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Paolo Fusar-Poli, Grazia Rutigliano, Daniel Stahl, André Schmidt, Valentina Ramella-Cravaro, Shetty Hitesh, Philip McGuire
Importance: Pretest risk estimation is routinely used in clinical medicine to inform further diagnostic testing in individuals with suspected diseases. To our knowledge, the overall characteristics and specific determinants of pretest risk of psychosis onset in individuals undergoing clinical high risk (CHR) assessment are unknown. Objectives: To investigate the characteristics and determinants of pretest risk of psychosis onset in individuals undergoing CHR assessment and to develop and externally validate a pretest risk stratification model...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
A Di Gilio, G Ventrella, P Giungato, M Tutino, R Giua, G Assennato, G de Gennaro
This study provided a useful approach for assessing the impact of industrial sources on surrounding, especially in a sensitive industrial area as Taranto (South of Italy). Taranto is one of the most industrialized Italian towns, where several emission sources operate simultaneously in proximity to the urban settlement. An intensive monitoring campaign of PAHs was carried out from January 28th to July 30th, 2011, in seven sites located in residential settlement around the industrial area and in the city center...
October 23, 2016: Chemosphere
Mukovhe Chad Phanguphangu
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of outer and middle ear pathologies in paediatrics in Limpopo, South Africa. DESIGN: Cross-sectional retrospective review of otoscopy results obtained during a school health screening campaign conducted between March and June 2015. Descriptive statistics through percentages and frequency tables were used to analyse the data. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between age, gender and pathologies observed...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Audiology
Natan Monsores, Cecilia Lopes, Edilnete Maria Bessa Bezerra, Natasha Lunara Silva
Therapeutic tourism is a recent phenomenon in public health and has had repercussions among people with disabilities. Virtual social networks have enabled people to organize themselves to discover ways and means of seeking unconventional treatments in China. In this context, foreign biotech companies have offered experimental cell treatment therapies. In this work, netnography (conducting ethnographic research online) was conducted on the blogs of 58 people who organized campaigns to carry out treatment in China...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Michel Garenne, Mark A Collinson, Chodziwadziwa W Kabudula, F Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen Tollman
BACKGROUND: Completeness of vital registration remains very low in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in rural areas. OBJECTIVES: To investigate trends and factors in completeness of birth and death registration in Agincourt, a rural area of South Africa covering a population of about 110,000 persons, under demographic surveillance since 1992. The population belongs to the Shangaan ethnic group and hosts a sizeable community of Mozambican refugees. DESIGN: Statistical analysis of birth and death registration over time in a 22-year perspective (1992-2014)...
2016: Global Health Action
Alessandra Ammazzalorso, Barbara De Filippis, Cristina Campestre, Antonio Laghezza, Alessandro Marrone, Rosa Amoroso, Paolo Tortorella, Mariangela Agamennone
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are an important family of zinc-containing enzymes with a central role in many physiological and pathological processes. Although several MMP inhibitors have been synthesized over the years, none reached the market because of off-target effects, due to the presence of a zinc binding group in the inhibitor structure. To overcome this problem non-zinc-binding inhibitors (NZIs) have been recently designed. In a previous article, a virtual screening campaign identified some hydroxynaphtyridine and hydroxyquinoline as MMP-2 non-zinc-binding inhibitors...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kate E Mulgrew, Lee Kannis-Dymand, Emily Hughes, Janet D Carter, Sherrie Kaye
We modified the Weight Control Behaviours scale to explore unhealthy/healthy behaviours to increase, decrease or maintain weight in young adults (N = 1082) and associations with body mass index, depression and body image. Females reported more use of all strategies except those which increase body size or exercising to exhaustion. Although the sample reported more use of healthy weight management strategies, the use of dangerous ones warrants attention by healthcare professionals. Feelings of fatness was an important predictor of weight management behaviours...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
J L Santiago, R Borge, F Martin, D de la Paz, A Martilli, J Lumbreras, B Sanchez
The distribution of pollutants is spatially heterogeneous within urban streets making difficult to build a realistic concentration map. In this paper, a methodology based on computational fluid dynamic modeling with Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach is used to compute maps of concentration for a period of several weeks. The methodology is evaluated by comparing simulation results against experimental data from two different campaigns where a large number of passive samplers deployed in an area with heavy vehicular traffic in Madrid (Spain)...
October 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Sarah B Maness, Lorraine R Reitzel, Kellie L Watkins, Lorna H McNeill
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this exploratory study was to improve understanding of the sociodemographic correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) awareness, knowledge, and vaccination attitudes in a convenience sample of church-going, African-American women and how knowledge about HPV-related cancers relates to vaccination attitudes for girls and boys. METHODS: Participants (N = 308) answered survey questions about HPV awareness, knowledge, and vaccination attitudes...
November 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
William J Fielding
This article compares results from a study in 2014 with a similar study from 1998 (Fielding, 1999 ) to examine changes in the care of dogs in New Providence, The Bahamas. The results from a survey of 379 residents indicated a general lack of improvement in matters associated with the care of dogs during the past 16 years. For example, in 1998, it was estimated that 35% of caregivers had at least 1 dog sterilized, and in 2014, the corresponding figure was 37%. In 1998, 14% of households with dogs allowed their dogs to roam compared with 41...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Kristin Hui Xian Tan, Elizabeth Barr, Vira Koshkina, Stefan Ma, Sudhir Kowlessur, Dianna J Magliano, Stefan Söderberg, Kee Seng Chia, Paul Zimmet, Wei-Yen Lim
BACKGROUND: Asia is experiencing a type 2 diabetes epidemic but prevalence differs by ethnicity and level of socio-economic development. Singapore and Mauritius have implemented comprehensive campaigns to address this public health problem. We compared diabetes and obesity prevalence trends among Chinese and South Asians living in Singapore and Mauritius to determine the contribution of ethnicity and economic development to diabetes. METHODS: Age-specific data from serial national population-based surveys in Singapore and Mauritius between 1987 and 2010 were used to estimate age-standardised diabetes and obesity prevalence...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Diabetes
Christina Gaarslev, Melissa Yee, Georgi Chan, Stephanie Fletcher-Lartey, Rabia Khan
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a public health challenge supplemented by inappropriate prescribing, especially for an upper respiratory tract infection in primary care. Patient/carer expectations have been identified as one of the main drivers for inappropriate antibiotics prescribing by primary care physicians. The aim of this study was to understand who is more likely to expect an antibiotic for an upper respiratory tract infection from their doctor and the reasons underlying it...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Elisabeth Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Victor A Alegana, Alessandro Sorichetta, Catherine Linard, Christoper Lourenço, Nick W Ruktanonchai, Bonita Graupe, Tomas J Bird, Carla Pezzulo, Amy Wesolowski, Andrew J Tatem
BACKGROUND: Reliable health metrics are crucial for accurately assessing disease burden and planning interventions. Many health indicators are measured through passive surveillance systems and are reliant on accurate estimates of denominators to transform case counts into incidence measures. These denominator estimates generally come from national censuses and use large area growth rates to estimate annual changes. Typically, they do not account for any seasonal fluctuations and thus assume a static denominator population...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Zoltán Nyiri, Márton Novák, Zsolt Bodai, Bálint Sámuel Szabó, Zsuzsanna Eke, Gyula Záray, Tamás Szigeti
An analytical method has been developed for the quantitative determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitrated and oxygenated derivatives (nitro- and oxy-PAHs respectively) in particulate matter (PM) samples. The sample preparation procedure included only a simple and quick sonication-assisted extraction step, clean-up based on addition of water and centrifugation as well as pre-concentration under N2 stream. The determination of 16 PAHs and 4 oxy-PAHs was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, while liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used in the case of the 11 investigated nitro-PAHs...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Victoria L Ewing, Rachel Tolhurst, Andrew Kapinda, Esther Richards, Dianne J Terlouw, David G Lalloo
BACKGROUND: This study used qualitative methods to investigate the relationship between geographic access and gendered intra-household hierarchies and how these influence treatment-seeking decision-making for childhood fever within the Chikwawa district of Malawi. Previous cross-sectional survey findings in the district indicated that distance from facility and associated costs are important determinants of health facility attendance in the district. This paper uses qualitative data to add depth of understanding to these findings by exploring the relationship between distance from services, anticipated costs and cultural norms of intra-household decision-making, and to identify potential intervention opportunities to reduce challenges experienced by those in remote locations...
October 24, 2016: Malaria Journal
Karell Martínez-Guijarro, Ashraf Ramadan, Bondi Gevao
A sampling campaign was carried out to assess the impact of the oil field activities on the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in ambient air at Umm Al-Aish oil field in northern Kuwait. Sixteen samples were collected from March 2014 to January 2015. The concentrations of ΣPCDD/Fs were relatively high (33.6-586 fg I-TEQ/m(3); median: 94.7 fg I-TEQ/m(3); 31.2 to 516 fg WHO-TEQ2005/m(3); median: 83...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Arianna Rubin Means, Julie Jacobson, Aryc W Mosher, Judd L Walson
BACKGROUND: While some evidence supports the beneficial effects of integrating neglected tropical disease (NTD) programs to optimize coverage and reduce costs, there is minimal information regarding when or how to effectively operationalize program integration. The lack of systematic analyses of integration experiences and of integration processes may act as an impediment to achieving more effective NTD programming. We aimed to learn about the experiences of NTD stakeholders and their perceptions of integration...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Cinzia Pizzi, Mattia Ornamenti, Simone Spangaro, Simona E Rombo, Laxmi Parida
Entropy, being closely related to repetitiveness and compressibility, is a widely used information-related measure to assess the degree of predictability of a sequence. Entropic profiles are based on information theory principles, and can be used to study the under-/over-representation of subwords, by also providing information about the scale of conserved DNA regions. Here we focus on the algorithmic aspects related to entropic profiles. In particular, we propose linear time algorithms for their computation that rely on suffix-based data structures, more specifically on the truncated suffix tree (TST) and on the enhanced suffix array (ESA)...
October 21, 2016: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Javier Castro Jimenez, Belén González-Gaya, Mariana Pizarro, Paulo Casal, Cristina Pizarro-Alvarez, Jordi Dachs
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are widely used as flame retardants and plasticizers and have been detected ubiquitously in the remote atmosphere. Fourteen OPEs were analysed in one hundred fifteen aerosol phase samples collected from the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans during the MALASPINA circumnavigation campaign. OPEs were detected in all samples with concentrations ranging from 360 to 4400 pg m-3 for the sum of compounds. No clear concentration trends were found between the Northern and Southern hemispheres...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Anita S Iyer, Malika Bouhenia, John Rumunu, Abdinasir Abubakar, Randon J Gruninger, Jane Pita, Richard Lako Lino, Lul L Deng, Joseph F Wamala, Edward T Ryan, Stephen Martin, Dominique Legros, Justin Lessler, David A Sack, Francisco J Luquero, Daniel T Leung, Andrew S Azman
Despite recent large-scale cholera outbreaks, little is known about the immunogenicity of oral cholera vaccines (OCV) in African populations, particularly among those at highest cholera risk. During a 2015 preemptive OCV campaign among internally displaced persons in South Sudan, a year after a large cholera outbreak, we enrolled 37 young children (1-5 years old), 67 older children (6-17 years old) and 101 adults (≥18 years old), who received two doses of OCV (Shanchol) spaced approximately 3 weeks apart...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
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