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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244969/treatment-of-open-upper-limb-injuries-with-infection-prevention-and-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-a-systematic-review
#1
E Ali, M Raghuvanshi
OBJECTIVE: Open upper limb injuries requiring soft reconstruction can pose a dilemma for trauma surgeons when considering the treatment options. The British Orthopaedic Association and British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons Standard for Trauma (BOAST) have addressed the management of severe open lower limb fractures with the creation of the BOAST 4 guidelines. However, no such gold standard exists for the treatment of open injuries of the upper limb. Furthermore, treatment of these injuries is often more difficult and requires complicated strategies...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244903/dermal-fibroblast-in-cutaneous-development-and-healing
#2
REVIEW
Venkata Thulabandu, Demeng Chen, Radhika P Atit
The skin is the largest organ of the body and is composed of two layers: the overlying epidermis and the underlying dermis. The dermal fibroblasts originate from distinct locations of the embryo and contain the positional identity and patterning information in the skin. The dermal fibroblast progenitors differentiate into various cell types that are fated to perform specific functions such as hair follicle initiation and scar formation during wound healing. Recent studies have revealed the heterogeneity and plasticity of dermal fibroblasts within skin, which has implications for skin disease and tissue engineering...
December 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243202/non-invasive-cerebellar-stimulation-a-promising-approach-for-stroke-recovery
#3
REVIEW
Maximilian J Wessel, Friedhelm C Hummel
Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) combined with behavioral training is a promising strategy to augment recovery after stroke. Current research efforts have been mainly focusing on primary motor cortex (M1) stimulation. However, the translation from proof-of-principle to clinical applications is not yet satisfactory. Possible reasons are the heterogeneous properties of stroke, generalization of the stimulation protocols, and hence the lack of patient stratification. One strategy to overcome these limitations could be the evaluation of alternative stimulation targets, like the cerebellum...
December 14, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242278/ampk-in-skeletal-muscle-function-and-metabolism
#4
REVIEW
Rasmus Kjøbsted, Janne R Hingst, Joachim Fentz, Marc Foretz, Maria-Nieves Sanz, Christian Pehmøller, Michael Shum, André Marette, Remi Mounier, Jonas T Treebak, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Benoit Viollet, Louise Lantier
Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable ability to adapt to various physiologic conditions. AMPK is a sensor of intracellular energy status that maintains energy stores by fine-tuning anabolic and catabolic pathways. AMPK's role as an energy sensor is particularly critical in tissues displaying highly changeable energy turnover. Due to the drastic changes in energy demand that occur between the resting and exercising state, skeletal muscle is one such tissue. Here, we review the complex regulation of AMPK in skeletal muscle and its consequences on metabolism (e...
December 14, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242199/organ-specific-lymphatic-vasculature-from-development-to-pathophysiology
#5
REVIEW
Tatiana V Petrova, Gou Young Koh
Recent discoveries of novel functions and diverse origins of lymphatic vessels have drastically changed our view of lymphatic vasculature. Traditionally regarded as passive conduits for fluid and immune cells, lymphatic vessels now emerge as active, tissue-specific players in major physiological and pathophysiological processes. Lymphatic vessels show remarkable plasticity and heterogeneity, reflecting their functional specialization to control the tissue microenvironment. Moreover, alternative developmental origins of lymphatic endothelial cells in some organs may contribute to the diversity of their functions in adult tissues...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242034/dendritic-cells-in-the-regulation-of-immunity-and-inflammation
#6
REVIEW
Cheng Qian, Xuetao Cao
As potent antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) comprise the most heterogeneous cell population with significant cellular phenotypic and functional plasticity. They form a sentinel network to modulate immune responses, since intrinsic cellular mechanisms and complex external, environmental signals endow DCs with the distinct capacity to induce protective immunity or tolerance to self. Interactions between DCs and other cells of the immune system mediate this response. This interactive response depends on DC maturation status and subtype, as well as the microenvironment of the tissue location and DC-intrinsic regulators...
December 11, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238810/correlation-between-24-hour-predischarge-opioid-use-and-amount-of-opioids-prescribed-at-hospital-discharge
#7
Eric Y Chen, Andrew Marcantonio, Paul Tornetta
Importance: The United States is experiencing an opioid abuse epidemic. Opioid overprescription by physicians may contribute to this epidemic. Objectives: To determine if there was a correlation between a postoperative patient's 24-hour predischarge opioid use and the amount of opioids prescribed at hospital discharge and to determine the number of patients who used no opioids prior to discharge but were still prescribed opioids after hospital discharge. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study performed a retrospective record review of 18 343 postoperative patients at Boston Medical Center and Lahey Hospital and Medical Center-Burlington Campus who were discharged home after a postoperative inpatient admission of at least 24 hours...
December 13, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238523/ad-hoc-instrumentation-methods-in-ecological-studies-produce-highly-biased-temperature-measurements
#8
Adam J Terando, Elsa Youngsteadt, Emily K Meineke, Sara G Prado
In light of global climate change, ecological studies increasingly address effects of temperature on organisms and ecosystems. To measure air temperature at biologically relevant scales in the field, ecologists often use small, portable temperature sensors. Sensors must be shielded from solar radiation to provide accurate temperature measurements, but our review of 18 years of ecological literature indicates that shielding practices vary across studies (when reported at all), and that ecologists often invent and construct ad hoc radiation shields without testing their efficacy...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238350/differentiation-and-transmigration-of-cd4-t-cells-in-neuroinflammation-and-autoimmunity
#9
REVIEW
Sandip Ashok Sonar, Girdhari Lal
CD4+ T cells play a central role in orchestrating protective immunity and autoimmunity. The activation and differentiation of myelin-reactive CD4+ T cells into effector (Th1 and Th17) and regulatory (Tregs) subsets at the peripheral tissues, and their subsequent transmigration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma are decisive events in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. How the Th1, Th17, and regulatory Tregs transmigrate across the BBB into the CNS and cause CNS inflammation is not clearly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237924/glaucoma-in-patients-with-eyes-close-to-areas-affected-by-port-wine-stain-has-lateral-and-gender-predilection
#10
Yue Wu, Ru-Jing Yu, Di Chen, Li Xu, Mao Li, Li Zhu, Chun-Yu Guo, Wen-Yi Guo
BACKGROUND: The location of facial port-wine stain (PWS) may be helpful for predicting some associated anomalies; high glaucoma incidence is found in patients with eyes close to PWS-affected areas (V1, ophthalmic branch area of the trigeminal nerve). This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of glaucoma in V1-affected PWS. METHODS: A total of 569 patients with V1 area-affected PWS were reviewed in the study. The large series was based on the referral system between the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and the Department of Ophthalmology...
December 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234855/pedicle-de-epithelialization-in-reduction-mammoplasty-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#11
REVIEW
Steven A Ovadia, Eric Bishop, Yasmina Zoghbi, Renee Gasgarth, Wrood Kassira, Seth R Thaller
BACKGROUND: Reduction mammoplasty is among the most commonly performed plastic surgery procedures. The reduction pedicle is traditionally de-epithelialized. Many practitioners propose that preservation of the subdermal blood supply results in improved circulation for the nipple-areolar complex. However, this is a time-consuming step of the procedure. Presumed benefits have not been definitively demonstrated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate current evidence regarding pedicle de-epithelialization in inferior pedicle reduction mammoplasty...
December 12, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234817/neural-plasticity-and-its-initiating-conditions-in-tinnitus
#12
REVIEW
L E Roberts
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Deafferentation caused by cochlear pathology (which can be hidden from the audiogram) activates forms of neural plasticity in auditory pathways, generating tinnitus and its associated conditions including hyperacusis. This article discusses tinnitus mechanisms and suggests how these mechanisms may relate to those involved in normal auditory information processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Research findings from animal models of tinnitus and from electromagnetic imaging of tinnitus patients are reviewed which pertain to the role of deafferentation and neural plasticity in tinnitus and hyperacusis...
December 12, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233670/safety-and-efficacy-of-lumen-apposing-metal-stents-with-and-without-simultaneous-double-pigtail-plastic-stents-for-draining-pancreatic
#13
Murad Aburajab, Zachary Smith, Abdul Khan, Kulwinder Dua
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMSs) are used to perform necrosectomy in walled-off necrosis (WON). Although necrosectomy is not required for pancreatic pseudocyst (PP), an increasing number of PPs are also being drained with LAMSs in view of their ease of deployment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of using LAMSs to drain PPs. METHODS: At one tertiary center, from January 2014 to May 2016, all consecutive patients with PPs were drained by LAMSs, and the data were retrospectively reviewed...
December 9, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233654/trophic-modulation-of-gamma-oscillations-the-key-role-of-processing-protease-for-neuregulin-1-and-bdnf-precursors
#14
Hideki Tamura, Sadao Shiosaka, Shota Morikawa
Gamma oscillations within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus are associated with cognitive processes, including attention, sensory perception, and memory formation; a deficit in gamma regulation is a common symptom of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence has suggested that gamma oscillations result from the synchronized activity of cell assemblies coordinated mainly by parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons. The modulator molecules for parvalbumin-positive interneurons are major research targets and have the potential to control the specific oscillatory rhythm and behavior originating from neural coordination...
December 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233522/subcutaneous-implant-based-breast-reconstruction-a-modern-challenge-in-postmastectomy-radiation-planning
#15
Melissa P Mitchell, Jamie Wagner, James Butterworth
PURPOSE: A growing trend in breast reconstruction has been placement of tissue expanders in the pre pectoral space. This is a change from the practice of placement under the pectoralis major with or without an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) sling. The move toward pre pectoral placement with an ADM wrap has the intent of decreasing post-operative pain and decreasing animation deformities. The cosmesis of pre pectoral reconstructions in the setting of post mastectomy radiation has also appeared improved in our early experience, when compared to submuscular reconstructions...
September 8, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232923/an-oldie-but-goodie-lithium-in-the-treatment-of-bipolar-disorder-through-neuroprotective-and-neurotrophic-mechanisms
#16
REVIEW
Eunsoo Won, Yong-Ku Kim
Lithium has been used for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) for the last sixty or more years, and recent studies with more reliable designs and updated guidelines have recommended lithium to be the treatment of choice for acute manic, mixed and depressive episodes of BD, along with long-term prophylaxis. Lithium's specific mechanism of action in mood regulation is progressively being clarified, such as the direct inhibition on glycogen synthase kinase 3β, and its various effects on neurotrophic factors, neurotransmitters, oxidative metabolism, apoptosis, second messenger systems, and biological systems are also being revealed...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232628/epithelial-plasticity-in-the-mammary-gland
#17
REVIEW
Lindsey Seldin, Armelle Le Guelte, Ian G Macara
Many epithelial tissues rely on multipotent stem cells for the proper development and maintenance of their diverse cell lineages. Nevertheless, the identification of multipotent stem cell populations within the mammary gland has been a point of contention over the past decade. In this review, we provide a critical overview of the various lineage-tracing studies performed to address this issue and conclude that although multipotent stem cells exist in the embryonic mammary placode, the postnatal mammary gland instead contains distinct unipotent progenitor populations that contribute to stage-specific development and homeostasis...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230619/neuroanatomical-and-molecular-correlates-of-cognitive-and-behavioural-outcomes-in-hypogonadal-males
#18
O B Akinola, M O Gabriel
Robust epidemiological, clinical and laboratory evidence supports emerging roles for the sex steroids in such domains as neurodevelopment, behaviour, learning and cognition. Regions of the mammalian brain that are involved in cognitive development and memory do not only express the classical nuclear androgen receptor, but also the non-genomic membrane receptor, which is a G protein-coupled receptor that mediates some rapid effects of the androgens on neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Under physiological conditions, hippocampal neurons do express the enzyme aromatase, and therefore actively aromatize testosterone to oestradiol...
December 11, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230248/a-concise-review-on-the-use-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-cell-sheet-based-tissue-engineering-with-special-emphasis-on-bone-tissue-regeneration
#19
REVIEW
A Cagdas Yorukoglu, A Esat Kiter, Semih Akkaya, N Lale Satiroglu-Tufan, A Cevik Tufan
The integration of stem cell technology and cell sheet engineering improved the potential use of cell sheet products in regenerative medicine. This review will discuss the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in cell sheet-based tissue engineering. Besides their adhesiveness to plastic surfaces and their extensive differentiation potential in vitro, MSCs are easily accessible, expandable in vitro with acceptable genomic stability, and few ethical issues. With all these advantages, they are extremely well suited for cell sheet-based tissue engineering...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229803/stokes-drift
#20
REVIEW
T S van den Bremer, Ø Breivik
During its periodic motion, a particle floating at the free surface of a water wave experiences a net drift velocity in the direction of wave propagation, known as the Stokes drift (Stokes 1847 Trans. Camb. Philos. Soc.8, 441-455). More generally, the Stokes drift velocity is the difference between the average Lagrangian flow velocity of a fluid parcel and the average Eulerian flow velocity of the fluid. This paper reviews progress in fundamental and applied research on the induced mean flow associated with surface gravity waves since the first description of the Stokes drift, now 170 years ago...
January 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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