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Opioids and HIV

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923769/recombination-in-hepatitis-c-virus-is-not-uncommon-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-kolkata-india
#1
Debanjali Gupta, Kallol Saha, Aritra Biswas, Rushna Firdaus, Monika Ghosh, Provash Chandra Sadhukhan
Recombination in RNA virus is a rare event in the survival and evolution to evade host immune system. This is increasing within high risk group population (HRG) due to super infection that occurs by continuous sharing of common drug equipment by HCV infected or HIV-HCV co-infected recurrent drug users. Recombination causes impediment to vaccine development and therapeutic intervention as standard HCV treatment is still genotype specific. Blood samples of 194 people who inject drugs (PWID) were collected from an Opioid Substitution Therapy Centre in Kolkata,India...
December 3, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918880/racial-differences-in-hiv-and-hcv-risk-behaviors-transmission-and-prevention-knowledge-among-non-treatment-seeking-individuals-with-opioid-use-disorder
#2
Verena E Metz, Maria A Sullivan, Jermaine D Jones, Elizabeth Evans, Rachel Luba, Jonathan Vogelman, Sandra D Comer
In light of New York's recently reinforced strategy to end the AIDS epidemic by expanding testing, treatment, and access to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), we assessed drug use and sexual risk behaviors, along with HIV/Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission and prevention knowledge among non-treatment-seeking adults with opioid use disorder (OUD) in New York City. Over the course of 18 months, volunteers screening for research studies in the Opioid Laboratory at the New York State Psychiatric Institute completed a locally developed self-assessment questionnaire...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917016/the-portapotty-experiment-neoliberal-approaches-to-the-intertwined-epidemics-of-opioid-related-overdose-and-hiv-hcv-and-why-we-need-cultural-anthropologists-in-the-south-bronx
#3
Brett Wolfson-Stofko, Ric Curtis, Faustino Fuentes, Ed Manchess, Alexis Del Rio-Cumba, Alex S Bennett
The following report from the field focuses on the authors' collective efforts to operate an ad hoc safer injection facility (SIF) out of portapotties (portable toilets) in an area of the South Bronx that has consistently experienced some of the highest overdose morbidity and mortality rates in New York City over the past decade (New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 2011, 2015, 2016). Safer injection facilities (also known as supervised injection facilities, drug consumption rooms, etc.) operating outside the US provide a legal, hygienic, and supervised environment for individuals to use drugs in order to minimize the likelihood of fatal overdose and the spread of blood-borne infections while reducing public injection...
December 2016: Dialectical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877102/inhibition-of-gabaergic-neurotransmission-by-hiv-1-tat-and-opioid-treatment-in-the-striatum-involves-%C3%AE-opioid-receptors
#4
Changqing Xu, Sylvia Fitting
Due to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is considered a chronic disease with high prevalence of mild forms of neurocognitive impairments, also referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Although opiate drug use can exacerbate HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal damage, it remains unknown how and to what extent opioids interact with Tat on the GABAergic system. We conducted whole-cell recordings in mouse striatal slices and examined the effects of HIV-1 Tat in the presence and absence of morphine (1 μM) and damgo (1 μM) on GABAergic neurotransmission...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871198/-it-is-easier-for-me-to-shoot-up-stigma-abandonment-and-why-hiv-positive-drug-users-in-russia-fail-to-link-to-hiv-care
#5
Tetiana Kiriazova, Karsten Lunze, Anita Raj, Natalia Bushara, Elena Blokhina, Evgeny Krupitsky, Carly Bridden, Dmitry Lioznov, Jeffrey H Samet, Allen L Gifford
Many HIV-positive people who inject drugs (PWID) globally are not receiving HIV care. This represents a major challenge among key populations to end the global HIV epidemic. This qualitative study explored the process and associated barriers of linking HIV-positive PWID who are in addiction treatment to HIV care in St. Petersburg, Russia. We conducted three focus groups and seven semi-structured interviews with participants in the LINC ("Linking Infectious and Narcology Care") project at addiction and HIV hospitals in St...
November 22, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849111/pharmacological-interventions-for-pruritus-in-adult-palliative-care-patients
#6
REVIEW
Waldemar Siemens, Carola Xander, Joerg J Meerpohl, Sabine Buroh, Gerd Antes, Guido Schwarzer, Gerhild Becker
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the original Cochrane review published in 2013 (Issue 6). Pruritus occurs in patients with disparate underlying diseases and is caused by different pathologic mechanisms. In palliative care patients, pruritus is not the most prevalent but is one of the most puzzling symptoms. It can cause considerable discomfort and affects patients' quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different pharmacological treatments for preventing or treating pruritus in adult palliative care patients...
November 16, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845298/daclatasvir-plus-sofosbuvir-with-or-without-ribavirin-in-real-world-patients-with-hiv-hcv-coinfection-and-advanced-liver-disease
#7
Jürgen K Rockstroh, Patrick Ingiliz, Jörg Petersen, Markus Peck-Radosavljevic, Tania M Welzel, Marc Van der Valk, Yue Zhao, Maria Jesus Jimenez Exposito, Stefan Zeuzem
BACKGROUND: HIV/HCV-coinfected patients respond just as well to modern direct-acting antiviral HCV therapy as HCV-monoinfected patients. However, clinical data for all-oral HCV treatments are sparse in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with an advanced stage of liver cirrhosis. METHODS: A subanalysis of efficacy and safety for a daclatasvir (DCV) and sofosbuvir (SOF) regimen, with or without ribavirin (RBV), was undertaken in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with advanced liver disease and no other treatment options enrolled into a European DCV compassionate use programme...
November 15, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842998/increased-drug-use-and-the-timing-of-social-assistance-receipt-among-people-who-use-illicit-drugs
#8
Emanuel Krebs, Linwei Wang, Michelle Olding, Kora DeBeck, Kanna Hayashi, M-J Milloy, Evan Wood, Bohdan Nosyk, Lindsey Richardson
BACKGROUND: The monthly disbursement of social assistance (SA) payments to people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) has been temporally associated with increases in drug-related harm. Yet, whether SA receipt changes drug use intensity compared to levels of use at other times in the month has not been established. We therefore examined this relationship among PWUD in Vancouver, Canada (2005-2013). METHODS: Data were derived from prospective cohorts of HIV-positive and HIV-negative PWUD...
December 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842543/design-of-the-indian-nca-study-indian-national-collaboration-on-aids-a-cluster-randomized-trial-to-evaluate-the-effectiveness-of-integrated-care-centers-to-improve-hiv-outcomes-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-persons-who-inject-drugs-in-india
#9
Sunil S Solomon, Gregory M Lucas, David D Celentano, Allison M McFall, Elizabeth Ogburn, Lawrence H Moulton, Aylur K Srikrishnan, M Suresh Kumar, Santhanam Anand, Suniti Solomon, Shruti H Mehta
BACKGROUND: Globally, men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs remain disproportionately affected by HIV, but they have not been the focus of prevention and treatment interventions in many resource-limited settings. METHODS/DESIGN: This cluster-randomized trial (conducted from June 2012 to June 2017), evaluates whether single-venue, integrated delivery of core HIV services to vulnerable high-risk populations improves service utilization and consequently, HIV testing and other outcomes along the HIV care continuum...
November 14, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798775/attitudes-toward-naloxone-prescribing-in-clinical-settings-a-qualitative-study-of-patients-prescribed-high-dose-opioids-for-chronic-non-cancer-pain
#10
Shane R Mueller, Stephen Koester, Jason M Glanz, Edward M Gardner, Ingrid A Binswanger
BACKGROUND: Over the last 2 decades, medical providers have increasingly prescribed pharmaceutical opioids for chronic non-cancer pain, while opioid overdose death rates have quadrupled. Naloxone, an opioid antagonist, can be prescribed to patients with chronic pain to reverse an opioid overdose, yet little is known about how patients perceive this emerging practice. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the knowledge and attitudes toward naloxone prescribing among non-cancer patients prescribed opioids in primary care...
October 31, 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763996/county-level-vulnerability-assessment-for-rapid-dissemination-of-hiv-or-hcv-infections-among-persons-who-inject-drugs-united-states
#11
Michelle M Van Handel, Charles E Rose, Elaine J Hallisey, Jessica L Kolling, Jon E Zibbell, Brian Lewis, Michele K Bohm, Christopher M Jones, Barry E Flanagan, Azfar-E-Alam Siddiqi, Kashif Iqbal, Andrew L Dent, Jonathan H Mermin, Eugene McCray, John W Ward, John T Brooks
OBJECTIVE: A recent HIV outbreak in a rural network of persons who inject drugs (PWID) underscored the intersection of the expanding epidemics of opioid abuse, unsterile injection drug use (IDU), and associated increases in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. We sought to identify US communities potentially vulnerable to rapid spread of HIV, if introduced, and new or continuing high rates of HCV infections among PWID. DESIGN: We conducted a multistep analysis to identify indicator variables highly associated with IDU...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763640/methamphetamine-potentiates-hiv-1-gp120-mediated-autophagy-via-beclin-1-and-atg5-7-as-a-pro-survival-response-in-astrocytes
#12
Lu Cao, Mingui Fu, Santosh Kumar, Anil Kumar
Methamphetamine (METH), a commonly used controlled substance, is known to exacerbate neuropathological dysfunction in HIV-infected individuals. The neuropathological manifestation results from cell death or dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS) wherein autophagy is expected to have an important role. Autophagy is generally considered protective during deprivation/stress. However, excessive autophagy can be destructive, leading to autophagic cell death. This study was designed to investigate if METH and HIV-1 gp120 interact to induce autophagy in SVGA astrocytes, and whether autophagy is epiphenomenal or it has a role in METH- and gp120-induced cytotoxicity...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760686/commentary-the-value-of-prep-for-people-who-inject-drugs
#13
Rosalind L Coleman, Susie McLean
INTRODUCTION: The offer of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as an additional option for HIV prevention for people at substantial risk of HIV infection as part of combination HIV prevention approaches. Implementing this depends on integrating PrEP in public health programmes that address risky practices with evidence-based interventions, and that operate in an enabling legal and policy environment for the delivery of health services to those at higher risk of HIV infection...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723373/enhanced-autophagy-in-pulmonary-endothelial-cells-on-exposure-to-hiv-tat-and-morphine-role-in-hiv-related-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#14
Pranjali Dalvi, Himanshu Sharma, Mahendran Chinnappan, Miles Sanderson, Julie Allen, Ruoxi Zeng, Augustine Choi, Amy O'Brien-Ladner, Navneet K Dhillon
Intravenous drug use is one of the major risk factors for HIV-infection in HIV-related pulmonary arterial hypertension patients. We previously demonstrated exaggerated pulmonary vascular remodeling with enhanced apoptosis followed by increased proliferation of pulmonary endothelial cells on simultaneous exposure to both opioids and HIV protein(s). Here we hypothesize that the exacerbation of autophagy may be involved in the switching of endothelial cells from an early apoptotic state to later hyper-proliferative state...
December 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720326/exploration-of-bivalent-ligands-targeting-putative-mu-opioid-receptor-and-chemokine-receptor-ccr5-dimerization
#15
Christopher K Arnatt, Bethany A Falls, Yunyun Yuan, Thomas J Raborg, Ruturaj R Masvekar, Nazira El-Hage, Dana E Selley, Anthony V Nicola, Pamela E Knapp, Kurt F Hauser, Yan Zhang
Modern antiretroviral therapies have provided HIV-1 infected patients longer lifespans and better quality of life. However, several neurological complications are now being seen in these patients due to HIV-1 associated injury of neurons by infected microglia and astrocytes. In addition, these effects can be further exacerbated with opiate use and abuse. One possible mechanism for such potentiation effects of opiates is the interaction of the mu opioid receptor (MOR) with the chemokine receptor CCR5 (CCR5), a known HIV-1 co-receptor, to form MOR-CCR5 heterodimer...
November 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715904/recent-incarceration-and-buprenorphine-maintenance-treatment-outcomes-among-hiv-positive-patients
#16
Daniel P Riggins, Chinazo O Cunningham, Yuming Ning, Aaron D Fox
BACKGROUND: Opioid use disorder is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS. Buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) is an effective means of therapy, but patients with recent criminal justice involvement may need more support during BMT than other patients. We hypothesized that recently incarcerated BMT patients who initiated treatment in primary care would have poorer treatment outcomes than those who were not recently incarcerated. METHODS: We analyzed data from a multi-site cohort study of BMT integrated into HIV care...
August 11, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701042/methadone-maintenance-therapy-and-viral-suppression-among-hiv-infected-opioid-users-the-impacts-of-crack-and-injection-cocaine-use
#17
M Eugenia Socías, Evan Wood, Will Small, Huiru Dong, Jean Shoveller, Thomas Kerr, Julio Montaner, M-J Milloy
BACKGROUND: Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is associated with improved HIV treatment outcomes among people who use drugs (PWUD). The extent to which these benefits are sustained in the context of ongoing cocaine use is unclear. We assessed differential impacts of MMT on HIV viral load (VL) suppression in relation to discrete patterns of cocaine use. METHODS: Data was drawn from ACCESS, a prospective cohort of HIV-positive PWUD in Vancouver, Canada. Generalized linear mixed-effects were used to model the independent effect of MMT on VL suppression across strata of frequency of cocaine injection and crack smoking (≥daily versus <daily), after adjustment for confounders...
September 20, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693910/is-the-clinical-relevance-of-drug-food-and-drug-herb-interactions-limited-to-grapefruit-juice-and-saint-john-s-wort
#18
Stéphane Mouly, Célia Lloret-Linares, Pierre-Olivier Sellier, Damien Sene, J-F Bergmann
An interaction of drug with food, herbs, and dietary supplements is usually the consequence of a physical, chemical or physiologic relationship between a drug and a product consumed as food, nutritional supplement or over-the-counter medicinal plant. The current educational review aims at reminding to the prescribing physicians that the most clinically relevant drug-food interactions may not be strictly limited to those with grapefruit juice and with the Saint John's Wort herbal extract and may be responsible for changes in drug plasma concentrations, which in turn decrease efficacy or led to sometimes life-threatening toxicity...
September 28, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661788/patient-centered-methadone-treatment-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
Robert P Schwartz, Sharon M Kelly, Shannon G Mitchell, Jan Gryczynski, Kevin E O'Grady, Devang Gandhi, Yngvild Olsen, Jerome H Jaffe
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Methadone patients who discontinue treatment are at high risk of relapse, yet a substantial proportion discontinue treatment within the first year. We investigated whether a patient-centered approach to methadone treatment improved participant outcomes at 12 months following admission, compared with methadone treatment-as-usual. DESIGN: Two-arm open-label randomized trial. SETTING: Two methadone treatment programs (MTPs) in Baltimore, MD, USA...
September 23, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629248/a-socio-structural-approach-to-preventing-injection-drug-use-initiation-rationale-for-the-primer-study
#20
Daniel Werb, Richard Garfein, Thomas Kerr, Peter Davidson, Perrine Roux, Marie Jauffret-Roustide, Marc Auriacombe, Will Small, Steffanie A Strathdee
BACKGROUND: Injection drug use remains a primary driver of HIV and HCV-related harms globally. However, there is a gap in efforts to prevent individuals from transitioning into injecting. People who inject drugs (PWID) play a key role in the transition of others into injecting, and while behavioral interventions have been developed to address this phenomenon, socio-structural approaches remain unexplored. To that end, we hypothesize that certain interventions designed to reduce injecting-related risk behaviors may also reduce the risk that PWID expose and introduce others into injecting...
September 15, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
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