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Patrick Saliba, Ana Hornero, Guillermo Cuervo, Immaculada Grau, Emilio Jimenez, Damaris Berbel, Purificación Martos, Juan Manuel Verge, Cristian Tebe, Jose María Martínez-Sánchez, Evelyn Shaw, Laura Gavaldà, Jordi Carratalà, Miquel Pujol
BACKGROUND: Short-term peripheral venous catheters are a significant source of health-care acquired bloodstream infections and a preventable cause of death. AIM: To assess the effectiveness of interventions applied to reduce the incidence and mortality associated with short peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (PVCR-BSI). METHODS: The intervention included continuous PVCR-BSI surveillance, implementation of preventive measures related to catheter insertion and maintenance in accordance with evidence-based recommendations and the hospital's own data, front-line staff educational campaigns, and assessment of adherence to hospital guidelines by ward rounds...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Yazed AlRuthia, Bander Balkhi, Marwan Alrasheed, Ahmed Altuwaijri, Mohammad Alarifi, Huda Alzahrani, Wael Mansy
This study aimed to explore the health beliefs and patterns of dietary supplement usage among fitness center members. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four large indoor fitness centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This study involved male fitness center members aged ≥18 years with no speech or hearing disabilities. In-person interviews were conducted with fitness center members who agreed to participate using a newly developed questionnaire. Information on participants' sociodemographics (e.g., age and education), smoking status, health status, exercise frequency, average time spent exercising, different supplements used, used supplements sources, and health beliefs regarding dietary supplements were obtained...
2018: PloS One
Xia Wang, Adam Bourne, Pulin Liu, Jiangli Sun, Thomas Cai, Gitau Mburu, Matteo Cassolato, Bangyuan Wang, Wang Zhou
BACKGROUND: Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as an additional prevention choice for men who have sex with men (MSM) at substantial risk of HIV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent, and reasons, for MSM's willingness to use oral PrEP in Wuhan and Shanghai, China. METHODS: Between May and December 2015, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 487 MSM recruited through snowball sampling in physical locations frequented by MSM and through social media applications...
2018: PloS One
Chukwuma Mbaeyi, Zubair Mufti Wadood, Thomas Moran, Fazal Ather, Tasha Stehling-Ariza, Joanna Nikulin, Mohammad Al Safadi, Jane Iber, Laurel Zomahoun, Nidal Abourshaid, Hong Pang, Nikki Collins, Humayun Asghar, Obaid Ul Islam Butt, Cara C Burns, Derek Ehrhardt, Magdi Sharaf
Since the 1988 inception of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), progress toward interruption of wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has occurred mostly through extensive use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in mass vaccination campaigns and through routine immunization services (1,2). However, because OPV contains live, attenuated virus, it carries the rare risk for reversion to neurovirulence. In areas with very low OPV coverage, prolonged transmission of vaccine-associated viruses can lead to the emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), which can cause outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis...
June 22, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Rachael Piltch-Loeb, Alexis A Merdjanoff, David M Abramson
Emerging disease threats like Zika pose a risk to naïve populations. In comparison to chronic diseases, there is scientific uncertainty surrounding emerging diseases because of the lack of medical and public health information available as the threat emerges. Further complicating this are the multiple, diverse channels through which people get information. This article used bivariate and multivariate analysis to first describe the breadth of information sources individuals accessed about the Zika virus, and then describe individuals' primary sources of information for Zika using a nationally representative pooled cross-sectional data set collected at 3 time points in 2016 (N = 3,698)...
May 2018: Health Security
Emma M Parrish, Nancy S Kim, Kristen A Woodberry, Michelle Friedman-Yakoobian
AIM: Schizophrenia is a highly stigmatized disorder. Identification of youth at high risk for psychosis has the potential for improved outcomes. However, identifying youth at risk could subject them to increased public stigma. Using an experimental vignette design, this study examined relative levels of public stigma elicited by the labels "schizophrenia," "clinical high risk (CHR)," "attenuated psychotic symptoms syndrome (APSS)," a label implying normative adolescent development ("a bad breakup"), and a no-label control condition...
June 21, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Mohammad Bohari, Xing Yu, Chandan Kishor, Brijesh Patel, Rob-Marc Go, Hadieh Alsadat Eslampanah Seyedi, Yaron Vinik, Irwin Darren Grice, Yehiel Zick, Helen Blanchard
Galectin-8 is a β-galactoside-recognising protein that has a role in the regulation of bone remodelling and is an emerging new target for tackling diseases with associated bone-loss. We have designed and synthesised methyl 3-O-[1-carboxyethyl]-β-D-galactopyranoside (compound 6) as a ligand to target the N-terminal domain of galectin-8 (galectin-8N). Our design involved molecular dynamics (MD) simulations that predicted 6 to mimic the interactions made by the galactose ring as well as the carboxylic acid group of 3'-O-sialylated lactose (3'-SiaLac), with galectin-8N...
June 21, 2018: ChemMedChem
Jennifer L Nguyen, Carolyn Heckman, Frank Perna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
Jacqui Thornton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Jiabao Pan, Bingjie Liu, Gary L Kreps
BACKGROUND: Depression is a mood disorder that may lead to severe outcomes including mental breakdown, self-injury, and suicide. Potential causes of depression include genetic, sociocultural, and individual-level factors. However, public understandings of depression guided by a complex interplay of media and other societal discourses might not be congruent with the scientific knowledge. Misunderstandings of depression can lead to under-treatment and stigmatization of depression. Against this backdrop, this study aims to achieve a holistic understanding of the patterns and dynamics in discourses about depression from various information sources in China by looking at related posts on social media...
June 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Alexis M Koskan, Madeline Fernandez-Pineda
This study explores understanding of primary and secondary prevention of anal cancer among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected foreign-born Latino gay and bisexual men (GBM). Between August 2015 and December 2016, researchers conducted 33 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with HIV-infected foreign-born Latino GBM. Interview questions sought to determine participants' knowledge and perceived barriers and facilitators to primary and secondary prevention of anal cancer. Researchers analyzed interview transcripts using a qualitative content analysis approach...
January 2018: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
Andrej Duh, Marjan Slak Rupnik, Dean Korošak
Computational propaganda deploys social or political bots to try to shape, steer, and manipulate online public discussions and influence decisions. Collective behavior of populations of social bots has not been yet widely studied, although understanding of collective patterns arising from interactions between bots would aid social bot detection. In this study, we show that there are significant differences in collective behavior between population of bots and population of humans as detected from their Twitter activity...
June 2018: Big Data
Ivonne F Reyes-Mandujano, José E Olivera-García, Manuel Taboada-Vega, Patricia Galvan-Sanchez, Amilcar Azcarza-Acuña, Aldo M Yactayo-Flores, Luis A Zuñiga-Ccoicca, Evelyn V Leiva-Pachas, Efraín Paccori-García
OBJECTIVES: . To determine the connection between polymorphism IL-1B C(+3953/4)T and chronic periodontitis in adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: . Case and control study. Individuals between 18 and 64 years of age were included; they were recruited through healthcare campaigns carried out in 2012 in different areas of the city of Lima with similar socio-economic characteristics. Dentists specialized in periodontics performed the diagnosis of the periodontal state of participants; genotyping was made through the PCR-RFLP technique...
January 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Joan Forns, Jordi Sunyer, Raquel Garcia-Esteban, Daniela Porta, Akhgar Ghassabian, Lise Giorgis-Allemand, Tong Gong, Ulrike Gehring, Mette Sørensen, Marie Standl, Dorothee Sugiri, Catarina Almqvist, Ainara Andiarena, Chiara Badaloní, Rob Beelen, Dietrich Berdel, Giulia Cesaroni, Marie-Aline Charles, Kirsten Thorup Eriksen, Marisa Estarlich, Mariana F Fernandez, Anne Forhan, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Michal Korek, Paul Lichtenstein, Aitana Lertxundi, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Iana Markevych, Audrey de Nazelle, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Rocío Pérez-Lobato, Claire Philippat, Rémy Slama, Carla Mt Tiesler, Frank C Verhulst, Andrea von Berg, Tanja Vrijkotte, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen, Barbara Heude, Ursula Krämer, Joachim Heinrich, Henning Tiemeier, Francesco Forastiere, Göran Pershagen, Bert Brunekreef, Mònica Guxens
BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy may increase attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children, but findings have been inconsistent. We aimed to study this association in a collaborative study of eight European population-based birth/child cohorts, including 29,127 mother-child pairs. METHODS: Air pollution concentrations [nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM)] were estimated at the birth address by land-use regression models based on monitoring campaigns performed between 2008 and 2011...
June 19, 2018: Epidemiology
Lonzozou Kpanake, Paul Clay Sorum, Étienne Mullet
OBJECTIVE: To map the different personal positions of Guinean people regarding vaccination against Ebola. METHODS: From January to April 2016, 304 adults in Guinea were presented with 48 vignettes depicting situations in which getting vaccinated would be possible. These situations varied as a function of the constructs of health-protective behavior theories. The participants indicated the likelihood they would get vaccinated in each case. RESULTS: Seven qualitatively different positions were found: Always Vaccinate (38%), Never Vaccinate (25%), Hesitant (19%), Depends on Cost Only (7%), Depends on Neighbors' Attitude and Cost (5%), Mainly Depends on Risk (4%), and Mistrust of Cheap Vaccines (2%)...
June 20, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Madhur S Dhingra, Jean Artois, Simon Dellicour, Philippe Lemey, Gwenaelle Dauphin, Sophie Von Dobschuetz, Thomas P Van Boeckel, David M Castellan, Subhash Morzaria, Marius Gilbert
Over the years, the emergence of novel H5 and H7 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) has been taking place through two main mechanisms: first, the conversion of a low pathogenic into a highly pathogenic virus, and second, the reassortment between different genetic segments of low and highly pathogenic viruses already in circulation. We investigated and summarized the literature on emerging HPAI H5 and H7 viruses with the aim of building a spatio-temporal database of all these recorded conversions and reassortments events...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Andrew M Williams, Kelly W Muir
There is a severe shortage of donor corneas available worldwide for transplantation, with the number of patients in need of transplant greatly exceeding the number of cornea tissues available. Understanding awareness and attitudes about corneal donation worldwide is a critical step toward addressing this shortage. In this review, awareness of corneal donation and reported willingness to donate are summarized from 55 published studies across 13 countries. In general, many more respondents indicated positive attitudes toward eye donation and willingness to donate their eyes than the number of respondents who have pledged their eyes for donation, suggesting an unrealized potential of additional donors...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
Sheri Madigan, Vanessa Villani, Corry Azzopardi, Danae Laut, Tanya Smith, Jeff R Temple, Dillon Browne, Gina Dimitropoulos
PURPOSE: The objective of this meta-analysis was to provide a synthesis of studies examining the prevalence of unwanted online exposure and solicitation of a sexual nature among youth, and to determine if prevalence varies by youth age, gender, year of study data collection, or study geographical location. METHOD: Eligible studies from January 1990 to January 2016 were identified utilizing a comprehensive search strategy. Included studies examined the prevalence of unwanted online exposure and solicitation in youth who ranged from 12 to 16...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
C E G Burlinson, D Sirounis, K R Walley, A Chau
Sepsis remains a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Recognition and treatment of maternal sepsis are often delayed due to the physiological adaptations of pregnancy and vague or absent signs and symptoms during its initial presentation. Over the past decade, our understanding of sepsis has evolved and maternal early warning systems have been developed in an effort to help providers promptly identify and stratify parturients who are at risk. In addition, new consensus definitions and care bundles have recently been published by the World Health Organization and the Surviving Sepsis Campaign to facilitate earlier recognition and timely management of sepsis...
June 16, 2018: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Phuong Lien Tran, Caroline Benski, Manuela Viviano, Patrick Petignat, Christophe Combescure, Jeromine Jinoro, Josea Lea Herinianasolo, Pierre Vassilakos
OBJECTIVES: Colposcopes are expensive, heavy, and need specialized technical service, which may outreach the capacity of low-resource settings. Our aim was to assess the performance of smartphone-based digital images for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). METHODS: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive women recruited through a cervical cancer screening campaign had VIA/VILI assessment (visual inspection after application of acetic acid/lugol's iodine)...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
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