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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691590/enhancer-reprogramming-in-tumor-progression-a-new-route-towards-cancer-cell-plasticity
#1
REVIEW
Luca Fagnocchi, Vittoria Poli, Alessio Zippo
Cancer heterogeneity arises during tumor progression as a consequence of genetic insults, environmental cues, and reversible changes in the epigenetic state, favoring tumor cell plasticity. The role of enhancer reprogramming is emerging as a relevant field in cancer biology as it supports adaptation of cancer cells to those environmental changes encountered during tumor progression and metastasis seeding. In this review, we describe the cancer-related alterations that drive oncogenic enhancer activity, leading to dysregulated transcriptional programs...
April 24, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691112/plastic-flexible-films-waste-management-a-state-of-art-review
#2
REVIEW
O Horodytska, F J Valdés, A Fullana
Plastic flexible films are increasingly used in many applications due to their lightness and versatility. In 2014, the amount of plastic films represented 34% of total plastic packaging produced in UK. The flexible film waste generation rises according to the increase in number of applications. Currently, in developed countries, about 50% of plastics in domestic waste are films. Moreover, about 615,000 tonnes of agricultural flexible waste are generated in the EU every year. A review of plastic films recycling has been conducted in order to detect the shortcomings and establish guidelines for future research...
April 21, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691107/-the-controversial-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-a-group-of-plant-growth-promoting-species-and-plant-animals-and-human-pathogens
#3
Fernando U Rojas-Rojas, David López-Sánchez, Georgina Meza-Radilla, Ausel Méndez-Canarios, J Antonio Ibarra, Paulina Estrada-de Los Santos
The Burkholderia cepacia complex is a group of 22 species, which are known as opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised people, especially those suffering from cystic fibrosis. It is also found in nosocomial infections and is difficult to eradicate due to intrinsic resistance to several antibiotics. The species have large genomes (up to 9 Mbp), distributed into 2-5 replicons. These features significantly contribute to genome plasticity, which makes them thrive in different environments like soil, water, plants or even producing nodules in legume plants...
April 21, 2018: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689363/a-review-of-the-genotoxic-mutagenic-and-carcinogenic-potentials-of-several-lower-acrylates
#4
REVIEW
Mina Suh, Deborah Proctor, Grace Chappell, Julia Rager, Chad Thompson, Susan Borghoff, Lavorgie Finch, Robert Ellis-Hutchings, Karin Wiench
Lower alkyl acrylate monomers include methyl-, ethyl-, n-butyl-, and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate. These acrylates are used in the manufacture of acrylic polymers and copolymers for plastics, food packaging, adhesives, and cosmetic formulations. Although there is limited potential for human environmental exposure, occupational exposure can occur via inhalation and dermal contact. Recently, new genotoxicity data have been generated, along with in silico and in vitro read-cross analyses, for these acrylates. The availability of high-throughput screening (HTS) data through the ToxCast™/Tox21 databases allows for consideration of computational toxicology and organization of these data according to the ten key characteristics of carcinogens...
April 21, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688548/the-genetics-of-treatment-resistant-depression-a-critical-review-and-future-perspectives
#5
Chiara Fabbri, Filippo Corponi, Daniel Souery, Siegfried Kasper, Stuart Montgomery, Joseph Zohar, Dan Rujescu, Julien Mendlewicz, Alessandro Serretti
Background: One-third of depressed patients develop treatment-resistant depression with the related sequelae in terms of poor functionality and worse prognosis. Solid evidence suggests that genetic variants are potentially valid predictors of antidepressant efficacy and could be used to provide personalized treatments. Methods: The present review summarizes genetic findings of treatment-resistant depression including results from candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies...
April 21, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685841/history-of-plastic-surgery-art-philosophy-and-rhinoplasty
#6
REVIEW
Valdas Macionis
The 200th anniversary of K. F. Graefe's "Rhinoplasty," E. Zeis' naming of the specialty of plastic surgery in 1838, and the continuing discussion on what is plastic surgery have prompted this historical-conceptual review with a semantic insight into the meaning of the word "plastic." A literature search has revealed that this term contains dual aspects: artistic and philosophical. The progressive development of these two connotations can be traced from their origin in the ceramics and the myths of ancient Greeks to their metamorphoses in fine arts, science, and philosophy of plasticity of the modern day...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683026/exercise-induced-neuroplasticity-a-mechanistic-model-and-prospects-for-promoting-plasticity
#7
Jenin El-Sayes, Diana Harasym, Claudia V Turco, Mitchell B Locke, Aimee J Nelson
Aerobic exercise improves cognitive and motor function by inducing neural changes detected using molecular, cellular, and systems level neuroscience techniques. This review unifies the knowledge gained across various neuroscience techniques to provide a comprehensive profile of the neural mechanisms that mediate exercise-induced neuroplasticity. Using a model of exercise-induced neuroplasticity, this review emphasizes the sequence of neural events that accompany exercise, and ultimately promote changes in human performance...
April 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682722/the-role-of-tgf-%C3%AE-in-th17-differentiation
#8
REVIEW
Song Zhang
Th17 cells play critical roles in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The lineage-specific transcription factor RORγt is the key regulator for Th17 cell fate commitment. A substantial number of studies have established the importance of TGF-β-dependent pathways in inducing RORγt expression and Th17 differentiation. TGF-β superfamily members TGF-β1, TGF-β3, or activin A, in concert with IL-6 or IL-21 differentiate naïve T cells into Th17 cells. Alternatively, Th17 differentiation can occur through TGF-β-independent pathways...
April 23, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682629/triheteromeric-nmda-receptors-from-structure-to-synaptic-physiology
#9
David Stroebel, Mariano Casado, Pierre Paoletti
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated ion channels that play crucial roles in brain development and synaptic plasticity. They are also therapeutic targets of interest since their dysfunction is associated with multiple neurological and psychiatric disorders. In vivo , NMDARs exist as multiple subtypes that differ in their subunit composition, anatomical distribution, functional properties, as well as signaling capacities. While much is known about diheteromeric NMDARs composed of two GluN1 subunits and two identical GluN2 (or GluN3) subunits, the majority of native NMDARs are triheteromers containing two GluN1 and two different GluN2 (or a combination of GluN2 and GluN3)...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682520/toxic-effects-of-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-an-overview
#10
REVIEW
Sai Sandeep Singh Rowdhwal, Jiaxiang Chen
Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is extensively used as a plasticizer in many products, especially medical devices, furniture materials, cosmetics, and personal care products. DEHP is noncovalently bound to plastics, and therefore, it will leach out of these products after repeated use, heating, and/or cleaning of the products. Due to the overuse of DEHP in many products, it enters and pollutes the environment through release from industrial settings and plastic waste disposal sites. DEHP can enter the body through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact on a daily basis, which has raised some concerns about its safety and its potential effects on human health...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682218/influence-of-physical-exercise-on-micrornas-in-skeletal-muscle-regeneration-aging-and-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Simona Ultimo, Giorgio Zauli, Alberto M Martelli, Marco Vitale, James A McCubrey, Silvano Capitani, Luca M Neri
Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue with remarkable plasticity and its growth and regeneration are highly organized, with the activation of specific transcription factors, proliferative pathways and cytokines. The decline of skeletal muscle tissue with age, is one of the most important causes of functional loss of independence in older adults. Maintaining skeletal muscle function throughout the lifespan is a prerequisite for good health and independent living. Physical activity represents one of the most effective preventive agents for muscle decay in aging...
March 30, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681926/photoperiod-induced-neuroplasticity-in-the-circadian-system
#12
REVIEW
Alessandra Porcu, Malini Riddle, Davide Dulcis, David K Welsh
Seasonal changes in light exposure have profound effects on behavioral and physiological functions in many species, including effects on mood and cognitive function in humans. The mammalian brain's master circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), transmits information about external light conditions to other brain regions, including some implicated in mood and cognition. Although the detailed mechanisms are not yet known, the SCN undergoes highly plastic changes at the cellular and network levels under different light conditions...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680884/ecotoxicological-effects-of-microplastics-on-biota-a-review
#13
Sadasivam Anbumani, Poonam Kakkar
The ubiquitous presence of microplastics in the environment has drawn the attention of ecotoxicologists on its safety and toxicity. Sources of microplastics in the environment include disintegration of larger plastic items (secondary microplastics), personal care products like liquid soap, exfoliating scrubbers, and cleaning supplies etc. Indiscriminate usage of plastics and its poor waste disposal management pose serious concern on ecosystem quality at global level. The present review focused on the ecological impact of microplastics on biota at different trophic levels, its uptake, accumulation, and excretion etc...
April 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675583/do-alcohol-related-ampa-type-glutamate-receptor-adaptations-promote-intake
#14
F Woodward Hopf, Regina A Mangieri
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA, NMDA, and kainate receptors) play a central role in excitatory glutamatergic signaling throughout the brain. As a result, functional changes, especially long-lasting forms of plasticity, have the potential to profoundly alter neuronal function and the expression of adaptive and pathological behaviors. Thus, alcohol-related adaptations in ionotropic glutamate receptors are of great interest, since they could promote excessive alcohol consumption, even after long-term abstinence...
April 20, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675058/foreign-body-removal-by-flexible-bronchoscopy-using-retrieval-basket-in-children
#15
Kyunghoon Kim, Hye Jin Lee, Eun Ae Yang, Hwan Soo Kim, Yoon Hong Chun, Jong-Seo Yoon, Hyun Hee Kim, Jin Tack Kim
OBJECTIVES: Aspiration of foreign bodies into the tracheobronchial tree is a common accident in children. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and outcome of foreign body removal by flexible bronchoscopy using a retrieval basket in children. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of children treated for foreign bodies in the airway via flexible bronchoscopy using a retrieval basket at a tertiary hospital in Korea between February 2014 and October 2017. The medical records of the patients were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed...
April 2018: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675039/the-role-of-cell-adhesion-molecule-genes-regulating-neuroplasticity-in-addiction
#16
REVIEW
Dawn E Muskiewicz, George R Uhl, F Scott Hall
A variety of genetic approaches, including twin studies, linkage studies, and candidate gene studies, has established a firm genetic basis for addiction. However, there has been difficulty identifying the precise genes that underlie addiction liability using these approaches. This situation became especially clear in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of addiction. Moreover, the results of GWAS brought into clarity many of the shortcomings of those early genetic approaches. GWAS studies stripped away those preconceived notions, examining genes that would not previously have been considered in the study of addiction, consequently creating a shift in our understanding...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673914/dynamics-nanoscale-organization-and-function-of-synaptic-adhesion-molecules
#17
REVIEW
Ingrid Chamma, Olivier Thoumine
Synaptic adhesion molecules not only provide a physical link between pre- and post-synaptic membranes, but also contribute to synaptic differentiation and plasticity by organizing functional elements, in particular neurotransmitter receptors. The wealth of existing adhesive protein families including many isoforms and splice variants, calls for systematic identification of the levels and exchange rates of each of those protein members at specific synapse types. Complementary to electron microscopy to identify individual synaptic contacts and biochemistry to reveal protein-protein interactions, recent super-resolution light microscopy methods combined with appropriate fluorescent labeling provide a way to measure the dynamics and sub-micron organization of selective molecular components, and their inter-relations at the synapse...
April 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672784/successful-replantation-of-the-scalp-with-a-good-aesthetic-outcome-and-return-of-sensation-a-case-report-and-literature-update
#18
Lukasz Ulatowski, Anna Kaniewska
Replantation of a totally avulsed scalp is a demanding microsurgical procedure with no good alternatives. Here, we present a case of successful scalp replantation after 11 hours of cold ischemia in a 24-year-old woman. The steps of the procedure, the outcomes, and a review of the literature are presented. Adhering to the steps outlined in this report during replantation is vital for success, and allows the serious complications and pitfalls associated with this procedure to be avoided. Following basic plastic surgery principles leads to better aesthetic outcomes...
April 2018: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672294/endoscopic-ultrasound-guided-choledocho-enterostomy-by-using-lumen-apposing-metal-stent-in-patients-with-failed-endoscopic-retrograde-cholangiopancreatography-a-literature-review
#19
Deepanshu Jain, Manan Shah, Upen Patel, Abhinav Sharma, Shashideep Singhal
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has been the cornerstone in the management of malignant jaundice to provide symptomatic relief and/or to allow chemotherapy. Difficult biliary cannulation or the presence of concomitant duodenal obstruction may lead to its failure. METHOD: An extensive English literature search was done via PubMed and Google Scholar to identify 13 peer-reviewed original articles. RESULTS: Of 92 patients, 98...
April 19, 2018: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672274/cutaneous-mucormycosis-as-a-presenting-feature-of-type-1-diabetes-in-a-boy-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Ganesh Jevalikar, Siddhnath Sudhanshu, Sanjay Mahendru, Smita Sarma, Khalid J Farooqui, Ambrish Mithal
BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is a potentially fatal complication of diabetes. The rhino-orbito-cerebral form is the most common presentation, however, rarely other types can also be seen. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a 4½ -year-old boy not previously known to be a diabetic who presented to the plastic surgery department for gangrene of the left middle finger with surrounding erythema and induration. After the diagnosis of diabetes and initial treatment, pus from the wound showed broad aseptate hyphae suggestive of mucormycosis which was further confirmed on culture...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
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