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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228072/an-implementation-guide-to-reducing-overtreatment-of-asymptomatic-bacteriuria
#1
Michael Daniel, Sara Keller, Mohammad Mozafarihashjin, Amit Pahwa, Christine Soong
Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) frequently lacks appropriate indication, yet remains prevalent across settings. Numerous guidelines, professional societies, and campaigns such as Choosing Wisely advocate against this low-value practice. Efforts aimed at reducing unnecessary treatment of ASB demonstrate improved costs, and avoidable harm without increased risk of adverse events. We propose an evidence-based implementation guide to aid practitioners in reducing inappropriate treatment of ASB.
December 11, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227882/kalaban-young-drug-users-engagements-with-law-enforcement-in-the-philippines
#2
Gideon Lasco
BACKGROUND: A violent 'war on drugs' continues to be waged in the Philippines, even as the use of drugs - particular methamphetamine - continues to rise. Furnishing contextual background to the current situation, this paper explores how long-running law enforcement approaches in the Philippines might be viewed by those in their receiving end by presenting findings of an ethnography among marginalized young men. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were conducted among 20 young men throughout a 12-month period of participant-observation from December 2011 to September 2013...
December 8, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227853/joint-effect-of-education-and-age-at-childbirth-on-the-risk-of-caesarean-delivery-findings-from-germany-2008-2015
#3
L Castiglioni, C Schmiedeberg
OBJECTIVES: This article aims at assessing the joint effect of maternal age and education on the risk of having a caesarean delivery. As high maternal education is often associated with lower caesarean-birth rates, but high-educated women tend to postpone motherhood, these effects may offset each other in traditional analyses. STUDY DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the data from the German Family Panel pairfam. METHODS: The interview-based data refer to 1020 births between 2008 and 2015...
December 8, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227637/urban-organic-aerosol-exposure-spatial-variations-in-composition-and-source-impacts
#4
Hugh Z Li, Timothy R Dallmann, Xiang Li, Peishi Gu, Albert A Presto
We conducted a mobile sampling campaign in a historically industrialized terrain (Pittsburgh, PA) targeting spatial heterogeneity of organic aerosol. Thirty-six sampling sites were chosen based on stratification of traffic, industrial source density, and elevation. We collected organic carbon (OC) on quartz filters, quantified different OC components with thermal-optical analysis, and grouped them based on volatility in decreasing order (OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4, and pyrolyzed carbon (PC)). We compared our ambient OC concentrations (both gas and particle phase) to similar measurements from vehicle dynamometer tests, cooking emissions, biomass burning emissions, and a highway traffic tunnel...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227338/associations-between-early-family-meal-environment-quality-and-later-well-being-in-school-age-children
#5
Marie-Josée Harbec, Linda S Pagani
OBJECTIVE: Past research suggests a positive link between family meals and child and adolescent health. Although researchers have often relied on how often families eat together, this may not capture the complexity of the experience. Using a birth cohort, this study examines the prospective associations between the environmental quality of the family meal experience at age 6 years and child well-being at age 10. METHODS: Participants are 1492 children of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224979/perceptions-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-for-the-prevention-and-control-of-lymphatic-filariasis-in-conakry-republic-of-guinea
#6
Bernard L Kouassi, Aboulaye Barry, Kathrin Heitz-Tokpa, Stefanie J Krauth, Andre Goépogui, Mamadou S Baldé, Oumar Barry, Marie L Niamey, Moses J Bockarie, Benjamin G Koudou, Jürg Utzinger
Little is known about the perceptions, attitudes and practices of lymphatic filariasis in Conakry, Republic of Guinea. Yet, such knowledge is important for an optimal design and implementation of setting-specific prevention and control measures. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a mixed methods approach. Qualitative data related to people's general experience with lymphatic filariasis, their perception of the causes of the disease, the onset of elephantiasis, care-seeking behaviour and the socioeconomic impact of lymphatic filariasis were collected by in-depth interviews with 85 respondents...
December 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224920/-cognitive-doping-in-students-a-chim-er-ical-way-to-get-full-head
#7
Louise Carton, Nicolas Cabé, Olivier Ménard, Sylvie Deheul, Anne-Sylvie Caous, David Devos, Olivier Cottencin, Régis Bordet
For students, the requirements for memorization, increased performance and peer competition may encourage cognitive doping behaviors. We aimed to describe recent practices and the benefit/risk ratio of such behavior to discuss the different issues. The prevalence of cognitive doping among students was 1.3% to 33% according to the studies, depending on the country concerned and the definition of cognitive doping used. The therapeutic classes most frequently cited as being diverted were psychostimulants and nootropics (methylphenidate, modafinil, piracetam), corticosteroids, sedative drugs and beta-blockers...
November 22, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224906/horse-related-injuries-in-children-unmounted-injuries-are-more-severe-a-retrospective-review
#8
Grace E L Wolyncewicz, Cameron S Palmer, Helen E Jowett, John M Hutson, Sebastian K King, Warwick J Teague
INTRODUCTION: Horse-related injuries account for one quarter of all paediatric sports fatalities. It is not known whether the pattern of injury spectrum and severity differ between children injured whilst mounted, compared with those injured unmounted around horses. We aimed to identify any distinctions between the demographic features, spectrum and severity of injuries for mounted versus unmounted patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Trauma registry data were reviewed for 505 consecutive paediatric patients (aged<16years) admitted to a large paediatric trauma centre with horse-related injuries over a 16-year period...
December 6, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223487/implementing-a-province-wide-mandatory-vaccinate-or-mask-policy-at-healthcare-facilities-in-british-columbia-canada
#9
Alexandra Nunn, Audrey C Campbell, Monika Naus, Jeffrey C Kwong, David Puddicombe, Susan Quach, Bonnie Henry
OBJECTIVES: In 2012, British Columbia (BC) became the first Canadian province to implement an influenza prevention policy requiring healthcare workers (HCW) to either be vaccinated annually against influenza or wear a mask in patient care areas during the influenza season. This study describes an evaluation of influenza policy implementation processes and identifies supports and challenges related to successful policy implementation at the level of healthcare facilities, during the second policy year (2013/14)...
December 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222081/media-consumption-and-creation-in-attitudes-toward-and-knowledge-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-web-based-survey
#10
Jacob Groshek, Miles Basil, Ling Guo, Sarah Parker Ward, Francis A Farraye, Jason Reich
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic gastrointestinal condition affecting over 5 million people globally and 1.6 million in the United States but currently lacks a precisely determined cause or cure. The range of symptoms IBD patients experience are often debilitating, and the societal stigmas associated with some such symptoms can further degrade their quality of life. Better understanding the nature of this public reproach then is a critical component for improving awareness campaigns and, ultimately, the experiences of IBD patients...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221599/symptoms-in-individuals-at-risk-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#11
REVIEW
Gurpreet Singh Jutley, Zahira P Latif, Karim Raza
An increasing interest in treating individuals at risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to prevent the development of this chronic condition has focussed attention on the identification of risk factors of this disease. Most patients who develop RA progress through a preceding symptomatic phase that may take the form of arthralgia, palindromic rheumatism or unclassified arthritis before a disease currently classifiable as RA is established. An understanding of symptoms that identify individuals as being at risk of RA is a critical issue...
February 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220543/skin-cancer-prevention-campaign-in-childhood-survey-based-on-3-676-children-in-brazil
#12
Paulo Ricardo Criado, Jorge Ocampo-Garza, Anne Lise Dias, Walter Belda Junior, Nilton Di Chiachio, Aparecida Machado de Moraes, Meire Brasil Parada, Fátima de Oliveira Rabay, Octavio Moraes Junior, Renato Sau Rios, Cristiana Silveira da Silva, Francisco C S Ferreira, Samuel Henrique Mandeulbaum, Cidia Vasconcellos
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Primary skin cancer prevention campaigns are essential and more effective among children, not only because of the importance of sun exposure effects during this period, but also because at this age is when individuals are developing behaviors. The Brazilian Society of Dermatology - Regional State of Sao Paulo developed and conducted, the program named "The Sun, Friend of Childhood", a school health education and disease prevention project for children and parents...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219800/-social-awareness-campaign-for-a-ban-on-consumer-fireworks-10-tips-doctor-on-the-barricade
#13
J T H N de Faber, M van Zuilen, M Snouck Hurgronje, J Keunen
- Describe the problem, and show why a social awareness campaign is needed- Know what you are talking about, and explain the medical jargon in plain language- Collect data and facts- Create support among colleagues- Get the media involved- Get support from the community- Create a coalition of supporters via a website- You will discover who the opposition is when you are on the barricade- Offer a safe and healthy alternative - Draw up a long-term roadmap, and persevere.
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219264/-identification-of-y-chromosomal-genetic-types-for-the-soldier-s-remains-from-huaihai-campaign
#14
C Z Wang, S Q Wen, M S Shi, X E Yu, X J Wang, Y L Pan, Y F Zhang, H Li, J Z Tan
OBJECTIVES: To identify the Y-chromosomal genetic types for the soldier's remains from Huaihai Campaign, and to offer a clue for search of their paternal relatives. METHODS: DNA of the remains were extracted by the ancient DNA extraction method. Yfiler kit was used for the multiplex amplification of 17 Y-STR loci. The haplogroups of the samples were speculated. Detailed genotyping of the selected Y-SNP was performed based on the latest Y-chromosome phylogenetic tree...
August 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219089/health-impacts-of-climate-change-and-health-and-social-inequalities-in-the-uk
#15
REVIEW
Jouni Paavola
This article examines how social and health inequalities shape the health impacts of climate change in the UK, and what the implications are for climate change adaptation and health care provision. The evidence generated by the other articles of the special issue were interpreted using social justice reasoning in light of additional literature, to draw out the key implications of health and social inequalities for health outcomes of climate change. Exposure to heat and cold, air pollution, pollen, food safety risks, disruptions to access to and functioning of health services and facilities, emerging infections and flooding are examined as the key impacts of climate change influencing health outcomes...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218822/european-academy-of-neurology-european-stroke-organisation-consensus-statement-and-practical-guidance-for-pre-hospital-management-of-stroke
#16
A Kobayashi, A Czlonkowska, G A Ford, A C Fonseca, G J Luijckx, J Korv, N Pérez de la Ossa, C Price, D Russell, A Tsiskaridze, M Messmer-Wullen, J De Keyser
Reduction of delay between onset and hospital arrival and adequate pre-hospital care of persons with acute stroke are important for improving chances of a favorable outcome. The objective is to recommend evidence-based practices for the management of patients with suspected stroke in the pre-hospital setting. The GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology was used to define the key clinical questions. An expert panel then reviewed the literature, established the quality of the evidence, and made recommendations...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217370/a-quality-improvement-initiative-to-increase-tdap-tetanus-diphtheria-acellular-pertussis-vaccination-coverage-among-direct-health-care-providers-at-a-children-s-hospital
#17
Changhong Jiang, LaQuita Whitmore-Sisco, Aditya H Gaur, Elisabeth E Adderson
OBJECTIVES: Health care providers (HCP) are at high risk of acquiring and transmitting pertussis to susceptible family members, co-workers, and patients. Public health authorities recommend administering a single dose of Tdap (tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis) vaccine to all adults, including HCP, to increase adult immunity to pertussis. We set a quality improvement goal to increase Tdap vaccination coverage among HCP who provided direct patient care at a children's hospital from 58% to 90% over 18 months...
December 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216969/legal-issues-for-transgender-people-a-review-of-persistent-threats
#18
Jamison Green
Background The legal status of transgender (trans) people is in constant flux. Over the past 70 years, gradually increasing transgender visibility, national and global advocacy, and, more recently, widespread Internet access, communication, and broadening support from allies, have all contributed to successful campaigns that have improved transgender lives and legitimised transgender. Still, traumatic interactions with the legal system or policing agencies remain plentiful. This is a very general overview of the most common legal issues confronting trans people...
October 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216905/variations-in-visceral-leishmaniasis-burden-mortality-and-the-pathway-to-care-within-bihar-india
#19
Sarah Jervis, Lloyd A C Chapman, Shweta Dwivedi, Morchan Karthick, Aritra Das, Epke A Le Rutte, Orin Courtenay, Graham F Medley, Indranath Banerjee, Tanmay Mahapatra, Indrajit Chaudhuri, Sridhar Srikantiah, T Déirdre Hollingsworth
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been targeted by the WHO for elimination as a public health problem (< 1 case/10,000 people/year) in the Indian sub-continent (ISC) by 2020. Bihar State in India, which accounts for the majority of cases in the ISC, remains a major target for this elimination effort. However, there is considerable spatial, temporal and sub-population variation in occurrence of the disease and the pathway to care, which is largely unexplored and a threat to achieving the target...
December 7, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216028/progress-toward-global-eradication-of-dracunculiasis-january-2016-june-2017
#20
Donald R Hopkins, Ernesto Ruiz-Tiben, Mark L Eberhard, Sharon L Roy, Adam J Weiss
Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) is caused by Dracunculus medinensis, a parasitic worm. Approximately 1 year after a person acquires infection from contaminated drinking water, the worm emerges through the skin, usually on a lower limb (1). Pain and secondary bacterial infection can cause temporary or permanent disability that disrupts work and schooling. The campaign to eradicate dracunculiasis worldwide began in 1980 at CDC. In 1986, the World Health Assembly called for dracunculiasis elimination,* and the global Guinea Worm Eradication Program, led by the Carter Center and supported by the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund, CDC, and other partners, began assisting ministries of health in countries with endemic dracunculiasis...
December 8, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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