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SCI, Inflammation

Zhijian Cheng, Dale B Bosco, Li Sun, Xiaoming Chen, Yunsheng Xu, Wenjiao Tai, Ruth Didier, Jinhua Li, Jianqing Fan, Xijing He, Yi Ren
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes functional impairment as a result of the initial injury followed by secondary injury mechanism. SCI provokes an inflammatory response that causes secondary tissue damage and neurodegeneration. While, the use of neural stem cell (NSC) engraftment to mitigate secondary injury has been of interest to many researchers, it still faces several limitations. As such, we investigated if NSC-conditioned media (NSC-M) possesses therapeutic potential for the treatment of SCI. It has been proposed that many of the beneficial effects attributed to stem cell therapies are due to secreted factors...
October 12, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Sara Bermudez, Guzal Khayrullina, Yujia Zhao, Kimberly R Byrnes
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in both acute and chronic inflammation, as a result of activation of microglia, invasion of macrophages and activation of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzyme. The NOX enzyme is a primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is expressed by microglia and macrophages after SCI. These cells can assume either a pro- (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) polarization phenotype and contribute to tissue response to SCI. However, the contribution of NOX expression and ROS production to this polarization and vice versa is currently undefined...
October 8, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Warin Krityakiarana, Kamonrapat Sompup, Nopporn Jongkamonwiwat, Sujira Mukda, Fernando Gomez Pinilla, Piyarat Govitrapong, Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito
The present work aimed at analyzing the effects of melatonin on scar formation after spinal cord injury (SCI). Upregulation of reactive astrocyte under SCI pathological conditions has been presented in several studies. It has been proved that the crucial factor in triggering this upregulation is proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, scar formation is an important barrier to axonal regeneration through the lesion area. Melatonin plays an important role in reducing inflammation, but its effects on scar formation in the injured spinal cord remain unknown...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Xin Sun, Zachary B Jones, Xiao-Ming Chen, Libing Zhou, Kwok-Fai So, Yi Ren
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event that results in significant physical disabilities for affected individuals. Apart from local injury within the spinal cord, SCI patients develop a variety of complications characterized by multiple organ dysfunction or failure. These disorders, such as neurogenic pain, depression, lung injury, cardiovascular disease, liver damage, kidney dysfunction, urinary tract infection, and increased susceptibility to pathogen infection, are common in injured patients, hinder functional recovery, and can even be life threatening...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Courtney M Dumont, Daniel J Margul, Lonnie D Shea
Tissue engineering strategies have shown promise in promoting healing and regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI); however, these strategies are limited by inflammation and the immune response. Infiltration of cells of the innate and adaptive immune responses and the inflammation that follows cause secondary damage adjacent to the injury, increased scarring, and a potently inhibitory environment for the regeneration of damaged neurons. While the inflammation that ensues is typically associated with limited regeneration, the immune response is a crucial element in the closing of the blood-brain barrier, minimizing the spread of injury, and initiating healing...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Aurora Messina, Natasha Van Zyl, Michael Weymouth, Stephen Flood, Andrew Nunn, Catherine Cooper, Jodie Hahn, Mary P Galea
Loss of hand function after cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) impacts heavily on independence. Multiple nerve transfer surgery has been applied successfully after cervical SCI to restore critical arm and hand functions, and the outcome depends on nerve integrity. Nerve integrity is assessed indirectly using muscle strength testing and intramuscular electromyography, but these measures cannot show the manifestation that SCI has on the peripheral nerves. We directly assessed the morphology of nerves biopsied at the time of surgery, from three patients within 18 months post injury...
2016: Brain Sciences
I Paterniti, M Campolo, M Cordaro, D Impellizzeri, R Siracusa, R Crupi, E Esposito, S Cuzzocrea
Melatonin is the principal secretory product of the pineal gland, and its role as an immunomodulator is well established. Recent evidence shows that melatonin is a scavenger of oxyradicals and peroxynitrite and reduces the development of inflammation and tissue injury events associated with spinal cord trauma. Previous results suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α), a nuclear receptor protein that functions as a transcription factor activated by fatty acids, plays a role in control of secondary inflammatory process associated with spinal cord injury (SCI)...
September 29, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Angelos Papatheodorou, Adam B Stein, Matthew Bank, Cristina P Sison, Katie Gibbs, Peter Davies, Ona Bloom
Inflammation in traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has been proposed to promote damage acutely and oppose functional recovery chronically. However, we do not yet understand the signals that initiate or prolong inflammation in persons with SCI. High-Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) is a potent systemic inflammatory cytokine, or "damage-associated molecular pattern molecule" (DAMP) studied in a variety of clinical settings. It is elevated in pre-clinical models of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), where it promotes secondary injury, and strategies that block HMGB1 improve functional recovery...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Şeyma Bozkurt Doğan, Figen Öngöz Dede, Umut Ballı, Erdim Sertoğlu
The aims of the present study were to determine the levels of vaspin and omentin-1 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to evaluate GCF vaspin and omentin-1 levels after non-surgical periodontal therapy. The study included 60 subjects: 15 systemically and periodontally healthy individuals, 15 periodontally healthy patients with T2DM, 15 systemically healthy patients with CP, and 15 patients with both CP and T2DM...
2016: Journal of Oral Science
Jennifer M Colón, Jorge D Miranda
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a condition without a cure, affecting sensory and/or motor functions. The physical trauma to the spinal cord initiates a cascade of molecular and cellular events that generates a non-permissive environment for cell survival and axonal regeneration. Among these complex set of events are damage of the blood-brain barrier, edema formation, inflammation, oxidative stress, demyelination, reactive gliosis and apoptosis. The multiple events activated after SCI require a multi-active drug that could target most of these events and produce a permissive environment for cell survival, regeneration, vascular reorganization and synaptic formation...
August 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Jessica M Marbourg, Anna Bratasz, Xiaokui Mo, Phillip G Popovich
People who suffer a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) are at increased risk for developing dermatological complications. These conditions increase cost of care, incidence of rehospitalization, and the risk for developing other infections. The consequences of dermatological complications after SCI are likely exacerbated further by post-injury deficits in neural-immune signaling. Indeed, a functional immune system is essential for optimal host defense and tissue repair. Here, we tested the hypothesis that SCI at high spinal levels, which causes systemic immune suppression, would suppress cutaneous inflammation below the level of injury...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Yung-Jen Huang, Kuan H Lee, Lauren Murphy, Sandra M Garraway, James W Grau
Noxious input can sensitize pain (nociceptive) circuits within the spinal cord, inducing a lasting increase in spinal cord neural excitability (central sensitization) that is thought to contribute to chronic pain. The development of spinally-mediated central sensitization is regulated by descending fibers and GABAergic interneurons. The current study provides evidence that spinal cord injury (SCI) transforms how GABA affects nociceptive transmission within the spinal cord, recapitulating an earlier developmental state wherein GABA has an excitatory effect...
November 2016: Experimental Neurology
Haocong Zhang, Yan Wang
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is highly related to the devastating sensory and motor dysfunction. METHODS: The GSE45006 gene expression profile dataset was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, which was collected from 24 rats including 20 animals with injured T7 spinal cords using an aneurysm clip impact-compression injury model and killed after 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 8 weeks and four sham-operated rats. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the injured rats at each time point and the sham-operated rats were screened...
2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Peng Cheng, Fang Kuang, Gong Ju
Aescin has many physiological functions that are highly relevant to spinal cord injury (SCI), including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-oedema, and enhancing vascular tone. The present study investigated the putative therapeutic value of aescin in SCI, with a focus on its neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative properties. Sodium aescinate (1.0mg/kg body weight) or equivalent volume of saline was administered 30min after injury by intravenous injection, with an additional dose daily for seven consecutive days after moderate SCI in rats...
September 2, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Dapeng Zhang, Guozhang Ma, Mingming Hou, Tao Zhang, Limin Chen, Chengbin Zhao
BACKGROUND: Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to permanent disabilities. This study evaluated the neuroprotective effect of puerarin, a natural extract, in a rat model of SCI. METHODS: Acute SCI models were established in rats using a modified Allen's method. Locomotor function was evaluated using the BBB test. The histological changes in the spinal cord were observed by H&E staining. Neuron survival and glial cells activation were evaluated by immunostaining...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Gang Liu, Gentao Fan, Guodong Guo, Wenbo Kang, Dongsheng Wang, Bin Xu, Jianning Zhao
FK-506 (Tacrolimus) is a very commonly used immunomodulatory agent that plays important roles in modulating the calcium-dependent phosphoserine-phosphothreonine protein phosphatase calcineurin and thus inhibits calcineurin-mediated secondary neuronal damage. The biological function of FK-506 in the spinal cord has not been fully elucidated. To clarify the anti-inflammatory action of FK-506 in spinal cord injury (SCI), we performed an acute spinal cord contusion injury model in adult rats and hypoxia-treated primary spinal cord microglia cultures...
August 29, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Zachary B Jones, Yi Ren
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Despite progress over the last few decades, the molecular mechanisms of secondary SCI that continue to occur days and weeks after the original trauma remain poorly understood. As a result, current therapies for SCI are only marginally effective. Sphingolipids, a diverse class of bioactive lipids, have been shown to regulate SCI repair and key secondary injury processes such as apoptosis, ischemia and inflammation...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Ruilin Yang, Jiyong He, Yuliang Wang
After spinal cord injury (SCI), there is an acute phase of alternatively activated (M2) macrophage infiltration, followed by a long-lasting phase of classically activated (M1) macrophage accumulation in the wound, which is believed to derail healing and compromize organ functions. Thus, agents which are able to modulate macrophage phenotypes may provide significant benefits to SCI patients. In the present study, we demonstrate that the niacin receptor HCA2 is specifically expressed on the cell surface of M1 but not M2 macrophages...
August 26, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Won-Cheol Jung, Jean-Pierre Levesque, Marc J Ruitenberg
Inflammation is a natural part of wound healing but it can also cause secondary (bystander) damage and/or negatively interfere with endogenous repair mechanisms if non-resolving. Regulation of inflammation is traditionally looked at from the perspective of danger signals, cytokines and chemokines, and their respective receptors. A neuronal contribution to the regulation of inflammation is, however, increasingly appreciated, and this has important implications for the bodily response under conditions where the nervous system itself may be damaged...
August 11, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Rosaliana Libro, Sabrina Giacoppo, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
The Wnt canonical or the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been implicated in the regulation of several physiopathological pathways such as inflammation. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are administered widely to treat inflammation in several diseases, including spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the Wnt canonical pathway is involved in experimental SCI and whether it is implicated in the anti-inflammatory activity of two different GCs: the methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS), considered the standard treatment for acute SCI, and mometasone furoate (MF), mainly administered for the treatment of airway and skin diseases...
September 28, 2016: Neuroreport
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