilio
Movement planning and execution rely on the anticipation and online control of the incoming sensory input. Evidence suggests that sensorimotor processes may synchronize visual rhythmic activity in preparation of action performance. Indeed, we recently reported periodic fluctuations of visual contrast sensitivity which are time-locked to the onset of an intended movement of the arm. However, the origin of the observed visual modulations has so far remained unclear due to the endogenous (and thus temporally undetermined) activation of the sensorimotor system that is associated with voluntary movement initiation...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045838/p75-is-required-for-the-establishment-of-postnatal-sensory-neuron-diversity-by-potentiating-ret-signaling
#15
Zhijiang Chen, Christopher R Donnelly, Bertha Dominguez, Yoshinobu Harada, Weichun Lin, Alan S Halim, Tasha G Bengoechea, Brian A Pierchala, Kuo-Fen Lee
Producing the neuronal diversity required to adequately discriminate all elements of somatosensation is a complex task during organogenesis. The mechanisms guiding this process during dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neuron specification remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the p75 neurotrophin receptor interacts with Ret and its GFRα co-receptor upon stimulation with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Furthermore, we demonstrate that p75 is required for GDNF-mediated Ret activation, survival, and cell surface localization of Ret in DRG neurons...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045615/super-and-subadditive-neural-processing-of-dynamic-auditory-visual-objects-in-the-presence-of-congruent-odors
#16
Kathrin Ohla, Richard Höchenberger, Jessica Freiherr, Johan N Lundström
Our sensory experiences comprise a variety of different inputs at any given time. Some of these experiences are unmistakable, others are ambiguous and profit from additional sensory information. Here, we explored whether the presence of a congruent odor influences the neural processing and sensory interaction of audio-visual objects using degraded videos (V) and sounds (A) of dynamic objects in unimodal and bimodal (AV) combinations without or with a congruent odor (VO, AO, AVO). Analyses of EEG data revealed super- and subadditive interaction effects...
October 16, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045599/a-modulatory-effect-of-brief-passive-exposure-to-non-linguistic-sounds-on-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-relevance-to-cognitive-performance
#17
Maki S Koyama, Silvia Ortiz-Mantilla, Cynthia P Roesler, Michael P Milham, April A Benasich
A growing literature on resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) has explored the impact of preceding sensory experience on intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC). However, it remains largely unknown how passive exposure to irrelevant auditory stimuli, which is a constant in everyday life, reconfigures iFC. Here, we directly compared pre- and post-exposure R-fMRI scans to examine: 1) modulatory effects of brief passive exposure to repeating non-linguistic sounds on subsequent iFC, and 2) associations between iFC modulations and cognitive abilities...
October 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045579/auditory-frequency-representations-in-human-somatosensory-cortex
#18
Alexis Pérez-Bellido, Kelly Anne Barnes, Lexi E Crommett, Jeffrey M Yau
Recent studies have challenged the traditional notion of modality-dedicated cortical systems by showing that audition and touch evoke responses in the same sensory brain regions. While much of this work has focused on somatosensory responses in auditory regions, fewer studies have investigated sound responses and representations in somatosensory regions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we measured BOLD signal changes in participants performing an auditory frequency discrimination task and characterized activation patterns related to stimulus frequency using both univariate and multivariate analysis approaches...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044872/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-right-inferior-parietal-cortex-causally-influences-prefrontal-activation-for-visual-detection
#19
Joana Leitão, Axel Thielscher, Hwee Ling Lee, Johannes Tuennerhoff, Uta Noppeney
For effective interactions with the environment the brain needs to form perceptual decisions based on noisy sensory evidence. Accumulating evidence suggests that perceptual decisions are formed by widespread interactions amongst sensory areas representing the noisy sensory evidence and fronto-parietal areas integrating the evidence into a decision variable that is compared to a decisional threshold. This concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-fMRI study applied 10 Hz bursts of four TMS (or Sham) pulses to the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) to investigate the causal influence of IPS on the neural systems involved in perceptual decision making...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043978/a-unified-internal-model-theory-to-resolve-the-paradox-of-active-versus-passive-self-motion-sensation
#20
Jean Laurens, Dora E Angelaki
Brainstem and cerebellar neurons implement an internal model to accurately estimate self-motion during externally-generated ('passive') movements. However, these neurons show reduced responses during self-generated ('active') movements, indicating that predicted sensory consequences of motor commands cancel sensory signals. Remarkably, the computational processes underlying sensory prediction during active motion and their relationship to internal model computations during passive movements remain unknown. We construct a Kalman filter that incorporates motor commands into a previously-established model of optimal passive self-motion estimation...
October 18, 2017: ELife
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