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Translational medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803938/organoids-as-preclinical-models-to-improve-intraperitoneal-chemotherapy-effectiveness-for-colorectal-cancer-patients-with-peritoneal-metastases-preclinical-models-to-improve-hipec
#1
P Roy, C Canet-Jourdan, M Annereau, O Zajac, M Gelli, S Broutin, L Mercier, A Paci, F Lemare, M Ducreux, D Elias, D Malka, V Boige, D Goéré, F Jaulin
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal metastases (PM), corresponding to tumor implants into the peritoneal cavity, are associated with impaired prognosis and low responsiveness to systemic chemotherapy. A new therapeutic approach has dramatically changed the prognosis of patients with PM from colorectal cancer (CRC), consisting in the association of a complete cytoreductive surgery followed by intraperitoneal chemotherapy associated to hyperthermia (HIPEC). Many drugs have been administered intraperitoneally, but no clear consensus has been approved...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803534/moving-rehabilitation-research-forward-developing-consensus-statements-for-rehabilitation-and-recovery-research
#2
Julie Bernhardt, Karen Borschmann, Lara Boyd, S Thomas Carmichael, Dale Corbett, Steven C Cramer, Tammy Hoffmann, Gert Kwakkel, Sean Savitz, Gustavo Saposnik, Marion Walker, Nick Ward
Stroke recovery is the next frontier in stroke medicine. While growth in rehabilitation and recovery research is exponential, a number of barriers hamper our ability to rapidly progress the field. Standardized terminology is absent in both animal and human research, methods are poorly described, recovery biomarkers are not well defined, and we lack consistent timeframes or measures to examine outcomes. Agreed methods and conventions for developing, monitoring, evaluating and reporting interventions directed at improving recovery are lacking, and current approaches are often not underpinned by biology...
August 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803466/deciphering-the-fluorine-code-the-many-hats-fluorine-wears-in-a-protein-environment
#3
Allison Ann Berger, Jan-Stefan Völler, Nediljko Budisa, Beate Koksch
Deciphering the fluorine code is how we describe not only the focus of this Account, but also the systematic approach to studying the impact of fluorine's incorporation on the properties of peptides and proteins used by our groups and others. The introduction of fluorine has been shown to impart favorable, but seldom predictable, properties to peptides and proteins, but up until about two decades ago the outcomes of fluorine modification of peptides and proteins were largely left to chance. Driven by the motivation to extend the application of the unique properties of the element fluorine from medicinal and agro chemistry to peptide and protein engineering we have established extensive research programs that enable the systematic investigation of effects that accompany the introduction of fluorine into this class of biopolymers...
August 12, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801972/brief-report-a-differential-transcriptomic-profile-of-ex-vivo-expanded-adult-human-hematopoietic-stem-cells-empowers-them-for-engraftment-better-than-their-surface-phenotype
#4
Nikoletta Psatha, Grigorios Georgolopoulos, Susan Phelps, Thalia Papayannopoulou
Transplantation of small cord blood (CB) units, or of autologous ex vivo-genetically modified adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), face the common challenge of suboptimal HSC doses for infusion and impaired engraftment of the transplanted cells. Ex vivo expansion of HSCs, using either cell-based coculture approaches or especially small molecules have been successfully tested mainly in CB and in prolonged cultures. Here, we explored whether innovative combinations of small molecules can sufficiently, after short culture, expand adult HSCs while retaining their functionality in vivo...
August 11, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800268/asthma-management-experiences-of-australians-who-are-native-arabic-speakers
#5
Reem Alzayer, Betty Chaar, Iman Basheti, Bandana Saini
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the asthma management experiences of people with asthma within the Arabic-speaking community in Australia. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews guided by a schedule of questions were conducted with 25 Arabic-speaking women with asthma/carer of a child with asthma, recruited from medical practices and community centers in Melbourne, Australia. RESULTS: Twenty-five Arabic-speaking participants with asthma or caring for those with asthma were interviewed...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797290/role-and-regulation-of-mkp-1-in-airway-inflammation
#6
REVIEW
Seyed M Moosavi, Pavan Prabhala, Alaina J Ammit
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) is a protein with anti-inflammatory properties and the archetypal member of the dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) family that have emerged over the past decade as playing an instrumental role in the regulation of airway inflammation. Not only does MKP-1 serve a critical role as a negative feedback effector, controlling the extent and duration of pro-inflammatory MAPK signalling in airway cells, upregulation of this endogenous phosphatase has also emerged as being one of the key cellular mechanism responsible for the beneficial actions of clinically-used respiratory medicines, including β2-agonists, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and corticosteroids...
August 10, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797132/-possibilities-for-universities-to-influence-global-pricing-of-medicines
#7
Philipp Jaehn, Johannes Inhoffen, Jana Scheer, Felix Streicher, Anna Gesine Huhn, Christopher Lance
People in countries of the global south are affected by a unique spectrum of diseases, while costs for health care are a huge burden in the context of poverty. Furthermore, non-communicable diseases increasingly play a role in these countries. The management of translational research, potential clinical applications and marketing of new drugs in Germany is thus getting more and more important for global health. Regarding this, universities have a particular responsibility for two reasons. First, through basic research, they contribute significantly to the development of new medicines...
July 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795399/new-pharmacogenomics-research-network-an-open-community-catalyzing-research-and-translation-in-precision-medicine
#8
M V Relling, R M Krauss, D M Roden, T E Klein, D M Fowler, N Terada, L Lin, M Riel-Mehan, T P Do, M Kubo, S W Yee, G T Johnson, K M Giacomini
The goal of pharmacogenomics research is to discover genetic polymorphisms that underlie variation in drug response. Increasingly, pharmacogenomics research involves large numbers of patients and the application of new technologies and methodologies to enable discovery. The Pharmacogenomics Research Network (PGRN) has become a community-driven network of investigators spanning scientific and clinical disciplines. Here, we highlight the activities and types of resources that enable PGRN members to enhance and drive basic and translational research in pharmacogenomics...
August 10, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794386/overview-of-the-81-st-annual-scientific-meeting-of-the-japanese-circulation-society%C3%A3-cardiovascular-medicine-for-the-next-generation
#9
Noboru Fujino, Tsuyoshi Yoshimuta, Fukiko Ichida, Koichiro Kinugawa, Kazuo Usuda, Michihiko Kitayama, Hidekazu Ino, Masa-Aki Kawashiri, Hiroshi Tada, Sumio Mizuno, Kenshi Hayashi, Hirofumi Takemura, Masakazu Yamagishi
The 81(st)Annual Scientific Meeting of the Japanese Circulation Society was held in Kanazawa, Japan, on March 17-19, 2017 under a miraculously clear sky. The frontlines of healthcare and medicine are dramatically changing. Thus, "Cardiovascular Medicine for Next Generation" was chosen as the main theme of this meeting. The program was constructed around major identified issues, including renewal of our understanding of basic cardiovascular medicine, translational research, and preventive molecular medicine, all of which are anticipated to transcend the medical field over the next generation...
August 8, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792122/acceleration-of-fracture-healing-by-overexpression-of-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-in-the-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#10
Hongliang Zhang, Alexander Kot, Yu-An E Lay, Fernando A Fierro, Haiyan Chen, Nancy E Lane, Wei Yao
In this study, we engineered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to over-express basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and evaluated its effects on fracture healing. Adipose-derived mouse MSCs were transduced to express bFGF and green fluorescence protein (ADSC(bFGF) -GFP). Closed-femoral fractures were performed with osterix-mCherry reporter mice of both sexes. The mice received 3 × 10(5) ADSCs transfected with control vector or bFGF via intramuscular injection within or around the fracture sites. Mice were euthanized at days 7, 14, and 35 to monitor MSC engraftment, osteogenic differentiation, callus formation, and bone strength...
August 9, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791807/proceedings-regenerative-medicine-for-lung-diseases-a-cirm-workshop-report
#11
Lisa C Kadyk, Natalie D DeWitt, Brigitte Gomperts
The mission of the California Institute of Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) is to accelerate treatments to patients with unmet medical needs. In September 2016, CIRM sponsored a workshop held at the University of California, Los Angeles to discuss regenerative medicine approaches for treatment of lung diseases, and to identify the challenges remaining for advancing such treatments to the clinic and market approval. Workshop participants discussed current preclinical and clinical approaches to regenerative medicine in the lung, as well as the biology of lung stem cells and the role of stem cells in the etiology of various lung diseases...
August 9, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790489/discovering-new-diseases-to-accelerate-precision-medicine
#12
Calum A Macrae
A rate-limiting step in multiple areas of medicine is the limited number of discrete disorders that current technologies are able to identify. Most clinical disease entities are aggregates of large numbers of discrete biological processes that simply happen to share one or two common features. We have begun to translate a wide range of new technologies to the clinic in an effort to improve the resolution and the efficiency of bedside diagnostics with a view to improving drug trials, genetic studies, and the effectiveness of the clinician in a digital environment...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790487/developing-therapies-for-brain-tumors-the-impact-of-the-johns-hopkins-hunterian-neurosurgical-research-laboratory
#13
Henry Brem, Eric W Sankey, Ann Liu, Antonella Mangraviti, Betty M Tyler
The Johns Hopkins Hunterian Neurosurgical Laboratory at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine was created in 1904 by Harvey Cushing and William Halsted and has had a long history of fostering surgical training, encouraging basis science research, and facilitating translational application. Over the past 30 years, the laboratory has addressed the paucity of brain tumor therapies. Pre-clinical work from the laboratory led to the development of carmustine wafers with initial US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 1996...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789752/complementary-and-alternative-medicine-italian-validation-of-a-questionnaire-on-nurses-personal-and-professional-use-knowledge-and-attitudes
#14
Giada Belletti, Seyed Afshin Shorofi, Paul Arbon, Alberto Dal Molin
BACKGROUND: Patients are showing an increasing interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Most nurses are open to the adoption of CAM into clinical nursing practice, but they may experience a lack of knowledge about the safe and effective use of these therapies. Several studies concerning nurses' knowledge and attitudes toward CAM have been published, but only in one, the authors (Shorofi and Arbon) used a validated questionnaire. In Italy, there are no validated questionnaires to investigate this aspect of nursing practice...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Nursing Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783251/safety-and-efficacy-of-allogeneic-lung-spheroid-cells-in-a-mismatched-rat-model-of-pulmonary-fibrosis
#15
Jhon Cores, M Taylor Hensley, Kathryn Kinlaw, S Michaela Rikard, Phuong-Uyen Dinh, Dipti Paudel, Junnan Tang, Adam C Vandergriff, Tyler A Allen, Yazhou Li, Jianhua Liu, Bo Niu, Yuepeng Chi, Thomas Caranasos, Leonard J Lobo, Ke Cheng
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating interstitial lung disease characterized by the relentless deposition of extracellular matrix causing lung distortions and dysfunctions. The prognosis after detection is merely 3-5 years and the only two Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs treat the symptoms, not the disease, and have numerous side effects. Stem cell therapy is a promising treatment strategy for pulmonary fibrosis. Current animal and clinical studies focus on the use of adipose or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells...
August 7, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777294/common-genetic-variants-alter-metabolism-and-influence-dietary-choline-requirements
#16
REVIEW
Ariel B Ganz, Kevin C Klatt, Marie A Caudill
Nutrient needs, including those of the essential nutrient choline, are a population wide distribution. Adequate Intake (AI) recommendations for dietary choline (put forth by the National Academies of Medicine to aid individuals and groups in dietary assessment and planning) are grouped to account for the recognized unique needs associated with age, biological sex, and reproductive status (i.e., pregnancy or lactation). Established and emerging evidence supports the notion that common genetic variants are additional factors that substantially influence nutrient requirements...
August 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776398/-details-on-the-establishment-of-doctor-willis-for-the-cure-of-lunatics-1796
#17
Leonard Smith, Timothy Peters
The 'mad-doctor' Dr Francis Willis achieved national and international celebrity following his successful treatment of King George III's first major episode of insanity in 1788-9. At the time of his summons to attend the King, Willis was a well-established provincial practitioner and madhouse proprietor. An anonymous French visitor published a description of Willis's Lincolnshire madhouse and his therapeutic practices in 1796. The translated text of the full article provides a unique insight into the work of a key figure in the historical development of psychological medicine...
September 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776320/cost-effectiveness-of-support-for-people-starting-a-new-medication-for-a-long-term-condition-through-community-pharmacies-an-economic-evaluation-of-the-new-medicine-service-nms-compared-with-normal-practice
#18
Rachel A Elliott, Lukasz Tanajewski, Georgios Gkountouras, Anthony J Avery, Nick Barber, Rajnikant Mehta, Matthew J Boyd, Asam Latif, Antony Chuter, Justin Waring
BACKGROUND: The English community pharmacy New Medicine Service (NMS) significantly increases patient adherence to medicines, compared with normal practice. We examined the cost effectiveness of NMS compared with normal practice by combining adherence improvement and intervention costs with the effect of increased adherence on patient outcomes and healthcare costs. METHODS: We developed Markov models for diseases targeted by the NMS (hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and antiplatelet regimens) to assess the impact of patients' non-adherence...
August 3, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774826/erythrocyte-based-drug-delivery-in-transfusion-medicine-wandering-questions-seeking-answers
#19
REVIEW
Vassilis L Tzounakas, Dimitrios G Karadimas, Issidora S Papassideri, Jerard Seghatchian, Marianna H Antonelou
Red blood cells (RBCs) represent the most commonly used and best-studied natural carriers in the history of drug delivery. Their abundance and long circulation half-life, their great immune-biocompatibility and biodegradability profiles, along with the availability of well established protocols for their safe collection, ex vivo processing and quality control make them advantageous as drug delivery systems (DDS). As a result, several drug-loading techniques (including encapsulation and surface conjugation) have been developed in order to construct RBC-based or RBC-inspired drug delivery vehicles for the effective treatment of infections, cancer, chronic and autoimmune diseases in both pre-clinical protocols and clinical trials...
July 16, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771867/motion-corrected-k-space-reconstruction-for-interleaved-epi-diffusion-imaging
#20
Zijing Dong, Fuyixue Wang, Xiaodong Ma, Erpeng Dai, Zhe Zhang, Hua Guo
PURPOSE: To develop a new approach to correct for physiological and macroscopic motion in multishot, interleaved echo-planar diffusion imaging. THEORY: This work built on the previous SPIRiT (iterative self-consistent parallel imaging reconstruction) based reconstruction for physiological motion correction in multishot diffusion-weighted imaging to account for macroscopic motion. In-plane rotation, translation correction, data rejection, and weighted combination are integrated in SPIRiT-based reconstruction to correct for ghosting artifacts, blurring, altered b-matrix, and residual artifacts caused by motion...
August 3, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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