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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456992/national-immunization-campaigns-with-oral-polio-vaccine-reduce-all-cause-mortality-a-natural-experiment-within-seven-randomized-trials
#1
Andreas Andersen, Ane Baerent Fisker, Amabelia Rodrigues, Cesario Martins, Henrik Ravn, Najaaraq Lund, Sofie Biering-Sørensen, Christine Stabell Benn, Peter Aaby
Background: A recent WHO review concluded that live BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may have beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs) reducing mortality from non-targeted diseases. NSEs of oral polio vaccine (OPV) were not examined. If OPV vaccination campaigns reduce the mortality rate, it would suggest beneficial NSEs. Setting: Between 2002 and 2014, Guinea-Bissau had 15 general OPV campaigns and other campaigns with OPV plus vitamin A supplementation (VAS), VAS-only, MV, and H1N1 vaccine...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455698/stop-the-bleed-the-effect-of-hemorrhage-control-education-on-laypersons-willingness-to-respond-during-a-traumatic-medical-emergency
#2
Elliot M Ross, Theodore T Redman, Julian G Mapp, Derek J Brown, Kaori Tanaka, Craig W Cooley, Chetan U Kharod, David A Wampler
BACKGROUND: The "Stop the Bleed" campaign advocates for non-medical personnel to be trained in basic hemorrhage control. However, it is not clear what type of education or the duration of instruction needed to meet that requirement. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of a brief hemorrhage control educational curriculum on the willingness of laypersons to respond during a traumatic emergency. METHODS: This "Stop the Bleed" education initiative was conducted by the University of Texas Health San Antonio Office of the Medical Director (San Antonio, Texas USA) between September 2016 and March 2017...
February 19, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455310/germans-learn-how-to-save-lives-a-nationwide-cpr-education-initiative
#3
Manuela Malsy, Richard Leberle, Bernhard Graf
BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death is one of the most frequent causes of death in Germany and the third leading cause of death in the industrialized world. Yet, the percentage of people providing first aid in the case of sudden cardiac arrest in Germany is alarmingly low by international comparison. Training Germans or reminding them of the simple but effective steps of resuscitation, so that everybody can save a live in an emergency. METHODS: For the campaign 'Resuscitation Week', physicians and paramedics trained passers-by in cardiovascular resuscitation free of charge...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454521/hepatitis-b-vaccination-and-the-putative-risk-of-central-demyelinating-diseases-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Julie Mouchet, Francesco Salvo, Emanuel Raschi, Elisabetta Poluzzi, Ippazio Cosimo Antonazzo, Fabrizio De Ponti, Bernard Bégaud
BACKGROUND: The anti-hepatitis B immunization campaigns launched in the early 1990s were a major public health breakthrough and targeted various populations (at-risk adults, newborns, adolescents). However, debate is still active about a possible link between this vaccine and central demyelination. This study provides a pooled estimate of this risk based on a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of all available epidemiologic studies. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted in Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane Library from database inception to 10 May 2017...
February 14, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454365/qualitative-evaluation-of-the-saleema-campaign-to-eliminate-female-genital-mutilation-and-cutting-in-sudan
#5
Andrea C Johnson, W Douglas Evans, Nicole Barrett, Howida Badri, Tamador Abdalla, Cody Donahue
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation and cutting (FGM/C, herein FGM) is a widespread and harmful practice. The Government developed a national campaign in Sudan, called Saleema, to change social norms discouraging FGM. Saleema translates to being "whole", healthy in body and mind, unharmed, intact, pristine, and untouched, in a God-given condition. An interim evaluation was conducted using focus groups among Sudanese adults. The primary aim was to explore perceptions of the Saleema poster exemplars and to assess if the desired themes were being communicated...
February 17, 2018: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454209/reconciling-discrepancies-in-the-source-characterization-of-vocs-between-emission-inventories-and-receptor-modeling
#6
Jiamin Ou, Junyu Zheng, Zibing Yuan, Dabo Guan, Zhijiong Huang, Fei Yu, Min Shao, Peter K K Louie
Emission inventory (EI) and receptor model (RM) are two of the three source apportionment (SA) methods recommended by Ministry of Environment of China and used widely to provide independent views on emission source identifications. How to interpret the mixed results they provide, however, were less studied. In this study, a cross-validation study was conducted in one of China's fast-developing and highly populated city cluster- the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. By utilizing a highly resolved speciated regional EI and a region-wide gridded volatile organic compounds (VOCs) speciation measurement campaign, we elucidated underlying factors for discrepancies between EI and RM and proposed ways for their interpretations with the aim to achieve a scientifically plausible source identification...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454204/scanning-vertical-distributions-of-typical-aerosols-along-the-yangtze-river-using-elastic-lidar
#7
Shidong Fan, Cheng Liu, Zhouqing Xie, Yunsheng Dong, Qihou Hu, Guangqiang Fan, Zhengyi Chen, Tianshu Zhang, Jingbo Duan, Pengfei Zhang, Jianguo Liu
In recent years, China has experienced heavy air pollution, especially haze caused by particulate matter (PM). The compositions, horizontal distributions, transport, and chemical formation mechanisms of PM and its precursors have been widely investigated in China based on near-ground measurements. However, the understanding of the distributions and physical and chemical processes of PM in the vertical direction remains limited. In this study, an elastic lidar was employed to investigate the vertical profiles of aerosols along the Yangtze River during the Yangtze River Campaign of winter 2015...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453716/occurrence-and-assessment-of-the-risk-of-ultraviolet-filters-and-light-stabilizers-in-victorian-estuaries
#8
Mayumi Allinson, Yutaka Kameda, Kumiko Kimura, Graeme Allinson
This reconnaissance study was undertaken to examine the occurrence of common ultraviolet filters (UVF) and light stabilizers (UVLS), and preservatives in four different estuaries in Port Philip Bay, Victoria, for the first time. In total, 11 UV filters, 10 UV stabilizers, 12 preservatives and a metabolite, and one fragrance were screened in grab samples of water and sediment using a combination of solid phase extraction and gas and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry measurement techniques. In that context, 16 of the UVF and UVLS and 5 of the preservatives screened were observed in water and/or sediment samples...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453183/spatial-assessment-of-land-degradation-through-key-ecosystem-services-the-role-of-globally-available-data
#9
Stefania Cerretelli, Laura Poggio, Alessandro Gimona, Getahun Yakob, Shiferaw Boke, Mulugeta Habte, Malcolm Coull, Alessandro Peressotti, Helaina Black
Land degradation is a serious issue especially in dry and developing countries leading to ecosystem services (ESS) degradation due to soil functions' depletion. Reliably mapping land degradation spatial distribution is therefore important for policy decisions. The main objectives of this paper were to infer land degradation through ESS assessment and compare the modelling results obtained using different sets of data. We modelled important physical processes (sediment erosion and nutrient export) and the equivalent ecosystem services (sediment and nutrient retention) to infer land degradation in an area in the Ethiopian Great Rift Valley...
February 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453013/aermod-as-a-gaussian-dispersion-model-for-planning-tracer-gas-dispersion-tests-for-landfill-methane-emission-quantification
#10
F Matacchiera, C Manes, R P Beaven, T C Rees-White, F Boano, J Mønster, C Scheutz
The measurement of methane emissions from landfills is important to the understanding of landfills' contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. The Tracer Dispersion Method (TDM) is becoming widely accepted as a technique, which allows landfill emissions to be quantified accurately provided that measurements are taken where the plumes of a released tracer-gas and landfill-gas are well-mixed. However, the distance at which full mixing of the gases occurs is generally unknown prior to any experimental campaign...
February 13, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452385/longitudinal-tobacco-use-transitions-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-2014-2016
#11
Elizabeth C Hair, Alexa R Romberg, Raymond Niaura, David B Abrams, Morgane A Bennett, Haijun Xiao, Jessica M Rath, Lindsay Pitzer, Donna Vallone
Introduction: Among youth, the frequency and prevalence of using more than one tobacco (small cigar, cigarette, and hookah) or nicotine-containing product (e-cigarettes-ENDS) are changing. These shifts pose challenges for regulation, intervention, and prevention campaigns because of scant longitudinal data on the stability of use patterns in this changing product landscape. Methods: A nationally representative longitudinal survey of 15- to 21-year olds (n = 15,275) was used to describe transitions between never use, noncurrent use, and past 30-day use of combustible tobacco, e-cigarettes (ENDS), and dual use of both kinds of products...
February 13, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452383/the-effectiveness-of-asian-bush-mosquito-aedes-japonicus-japonicus-control-actions-in-colonised-peri-urban-areas-in-the-netherlands
#12
A Ibañez-Justicia, S Teekema, W den Hartog, F Jacobs, M Dik, A Stroo
The Asian bush mosquito (Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald)) is an invasive mosquito species in Europe. In 2012, it was for the first time detected in the Netherlands, in the municipality of Lelystad. After further research, thousands of specimens were found in the surrounding peri-urban areas of the city. A targeted mosquito control campaign began in 2015 with the objective of reducing populations in locations with the highest concentrations of Ae. japonicus breeding sites: allotment garden complexes. Mosquito control consisted of source reduction combined with application of the larvicide Vectomax in breeding sites...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452061/what-s-so-appealing-an-examination-of-emotional-appeals-and-viewer-engagement-in-safe-sex-psas-and-condom-advertisements
#13
Elise M Stevens
Whereas advertisements strive to increase revenue, PSAs work to educate and inform. Even though both share the similar goal of persuasion, advertising tends to lead to more effective sales, unlike PSAs, which can have little effect on audience behaviors. Using a systematic, quantitative content analysis, this study examines emotional appeals and viewer engagement in safe-sex PSAs and condom advertisements in online videos (N = 132). PSAs with humor appeals received more viewer attention in terms of views, comments, and ratings than humorous advertisements...
February 16, 2018: Health Marketing Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451923/to-what-extent-do-potential-conservation-donors-value-community-aspects-of-conservation-projects-in-low-income-countries
#14
Amy R Lewis, Richard P Young, James M Gibbons, Julia P G Jones
There is a major gap in funding required for conservation, especially in low income countries. Given the significant contribution of taxpayers in industrialized countries to funding conservation overseas, and donations from membership organisation, understanding the preferences of ordinary people in a high income country for different attributes of conservation projects is valuable for future marketing of conservation. We conducted a discrete choice experiment with visitors to a UK zoo, while simultaneously conducting a revealed preference study through a real donation campaign on the same sample...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451917/perceived-behavioral-control-as-a-potential-precursor-of-walking-three-times-a-week-patient-s-perspectives
#15
Peter Busse, J Jaime Miranda
BACKGROUND: Behavior change theories can identify people's main motivations to engage in recommended health practices and thus provide better tools to design interventions, particularly human centered design interventions. OBJECTIVES: This study had two objectives: (a) to identify salient beliefs about walking three times a week for 30 minutes nonstop among patients with hypertension in a low-resource setting and, (b) to measure the relationships among intentions, attitudes, perceived social pressure and perceived behavioral control about this behavior...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451881/population-based-coverage-survey-results-following-the-mass-drug-administration-of-azithromycin-for-the-treatment-of-trachoma-in-amhara-ethiopia
#16
Tigist Astale, Eshetu Sata, Mulat Zerihun, Andrew W Nute, Aisha E P Stewart, Demelash Gessesse, Gedefaw Ayenew, Berhanu Melak, Melsew Chanyalew, Zerihun Tadesse, E Kelly Callahan, Scott D Nash
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. In communities where the district level prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular among children ages 1-9 years is ≥5%, WHO recommends annual mass drug administration (MDA) of antibiotics with the aim of at least 80% coverage. Population-based post-MDA coverage surveys are essential to understand the effectiveness of MDA programs, yet published reports from trachoma programs are rare. METHODS: In the Amhara region of Ethiopia, a population-based MDA coverage survey was conducted 3 weeks following the 2016 MDA to estimate the zonal prevalence of self-reported drug coverage in all 10 administrative zones...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451879/dengue-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-and-their-impact-on-community-based-vector-control-in-rural-cambodia
#17
Emmanuelle Kumaran, Dyna Doum, Vanney Keo, Ly Sokha, BunLeng Sam, Vibol Chan, Neal Alexander, John Bradley, Marco Liverani, Didot Budi Prasetyo, Agus Rachmat, Sergio Lopes, Jeffrey Hii, Leang Rithea, Muhammad Shafique, John Hustedt
BACKGROUND: Globally there are an estimated 390 million dengue infections per year, of which 96 million are clinically apparent. In Cambodia, estimates suggest as many as 185,850 cases annually. The World Health Organization global strategy for dengue prevention aims to reduce mortality rates by 50% and morbidity by 25% by 2020. The adoption of integrated vector management approach using community-based methods tailored to the local context is one of the recommended strategies to achieve these objectives...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451834/influenza-vaccination-2014-2015-results-of-a-survey-conducted-among-general-practitioners-in-italy
#18
Miriam Levi, Paolo Bonanni, Marco Biffino, Michele Conversano, Maria Corongiu, Paolo Morato, Tommasa Maio
Introduction The aim of the present study was to evaluate orientation, organizational procedures implemented and difficulties faced by general practitioners (GPs) during the 2014/15 seasonal influenza vaccination programme, as well as GPs' general attitude towards vaccinations. Methods An ad hoc online survey was developed and administered to general practitioners members of the Italian Federation of GPs (Federazione Italiana Medici di Medicina Generale - FIMMG). Overall, 10,000 survey invitations were sent...
February 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451833/development-and-pilot-testing-of-a-text-message-vaccine-reminder-system-for-use-during-an-influenza-pandemic
#19
Jonathan D Lehnert, Alex Shevach, Sydney Walker, Rose Wang, Thomas J Fitzgerald, Samuel B Graitcer
In an influenza pandemic, two vaccine doses administered 21 days apart may be needed for individuals of all ages to achieve seroprotection. Achieving dose-series completion can be challenging even for routinely recommended vaccines. To prepare for a two-dose influenza pandemic vaccine campaign and promote dose-series completion and correct dosing intervals, CDC and its partners developed a text message-based vaccine reminder system to remind persons who receive a first dose of pandemic influenza vaccine to receive the second dose...
February 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451827/sending-the-right-message-wild-game-and-the-west-africa-ebola-outbreak
#20
Kristin Post
The unprecedented scale of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014-15 caught the world by surprise. Zaire Ebolavirus had not previously been documented in Guinea, Sierra Leone, or Liberia. However, since this strain of filovirus was first identified in 1976, scientists have been studying the disease and its origins. They have identified forest-dwelling animals that carry the virus, and some that die from it, but have yet to isolate how it is transmitted from animals to humans. During the height of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, some public health messages addressed the link among Ebola, wild animals, and humans...
January 2018: Health Security
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