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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218643/diffusion-assessment-of-cortical-changes-induced-by-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Peng Sun, Rory K J Murphy, Paul Gamble, Ajit George, Sheng-Kwei Song, Wilson Z Ray
Promising treatments are being developed to promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). Magnetic resonance imaging, specifically Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) has been shown to non-invasively measure both axonal and myelin integrity following traumatic brain and SCI. A novel data-driven model-selection algorithm known as Diffusion Basis Spectrum Imaging (DBSI) has been proposed to more accurately delineate white matter injury. The objective of this study was to investigate whether DTI/DBSI changes that extend to level of the cerebral peduncle and internal capsule following a SCI could be correlated with clinical function...
February 17, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210902/deletion-of-mammalian-sterile-20-like-kinase-1-attenuates-neuronal-loss-and-improves-locomotor-function-in-a-mouse-model-of-spinal-cord-trauma
#2
Pan-Feng Wang, Da-Yuan Xu, Yuntong Zhang, Xiao-Bin Liu, Yan Xia, Pan-Yu Zhou, Qing-Ge Fu, Shuo-Gui Xu
Neuronal cell death following spinal cord injury (SCI) is an important contributor to neurological deficits. The purpose of our work was to delineate the function of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1), a pro-apoptotic kinase and key mediator of apoptotic signaling, in the pathogenesis of an experimental mouse model of SCI. Male mice received a mid-thoracic spinal contusion injury, and it was found that phosphorylation of Mst1 at the injured site was enhanced significantly following SCI. Furthermore, when compared to the wild-type controls, Mst1-deficient mice displayed improved locomotor function by increased Basso mouse scale score...
February 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193684/an-agonist-of-the-protective-factor-sirt1-improves-functional-recovery-and-promotes-neuronal-survival-by-attenuating-inflammation-after-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Haihong Chen, Hao Ji, Ming Zhang, Zude Liu, Lifeng Lao, Chao Deng, Jianwei Chen, Guibin Zhong
Targeting posttraumatic inflammation is crucial for improving locomotor function. SIRT1 has been shown to play a critical role in disease processes such as hepatic inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis and acute lung inflammation by regulating inflammation. However, the role of SIRT1 in spinal cord injury (SCI) is unknown. We hypothesized that SIRT1 plays an important role in improving locomotor function after SCI by regulating neuroinflammation. In this study, we investigated the effect of SIRT1 in SCI using pharmacological intervention (SRT1720) and the Mx1-Cre/loxP recombination system to knock out target genes...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165815/effective-improvement-of-the-neuroprotective-activity-after-spinal-cord-injury-by-synergistic-effect-of-glucocorticoid-with-biodegradable-amphipathic-nanomicelles
#4
YueLong Wang, Min Wu, Lei Gu, XiaoLing Li, Jun He, LiangXue Zhou, Aiping Tong, Juan Shi, HongYan Zhu, JianGuo Xu, Gang Guo
Dexamethasone acetate (DA) produces neuroprotective effects by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and inflammation by reducing cytokine release and expression. However, its clinical application is limited by its hydrophobicity, low biocompatibility and numerous side effects when using large dosage. Therefore, improving DA's water solubility, biocompatibility and reducing its side effects are important goals that will improve its clinical utility. The objective of this study is to use a biodegradable polymer as the delivery vehicle for DA to achieve the synergism between inhibiting lipid peroxidation and inflammation effects of the hydrophobic-loaded drugs and the amphipathic delivery vehicle...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161248/how-is-chronic-pain-related-to-sympathetic-dysfunction-and-autonomic-dysreflexia-following-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Edgar T Walters
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) and neuropathic pain occur after severe injury to higher levels of the spinal cord. Mechanisms underlying these problems have rarely been integrated in proposed models of spinal cord injury (SCI). Several parallels suggest significant overlap of these mechanisms, although the relationships between sympathetic function (dysregulated in AD) and nociceptive function (dysregulated in neuropathic pain) are complex. One general mechanism likely to be shared is central sensitization - enhanced responsiveness and synaptic reorganization of spinal circuits that mediate sympathetic reflexes or that process and relay pain-related information to the brain...
January 27, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152069/subclinical-inflammation-influences-the-association-between-vitamin-a-and-iron-status-among-schoolchildren-in-ghana
#6
Abdul-Razak Abizari, Fusta Azupogo, Inge D Brouwer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In resource-poor settings, micronutrient deficiencies such as vitamin A deficiency may co-exist with iron-deficiency. In this study we assessed the iron and vitamin A status of schoolchildren and the association between vitamin A and iron status. METHODS: A cross-sectional design using the baseline data of a dietary intervention trial conducted among randomly selected 5-12 years old schoolchildren (n = 224) from 2 rural schools in northern Ghana...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123490/reduced-inflammatory-cell-recruitment-and-tissue-damage-in-spinal-cord-injury-by-acellular-spinal-cord-scaffold-seeded-with-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
Yu-Hai Wang, Jian Chen, Jing Zhou, Feng Nong, Jin-Han Lv, Jia Liu
Therapy using acellular spinal cord (ASC) scaffolds seeded with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) has previously been shown to restore function of the damaged spinal cord and improve functional recovery in a rat model of acute hemisected spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of the present study was to determine whether BMSCs and ASC scaffolds promote the functional recovery of the damaged spinal cord in a rat SCI model through regulation of apoptosis and immune responses. Whether this strategy regulates secondary inflammation, which is characterized by the infiltration of immune cells and inflammatory mediators to the lesion site, in SCI repair was investigated...
January 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123029/newly-formed-endothelial-cells-regulate-myeloid-cell-activity-following-spinal-cord-injury-via-expression-of-cd200-ligand
#8
Merav Cohen, Hila Ben-Yehuda, Ziv Porat, Catarina Raposo, Siamon Gordon, Michal Schwartz
: The central nervous system (CNS) is endowed with several immune-related mechanisms that contribute to its protection and maintenance in homeostasis and under pathology. Here, we discovered an additional mechanism that controls inflammatory responses within the CNS milieu under injurious conditions, involving CD200 ligand (CD200L) expressed by newly formed endothelial cells. We observed that CD200L is constitutively expressed in the mouse healthy CNS by endothelial cells of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and of the spinal cord meninges, but not by the endothelium of the blood-spinal cord barrier...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073317/activation-of-kcnq-channels-suppresses-spontaneous-activity-in-drg-neurons-and-reduces-chronic-pain-after-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Zizhen Wu, Lin Li, Fuhua Xie, Junhui Du, Yan Zuo, Jeffrey A Frost, Susan M Carlton, Edgar T Walters, Qing Yang
A majority of people who have sustained spinal cord injury (SCI) experience chronic pain after injury, and this pain is highly resistant to available treatments. Contusive SCI in rats at T10 results in hyperexcitability of primary sensory neurons, which contributes to chronic pain. KCNQ channels are widely expressed in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, are important for controlling their excitability, and their activation has proven effective in reducing pain in peripheral nerve injury and inflammation models...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056790/immunization-with-neural-derived-peptides-plus-scar-removal-induces-a-permissive-microenvironment-and-improves-locomotor-recovery-after-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Roxana Rodríguez-Barrera, Adrián Flores-Romero, Ana María Fernández-Presas, Elisa García-Vences, Raúl Silva-García, Mina Konigsberg, Liliana Blancas-Espinoza, Vinnitsa Buzoianu-Anguiano, Karla Soria-Zavala, Paola Suárez-Meade, Antonio Ibarra
BACKGROUND: Immunization with neural derived peptides (INDP) as well as scar removal-separately-have shown to induce morphological and functional improvement after spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present study, we compared the effect of INDP alone versus INDP with scar removal on motor recovery, regeneration-associated and cytokine gene expression, and axonal regeneration after chronic SCI. Scar removal was conducted through a single incision with a double-bladed scalpel along the stump, and scar renewal was halted by adding α,α'-dipyridyl...
January 5, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039398/spinal-cord-injury-modulates-the-lung-inflammatory-response-in-mechanically-ventilated-rats-a-comparative-animal-study
#11
Karine Truflandier, Eric Beaumont, Karim Maghni, Michel De Marchie, Emmanuel Charbonney, Jadranka Spahija
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is widely used in spinal injury patients to compensate for respiratory muscle failure. MV is known to induce lung inflammation, while spinal cord injury (SCI) is known to contribute to local inflammatory response. Interaction between MV and SCI was evaluated in order to assess the impact it may have on the pulmonary inflammatory profile. Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized for 24 h and randomized to receive either MV or not. The MV group included C4-C5 SCI, T10 SCI and uninjured animals...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035406/bambi-inhibits-inflammation-through-the-activation-of-autophagy-in-experimental-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Yin Yang, Chunyang Guo, Bo Liao, Junjun Cao, Chen Liang, Xijing He
Autophagy plays an important role in the progression of spinal cord injury (SCI). In this study, we aimed to examine the effects and potential mechanisms of action of BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI) in the progression of SCI. A rat model of SCI was established and the rats were injected with pLentiH1-BAMBI shRNA and pAd-BAMBI in the gray and white matter of the spinal cord at T8. After 14 days, motor function evaluation was measured according to the Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) method and the number of motor neuron cell accounts in the anterior horns was measured by Nissl staining...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025442/clinical-efficacy-of-a-1-matricaria-chamomile-l-mouthwash-and-0-12-chlorhexidine-for-gingivitis-control-in-patients-undergoing-orthodontic-treatment-with-fixed-appliances
#13
Paula Goes, Caio S Dutra, Mário R P Lisboa, Delane V Gondim, Renata Leitão, Gerly A C Brito, Rodrigo O Rego
This pilot study evaluated the clinical efficacy of a mouthwash containing 1% Matricaria chamomilla L. (MTC) extract in reducing gingival inflammation and plaque formation in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled a total of 30 males and females (age, 10-40 years) with fixed orthodontic appliances and a minimum of 20 natural teeth. The participants were allocated to three groups (n = 10 each) and asked to rinse with 15 mL of a placebo, 0...
2016: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025439/human-soluble-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-as-gingival-crevicular-fluid-and-serum-markers-of-inflammation-in-chronic-periodontitis-and-type-2-diabetes
#14
Sandeep Singhal, Avani R Pradeep, Dharmendra Kanoriya, Vibhuti Garg
The present study aimed to evaluate the levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in chronic periodontitis (CP) patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 70 subjects were divided into four groups: group 1 (n = 15; subjects with healthy periodontium); group 2 (n = 20; CP patients); group 3 (n = 20; CP patients with T2DM); and group 4 (n = 15; CP patients without T2DM). The serum and GCF levels of human sRAGE and TNF-α were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and correlated with clinical parameters, including probing depth, gingival index and clinical attachment level...
2016: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025432/visfatin-levels-in-gingival-crevicular-fluid-and-serum-before-and-after-non-surgical-treatment-for-periodontal-diseases
#15
Çiğdem Coşkun Türer, Umut Balli, Berrak Güven, Burcu Özkan Çetinkaya, Gonca Çayır Keleş
The purpose of this study was to evaluate visfatin levels at different stages of periodontal disease and in healthy tissues. In addition, the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on visfatin levels in gingival crevicular fluid and serum was investigated. Forty-five patients were divided into three groups based on clinical and radiographical findings. Group 1 comprised periodontally healthy individuals (n = 15); group 2 comprised patients with gingivitis (n = 15); and group 3 was composed of patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (n = 15)...
2016: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994070/characterization-of-meningeal-type-2-innate-lymphocytes-and-their-response-to-cns-injury
#16
Sachin P Gadani, Igor Smirnov, Ashtyn T Smith, Christopher C Overall, Jonathan Kipnis
The meningeal space is occupied by a diverse repertoire of immune cells. Central nervous system (CNS) injury elicits a rapid immune response that affects neuronal survival and recovery, but the role of meningeal inflammation remains poorly understood. Here, we describe type 2 innate lymphocytes (ILC2s) as a novel cell type resident in the healthy meninges that are activated after CNS injury. ILC2s are present throughout the naive mouse meninges, though are concentrated around the dural sinuses, and have a unique transcriptional profile...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994015/newly-formed-endothelial-cells-regulate-myeloid-cell-activity-following-spinal-cord-injury-via-expression-of-cd200-ligand
#17
Merav Cohen, Hila Ben-Yehuda, Ziv Porat, Catarina Raposo, Siamon Gordon, Michal Schwartz
: The central nervous system (CNS) is endowed with several immune-related mechanisms that contribute to its protection and maintenance in homeostasis and under pathology. Here, we discovered an additional mechanism that controls inflammatory responses within the CNS milieu under injurious conditions, involving CD200 ligand (CD200L) expressed by newly-formed endothelial cells. We observed that CD200L is constitutively expressed in the mouse healthy CNS by endothelial cells of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and of the spinal cord meninges, but not by the endothelium of the blood-spinal cord barrier...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957787/macrophage-polarization-a-key-event-in-the-secondary-phase-of-acute-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Xiangyi Kong, Jun Gao
Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) has become epidemic in modern society. Despite advances made in the understanding of the pathogenesis and improvements in early recognition and treatment, it remains a devastating event, often producing severe and permanent disability. SCI has two phases: acute and secondary. Although the acute phase is marked by severe local and systemic events such as tissue contusion, ischaemia, haemorrhage and vascular damage, the outcome of SCI are mainly influenced by the secondary phase...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941025/a-novel-rac1-gspt1-signaling-pathway-controls-astrogliosis-following-central-nervous-system-injury
#19
Taiji Ishii, Takehiko Ueyama, Michiko Shigyo, Masaaki Kohta, Takeshi Kondoh, Tomoharu Kuboyama, Tatsuya Uebi, Takeshi Hamada, David H Gutmann, Atsu Aiba, Eiji Kohmura, Chihiro Tohda, Naoaki Saito
Astrogliosis (i.e. glial scar), which is comprised primarily of proliferated astrocytes at the lesion site and migrated astrocytes from neighboring regions, is one of the key reactions in determining outcomes after CNS injury. In an effort to identify potential molecules/pathways that regulate astrogliosis, we sought to determine whether Rac/Rac-mediated signaling in astrocytes represents a novel candidate for therapeutic intervention following CNS injury. For these studies, we generated mice with Rac1 deletion under the control of the GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) promoter (GFAP-Cre;Rac1(flox/flox))...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931169/a-mouse-model-of-bilateral-cervical-contusion-compression-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Nicole Forgione, Mahmood Chamankhah, Michael G Fehlings
Cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) occurs in over half of all cases of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), yet we lack therapies that can generate significant functional recovery in these patients. The development of animal models of cSCI will aid in the pre-clinical assessment of therapies and in understanding basic pathophysiological mechanisms. Here, we describe a clinically relevant model of cervical contusion-compression injury in the mouse. Using a modified aneurysm clip, we generated a bilateral, incomplete injury that mimics contusion-compression injuries most commonly observed in humans...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
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