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Opioids and HIV

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733920/complementary-and-alternative-medicine-among-persons-living-with-hiv-in-the-era-of-combined-antiretroviral-treatment
#1
Sean N Halpin, Edwin Clayton Carruth, Ramona P Rai, E Jennifer Edelman, David A Fiellin, Cynthia Gibert, Kirsha S Gordon, Wei Huang, Amy Justice, Vincent C Marconi, David Rimland, Molly M Perkins
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), often pursued independent of prescribing clinicians, may interact with traditional treatments, yet CAM use has not been well characterized among people living with HIV (PLWH) in the combined antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. We analyzed data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (October 2012-April 2015) to characterize CAM use in PLWH on ART. CAM users were more likely to have lived longer with HIV, report more bothersome symptoms, be prescribed more benzodiazepines and opioids, and consume less nicotine and alcohol...
July 21, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731977/interventions-for-neuropathic-pain-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#2
Svjetlana Dosenovic, Antonia Jelicic Kadic, Maja Miljanovic, Marina Biocic, Krste Boric, Marija Cavar, Nikolina Markovina, Katarina Vucic, Livia Puljak
Numerous interventions for neuropathic pain (NeuP) are available, but its treatment remains unsatisfactory. We systematically summarized evidence from systematic reviews (SRs) of randomized controlled trials on interventions for NeuP. Five electronic databases were searched up to March 2015. Study quality was analyzed using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews. The most common interventions in 97 included SRs were pharmacologic (59%) and surgical (15%). The majority of analyzed SRs were of medium quality...
August 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719060/drug-use-and-phylogenetic-clustering-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-people-who-use-drugs-in-vancouver-canada-a-latent-class-analysis-approach
#3
Brendan Jacka, Bethany Bray, Tanya L Applegate, Brandon Dl Marshall, Viviane Dias Lima, Kanna Hayashi, Kora DeBeck, Jayna Raghwani, P Richard Harrigan, Mel Krajden, Julio Montaner, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND: This study estimated latent classes (i.e., unobserved subgroups in a population) of people who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada and examined how these classes relate to phylogenetic clustering of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: HCV antibody positive people who use drugs from two cohorts in Vancouver, Canada (1996-2012) with a Core-E2 sequence were included. Time-stamped phylogenetic trees were inferred and phylogenetic clustering was determined by time to most common recent ancestor...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716791/factors-associated-with-nicotine-dependence-during-methadone-maintenance-treatment-findings-from-a-multisite-survey-in-vietnam
#4
Huyen Phuc Do, Long Hoang Nguyen, Nhung Phuong Thi Nguyen, Chau Ngo, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Giang Tong Le, Linh Khanh Nguyen, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Bach Xuan Tran, Huong Thi Le, Thuc Minh Thi Vu, Huong Thu Thi Phan, Tho Dinh Tran, Carl A Latkin, Michael P Dunne
OBJECTIVES: Smoking is associated with adverse health outcomes among drug users, including those in treatment. To date, however, there has been little evidence about smoking patterns among people receiving opioid-dependence treatment in developing countries. We examined self-reported nicotine dependence and associated factors in a large sample of opioid-dependent patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in northern Vietnam. SETTING: Five clinics in Hanoi (urban area) and Nam Dinh (rural area)...
July 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699018/polydrug-use-and-heterogeneity-in-hiv-risk-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-estonia-and-russia-a-latent-class-analysis
#5
Isabel Tavitian-Exley, Marie-Claude Boily, Robert Heimer, Anneli Uusküla, Olga Levina, Mathieu Maheu-Giroux
Non-medical drug injection is a major risk factor for HIV infection in Russia and Estonia. Multiple drug use (polydrug) has further been associated with increased harms. We compared HIV, injecting and sexual risk associated with polydrug use among people who injected drugs (PWID) in 2012-2013 in Kohtla-Järve (Estonia, n = 591) and St Petersburg (Russia, n = 811). Using latent class analysis, we identified five (poly)drug classes, the largest consisting of single-drug injectors among whom an opioid was the sole drug injected (56% of PWID)...
July 11, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693573/a-qualitative-assessment-of-an-abstinence-oriented-therapeutic-community-for-prisoners-with-substance-use-disorders-in-kyrgyzstan
#6
Lyuba Azbel, Julia Rozanova, Ingo Michels, Frederick L Altice, Heino Stöver
BACKGROUND: Kyrgyzstan, where HIV is concentrated in prisons and driven by injection drug use, provides a prison-based methadone maintenance therapy program as well as abstinence-oriented therapeutic community based on the 12-step model called the "Clean Zone." We aimed to qualitatively assess how prisoners navigate between these treatment options to understand the persistence of the Clean Zone despite a lack of evidence to support its effectiveness in treating opioid use disorders. METHODS: We conducted an analysis of policy documents and over 60 h of participant observation in February 2016, which included focus groups with a convenience sample of 20 therapeutic community staff members, 110 prisoners across three male and one female prisons, and qualitative interviews with two former Clean Zone participants...
July 10, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688032/prescription-opioid-use-is-associated-with-virologic-failure-in-people-living-with-hiv
#7
John Flores, Yuanyuan Liang, Norma S Ketchum, Barbara J Turner, Delia Bullock, Roberto Villarreal, Jennifer S Potter, Barbara S Taylor
Prescription opioid misuse is a rising epidemic in the U.S., and people living with HIV are at increased risk. We assessed the association between prescription opioid use and virologic failure in HIV+ patients in the South Texas HIV Cohort. We found prescription opioid use was significantly associated with virologic failure, after adjustment for age, race, gender, insurance status, years living with HIV, reported HIV risk factor, chronic hepatitis C virus infection, current substance abuse, and care engagement...
July 7, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679375/hepatitis-c-hospitalizations-in-spain-2004-2013-a-retrospective-epidemiological-study
#8
R Boix, R Cano, P Gallego, F Vallejo, R Fernández-Cuenca, I Noguer, A Larrauri
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C is an important public health problem about which there is currently scarce epidemiological information. The objective of this study is to describe and analyse the demographic and epidemiological characteristics of hospitalized cases of hepatitis C in the Spanish population between 2004 and 2013. METHODS: The study uses the Hospital Discharge Records Database of the Spanish National Health System. It is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study...
July 5, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662975/association-between-process-measures-and-mortality-in-individuals-with-opioid-use-disorders
#9
Katherine E Watkins, Susan M Paddock, Teresa J Hudson, Songthip Ounpraseuth, Amy M Schrader, Kimberly A Hepner, Bradley D Stein
BACKGROUND: Individuals with opioid use disorders have high rates of mortality relative to the general population. The relationship between treatment process and mortality is unknown. AIM: To examine the association between 7 process measures and 12- and 24-month mortality. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients with opioid use disorders who received care from the Veterans Administration between October 2006 and September 2007. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between 12 and 24-month mortality and 7 patient-level process measures, while risk-adjusting for patient characteristics...
June 19, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652132/oral-substitution-treatment-of-injecting-opioid-users-for-prevention-of-hiv-infection
#10
Leticia Barajas-Nava
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631227/frequent-occurrence-of-pain-and-prescription-opioid-use-for-treatment-of-pain-among-women-with-and-at-risk-for-hiv-infection
#11
Anjali Sharma, Donald R Hoover, Qiuhu Shi, Jennie C I Tsao, Christopher Cox, Deborah R Gustafson, Kathleen Weber, Ruth M Greenblatt, Bradley E Aouizerat, Michael W Plankey
Pain is frequent and underreported among HIV+ women. We determined occurrence and severity of pain, and types of pain treatments used among HIV+ and HIV- women. Cross-sectional analyses of pain as measured by the Brief Pain Inventory Short Form, and related pain therapies nested in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Multiple variable linear regression models examined differences by HIV status in pain severity and pain interference in general activity, mood, ability to walk, work, relationships with others, sleep, and enjoyment of life...
June 19, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628854/prevalence-and-predictors-of-hcv-among-a-cohort-of-opioid-treatment-patients-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#12
Barrot H Lambdin, Jennifer Lorvick, Jessie K Mbwambo, John Rwegasha, Saria Hassan, Paula Lum, Alex H Kral
BACKGROUND: The government of Tanzania launched an opioid treatment program (OTP), using methadone, in Dar es Salaam in February of 2011. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, especially among people who inject drugs (PWID). We conducted a cross-sectional study among PWID engaged in OTP in Dar es Salaam to describe the prevalence and predictors of HCV antibody serostatus. METHODS: Routine programmatic data on patients enrolled in Muhimbili National Hospital's OTP clinic from February 2011 to January 2013 were utilized...
June 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615077/service-utilization-and-cost-of-implementing-a-comprehensive-hiv-prevention-and-care-program-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-delhi-india
#13
Mary Philip Sebastian, Aparajita Dasgupta, Lopamudra Ray Saraswati, Asha Singh, Vartika Sharma, Ira Madan, Waimar Tun, Julie Pulerwitz, Ibou Thior, Avina Sarna
BACKGROUND: WHO, UNODC, and UNAIDS recommend a comprehensive package for prevention, treatment, and care of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID). We describe the uptake of services and the cost of implementing a comprehensive package for HIV prevention, treatment, and care services in Delhi, India. METHODS: A cohort of 3774 PWID were enrolled for a prospective HIV incidence study and provided the comprehensive package: HIV and hepatitis testing and counseling, hepatitis B (HB) vaccination, syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections, clean needles-syringes, condoms, abscess care, and education...
June 14, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604436/brief-report-nonfatal-overdose-events-among-persons-who-inject-drugs-findings-from-seven-national-hiv-behavioral-surveillance-cities-2009-2012
#14
William T Robinson, Catherine Kazbour, Tanner Nassau, Kiva Fisher, Shane Sheu, Alexis V Rivera, Alia Al-Tayyib, Sara Nelson Glick, Sarah Braunstein, Narquis Barak, Jennifer Shinefeld, Jonathon Poe, Henry Fisher Raymond, Kathleen Brady
The rate of drug and opioid overdose deaths in the United States has more than tripled over the past 15 years. The ability to conduct public health surveillance on nonfatal overdoses is limited. The current study used National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) data to estimate recent and lifetime history of nonfatal overdose events in persons who inject drugs in 7 cities. Recent and lifetime experience of overdose events ranged from 3% to 20% and from 29% to 63%, respectively. Adapting systems such as NHBS may be useful in responding to and monitoring emergent public health problems such as the overdose epidemic...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594786/hospitalizations-for-endocarditis-and-associated-health-care-costs-among-persons-with-diagnosed-drug-dependence-north-carolina-2010-2015
#15
Aaron T Fleischauer, Laura Ruhl, Sarah Rhea, Erin Barnes
Opioid dependence and overdose have increased to epidemic levels in the United States. The 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health estimated that 4.3 million persons were nonmedical users of prescription pain relievers (1). These users are 40 times more likely than the general population to use heroin or other injection drugs (2). Furthermore, CDC estimated a near quadrupling of heroin-related overdose deaths during 2002-2014 (3). Although overdose contributes most to drug-associated mortality, infectious complications of intravenous drug use constitute a major cause of morbidity leading to hospitalization (4)...
June 9, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578865/initiating-hcv-treatment-with-direct-acting-agents-in-opioid-agonist-treatment-when-to-start-for-people-co-infected-with-hiv
#16
Dimitra Panagiotoglou, Emanuel Krebs, Jeong Eun Min, Michelle Olding, Keith Ahamad, Lianping Ti, Julio S G Montaner, Bohdan Nosyk
BACKGROUND: Direct acting antivirals (DAA) raise the possibility of eliminating Hepatitis C virus (HCV) among people who inject drugs (PWID). However, concerns regarding treatment retention and reinfection challenge implementation efforts. Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) provides an opportunity to engage HCV-positive PWID into DAA-based treatment. Our objective was to identify when OAT adherence sufficiently improved to inform DAA initiation in OAT settings, assuming continuous OAT retention for at least twelve weeks is necessary to complete the DAA treatment course...
June 1, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542184/estimation-of-the-cost-effectiveness-of-hiv-prevention-portfolios-for-people-who-inject-drugs-in-the-united-states-a-model-based-analysis
#17
Cora L Bernard, Douglas K Owens, Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert, Margaret L Brandeau
BACKGROUND: The risks of HIV transmission associated with the opioid epidemic make cost-effective programs for people who inject drugs (PWID) a public health priority. Some of these programs have benefits beyond prevention of HIV-a critical consideration given that injection drug use is increasing across most United States demographic groups. To identify high-value HIV prevention program portfolios for US PWID, we consider combinations of four interventions with demonstrated efficacy: opioid agonist therapy (OAT), needle and syringe programs (NSPs), HIV testing and treatment (Test & Treat), and oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532488/mitigating-the-heroin-crisis-in-baltimore-md-usa-a-cost-benefit-analysis-of-a-hypothetical-supervised-injection-facility
#18
Amos Irwin, Ehsan Jozaghi, Brian W Weir, Sean T Allen, Andrew Lindsay, Susan G Sherman
BACKGROUND: In Baltimore, MD, as in many cities throughout the USA, overdose rates are on the rise due to both the increase of prescription opioid abuse and that of fentanyl and other synthetic opioids in the drug market. Supervised injection facilities (SIFs) are a widely implemented public health intervention throughout the world, with 97 existing in 11 countries worldwide. Research has documented the public health, social, and economic benefits of SIFs, yet none exist in the USA. The purpose of this study is to model the health and financial costs and benefits of a hypothetical SIF in Baltimore...
May 12, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531769/increases-in-prescription-opioid-injection-abuse-among-treatment-admissions-in-the-united-states-2004-2013
#19
Christopher M Jones, Aleta Christensen, R Matthew Gladden
BACKGROUND: The 2015 HIV outbreak in Indiana associated with prescription opioid injection coupled with rising rates of hepatitis C, especially in areas with long-standing opioid abuse, have raised concerns about prescription opioid injection. However, research on this topic is limited. We assessed trends in treatment admissions reporting injection, smoking, and inhalation abuse of prescription opioids and examined characteristics associated with non-oral routes of prescription opioid abuse in the U...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529359/the-journey-of-opioid-substitution-therapy-in-india-achievements-and-challenges
#20
Ravindra Rao
Opioids are one of the most problematic illegal substances globally. Opioid abuse is associated with complications in various spheres of the user's life, his/her family, and the society. Injecting drug use (IDU) is also linked to public health problems such as HIV infection and viral hepatitis. Medications form an important cornerstone in the treatment of opioid dependence. Treatment strategies such as "detoxification" alone or long-term treatment with opioid antagonist have limited acceptability and retention rates...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
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