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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456548/gaba-shunt-in-durum-wheat
#1
REVIEW
Petronia Carillo
Plant responses to salinity are complex, especially when combined with other stresses, and involve many changes in gene expression and metabolic fluxes. Until now, plant stress studies have been mainly dealt only with a single stress approach. However, plants exposed to multiple stresses at the same time, a combinatorial approach reflecting real-world scenarios, show tailored responses completely different from the response to the individual stresses, due to the stress-related plasticity of plant genome and to specific metabolic modifications...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456523/g-protein-coupled-receptors-as-regulators-of-localized-translation-the-forgotten-pathway
#2
REVIEW
Aurélie Tréfier, Lucie P Pellissier, Astrid Musnier, Eric Reiter, Florian Guillou, Pascale Crépieux
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) exert their physiological function by transducing a complex signaling network that coordinates gene expression and dictates the phenotype of highly differentiated cells. Much is known about the gene networks they transcriptionally regulate upon ligand exposure in a process that takes hours before a new protein is synthesized. However, far less is known about GPCR impact on the translational machinery and subsequent mRNA translation, although this gene regulation level alters the cell phenotype in a strikingly different timescale...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455468/implications-of-macrophage-polarization-in-autoimmunity
#3
REVIEW
Samanta C Funes, Mariana Rios, Jorge Escobar-Vera, Alexis M Kalergis
Macrophages are extremely heterogeneous and plastic cells with an important role not only in physiological conditions, but also during inflammation (both for initiation and resolution). In the early 90s, two different phenotypes of macrophages were described: one of them called classically activated (or inflammatory) macrophages (M1) and the other alternatively activated (or wound-healing) macrophages (M2). Currently, it is known that functional polarization of macrophages only into two groups is an over simplified description of macrophage heterogeneity and plasticity, indeed, it is necessary to consider a continuum of functional states...
February 18, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454655/neurogenetic-approaches-to-stress-and-fear-in-humans-as-pathophysiological-mechanisms-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#4
REVIEW
Frauke Nees, Stephanie H Witt, Herta Flor
In this review article, genetic variation associated with brain responses related to acute and chronic stress reactivity and fear learning in humans is presented as an important mechanism underlying posttraumatic stress disorder. We report that genes related to the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, as well as genes that modulate serotonergic, dopaminergic, and neuropeptidergic functions or plasticity, play a role in this context. The strong overlap of the genetic targets involved in stress and fear learning suggests that a dimensional and mechanistic model of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder based on these constructs is promising...
January 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454076/the-biological-basis-of-treating-jaw-discrepancies-an-interplay-of-mechanical-forces-and-skeletal-configuration
#5
REVIEW
Konstantinos Karamesinis, Efthimia K Basdra
Jaw discrepancies and malrelations affect a large proportion of the general population and their treatment is of utmost significance for individuals' health and quality of life. The aim of their therapy is the modification of aberrant jaw development mainly by targeting the growth potential of the mandibular condyle through its cartilage, and the architectural shape of alveolar bone through a suture type of structure, the periodontal ligament. This targeted treatment is achieved via external mechanical force application by using a wide variety of intraoral and extraoral appliances...
February 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453776/syndromic-sebaceous-nevus-current-findings
#6
Oumama El Ezzi, Anthony S de Buys Roessingh, Michèle Bigorre, Guillaume Captier
BACKGROUND: Sebaceous nevus is a congenital malformation of the skin that usually occurs on the scalp or face. Syndromic forms do rarely exist with associated cerebral and ocular malformations. The skin lesions are pale at birth and become irregular by puberty. In the adult patient, tumors (usually benign) develop from sebaceous nevus. Their surgical excision during childhood can give a better result in terms of the definitive scar. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to analyze our cases of syndromic sebaceous hamartoma, perform a review of the existing literature, and propose guidelines for the therapeutic plan...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452956/comparison-of-face-to-face-interaction-and-the-electronic-medical-record-for-venous-thromboembolism-risk-stratification-using-the-2005-caprini-score
#7
Christopher J Pannucci, Kory I Fleming
OBJECTIVE: Perioperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk can be quantified with the 2005 Caprini score. The Caprini score has previously been validated by review of the electronic medical record (EMR) in >3000 plastic surgery patients. However, the accuracy of Caprini-based risk stratification using the EMR, as opposed to face-to-face contact with the patient, remains unknown. METHODS: Plastic and reconstructive surgery patients who had surgery under general anesthesia, required postoperative admission, and were started on enoxaparin prophylaxis were identified...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452438/algorithmic-approach-for-intraoperative-salvage-of-venous-congestion-in-diep-flaps
#8
Erica L Bartlett, Dmitry Zavlin, Zachery K Menn, Aldona J Spiegel
BACKGROUND: Flap congestion is a frequently described intraoperative complication during autologous breast reconstruction with abdominal perforator flaps, which, if not addressed, can lead to detrimental results such as flap failure. Here, we describe our institution's algorithm of intraoperative salvage of congested flaps and present their outcomes. METHODS: All patient charts from 2002 to 2016 of a single plastic surgeon were reviewed for patients who underwent deep inferior epigastric perforator flap breast reconstruction resulting in 602 patients and 831 flaps...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452341/betadine-and-breast-implants
#9
Mark L Jewell, William P Adams
In the fourth quarter of 2017, the US FDA reviewed and approved a request by one of the breast implant manufacturers for a change in the Directions for Use (DFU) that removed warnings regarding the use of Betadine (povidone-iodine [PI] 10% solution, 1% available iodine [Purdue Frederick Company, Stamford, CT], also available in generic formulations [Aplicare, Inc., Meriden, CT]). Previously, in 2000, there were concerns by the FDA that PI would degrade the silicone elastomer shell. This change in the DFU represents an important advance that will benefit patients through the permitted use of PI to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination of implant surfaces...
February 14, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450725/bdnf-effects-on-dendritic-spine-morphology-and-hippocampal-function
#10
REVIEW
Oliver von Bohlen Und Halbach, Viola von Bohlen Und Halbach
Neurotrophins, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are expressed in the hippocampus, as well as their precursors, the pro-neurotrophins. The neurotrophins signal through specific tyrosine kinase receptors and the low affinity receptor p75NTR. Moreover, the pro-neurotrophins are considered to be biologically active by signaling through specific receptors. The neurotrophins, especially BDNF, are involved in processes related to learning and memory. Furthermore, it is thought that BDNF also plays a crucial role in major depression...
February 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449713/control-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-deep-cortical-networks
#11
REVIEW
Pieter R Roelfsema, Anthony Holtmaat
Humans and many other animals have an enormous capacity to learn about sensory stimuli and to master new skills. However, many of the mechanisms that enable us to learn remain to be understood. One of the greatest challenges of systems neuroscience is to explain how synaptic connections change to support maximally adaptive behaviour. Here, we provide an overview of factors that determine the change in the strength of synapses, with a focus on synaptic plasticity in sensory cortices. We review the influence of neuromodulators and feedback connections in synaptic plasticity and suggest a specific framework in which these factors can interact to improve the functioning of the entire network...
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449086/progress-in-the-use-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-in-regenerative-medicine
#12
REVIEW
Eduardo Anitua, María Troya, Mar Zalduendo
The field of tissue engineering is emerging as a multidisciplinary area with promising potential for regenerating new tissues and organs. This approach requires the involvement of three essential components: stem cells, scaffolds and growth factors. To date, dental pulp stem cells have received special attention because they represent a readily accessible source of stem cells. Their high plasticity and multipotential capacity to differentiate into a large array of tissues can be explained by its neural crest origin, which supports applications beyond the scope of oral tissues...
February 12, 2018: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448956/immunomodulatory-plasticity-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-a-potential-key-to-successful-solid-organ-transplantation
#13
REVIEW
Urvashi Kaundal, Upma Bagai, Aruna Rakha
Organ transplantation remains to be a treatment of choice for patients suffering from irreversible organ failure. Immunosuppressive (IS) drugs employed to maintain the allograft have shown excellent short-term graft survival, but, their long-term use could contribute to immunological and non-immunological risk factors, resulting in graft dysfunctionalities. Upcoming IS regimes have highlighted the use of cell-based therapies, which can eliminate the risk of drug-borne toxicities while maintaining efficacy of the treatment...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448092/investigation-on-bisphenol-a-levels-in-human-milk-and-dairy-supply-chain-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Raffaelina Mercogliano, Serena Santonicola
Bisphenol A (BPA), widely used as additive in food packaging, is an environmental and food contaminant that shows a weak estrogenic activity in general population and toxicity in the infant population. A temporary tolerable daily intake (t-TDI) of 4 μg/kg bw/day and a migration limit of 0.6 mg/kg in food from plastic materials, intended to come in contact with food, were fixed. Dietary milk is important in the human diet. The review investigated the contamination levels in human milk and along the dairy supply chain...
February 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446805/genomic-plasticity-of-vibrio-cholerae
#15
REVIEW
Jose Antonio Escudero, Didier Mazel
Vibrio cholerae is one of the deadliest pathogens in the history of humankind. It is the causative agent of cholera, a disease characterized by a profuse and watery diarrhoea that still today causes 95.000 deaths worldwide every year. V. cholerae is a free living marine organism that interacts with and infects a variety of organisms, from amoeba to humans, including insects and crustaceans. The complexity of the lifestyle and ecology of V. cholerae suggests a high genetic and phenotypic plasticity. In this review, we will focus on two peculiar genomic features that enhance genetic plasticity in this bacterium: the division of its genome in two different chromosomes and the presence of the superintegron, a gene capture device that acts as a large, low-cost memory of adaptive functions, allowing V...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446800/biology-of-vibrio-cholera-editorial-overview
#16
EDITORIAL
Felipe Cava
In this monographic issue, we have the pleasure to present contributions from six of the leading laboratories at the forefront of Vibrio cholerae genetics, ecology and evolution, together with a brief tribute by Diego Romero to Doctor Jaime Ferrán y Clua, a pioneering Spanish bacteriologist who developed the first vaccine against this pathogen. V. cholerae is a free-living aquatic bacterium that interacts with and infects a variety of organisms. In humans it causes cholera, the deadly diarrhoea that was responsible for millions of deaths during seven pandemics since 1817, and still thousands every year...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445137/metabolic-features-of-cancer-stem-cells-the-emerging-role-of-lipid-metabolism
#17
REVIEW
Rita Mancini, Alessia Noto, Maria Elena Pisanu, Claudia De Vitis, Marcello Maugeri-Saccà, Gennaro Ciliberto
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are an uncommon subset of tumor cells capable of self-renewal, differentiating, and recreating the parental tumor when transplanted into the murine background. Over the past two decades, efforts toward understanding CSC biology culminated into identifying a set of signaling pathways sustaining "stemness". Nevertheless, while metabolic rewiring is nowadays considered a hallmark of cancer, no consensus has been reached on the metabolic features underlying the plastic nature of CSCs, which are capable of residing in a dormant state, and able to rapidly proliferate when the need to repopulate the tumor mass arises...
February 15, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444459/cell-adhesion-and-matricellular-support-by-astrocytes-of-the-tripartite-synapse
#18
REVIEW
Anne E J Hillen, J Peter H Burbach, Elly M Hol
Astrocytes contribute to the formation, function, and plasticity of synapses. Their processes enwrap the neuronal components of the tripartite synapse, and due to this close interaction they are perfectly positioned to modulate neuronal communication. The interaction between astrocytes and synapses is facilitated by cell adhesion molecules and matricellular proteins, which have been implicated in the formation and functioning of tripartite synapses. The importance of such neuron-astrocyte integration at the synapse is underscored by the emerging role of astrocyte dysfunction in synaptic pathologies such as autism and schizophrenia...
February 11, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443836/course-review-aotrauma-hand-fixation-for-surgeons
#19
Devvrat Katechia, Abdulla Ibrahim
Hand trauma forms an important part of plastic surgery and orthopedic training curricula. Although numerous practical hand trauma courses exist, there is always difficulty in achieving the right balance between educational content and practical workshops. AOTrauma-Hand Fixation for Surgeons is a 2.5-day course for plastic surgery and orthopedic trainees that aims to instill the principles of hand fracture fixation and soft tissue coverage through self-directed learning, lectures, small group discussion, and dry bone practical workshops...
February 13, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438737/neurogenesis-and-sexual-behavior
#20
REVIEW
M Bedos, W Portillo, R G Paredes
Different conditions induce proliferation, migration and integration of new neurons in the adult brain. This process of neurogenesis is a clear example of long lasting plastic changes in the brain of different species. Sexual behavior is a motivated behavior that is crucial for the survival of the species, but an individual can spend all his life without displaying sexual behavior. In the present review, we briefly describe some of the effects of pheromones on neurogenesis. We review in detail studies describing the effects of sexual behavior in both males and females on proliferation, migration and integration of new cells and neurons...
February 10, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
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