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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087658/are-winter-and-summer-dormancy-symmetrical-seasonal-adaptive-strategies-the-case-of-temperate-herbaceous-perennials
#1
REVIEW
Lauren M Gillespie, Florence A Volaire
BACKGROUND: Dormancy in higher plants is an adaptive response enabling plant survival during the harshest seasons and has been more explored in woody species than in herbaceous species. Nevertheless, winter and summer shoot meristem dormancy are adaptive strategies that could play a major role in enhancing seasonal stress tolerance and resilience of widespread herbaceous plant communities. SCOPE: This review outlines the symmetrical aspects of winter and summer dormancy in order to better understand plant adaptation to severe stress, and highlight research priorities in a changing climate...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078988/bdnf-nf-kb-signaling-in-the-neurobiology-of-depression
#2
Ariel Caviedes, Carlos Lafourcade, Claudio Soto, Ursula Wyneken
BACKGROUND: Mood disorders, consisting of unipolar and bipolar depression, are complex diseases characterized by depressed mood and anhedonia. These core symptoms are accompanied in a varying manner by anxiety, several neurovegetative symptoms and cognitive impairment. Mood disorders are characterized by decreases in neurogenesis, alteration in synaptic structure and synaptic transmission, all of them regulated by BDNF, a neurotrophin that performs multiple functions in the adult central nervous system...
January 11, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078981/resilience-to-alzheimer-s-disease-the-role-of-physical-activity
#3
Pedrinolla Anna, Schena Federico, Venturelli Massimo
BACKGROUND: Although Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative pathology characterized by accumulation of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles at cerebral level, recent studies highlighted that AD might be the result of many altered physiological processes occurring at whole-organism level. The ability to adapt to stressors by "bending" but not "breaking" can be considered as "resilience". Individuals incline to withstand such pathophysiological challenges, can be considered more resilient than those that do not...
January 11, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069532/neural-plasticity-and-network-remodeling-from-concepts-to-pathology
#4
REVIEW
Erez James Cohen, Eros Quarta, Riccardo Bravi, Alberto Granato, Diego Minciacchi
Neuroplasticity has been subject to a great deal of research in the last century. Recently, significant emphasis has been placed on the global effect of localized plastic changes throughout the central nervous system, and on how these changes integrate in a pathological context. Specifically, alterations of network functionality have been described in various pathological contexts to which corresponding structural alterations have been proposed. However, considering the amount of literature and the different pathological contexts, an integration of this information is still lacking...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069025/interaction-of-biomedical-nanoparticles-with-the-pulmonary-immune-system
#5
REVIEW
Fabian Blank, Kleanthis Fytianos, Emilie Seydoux, Laura Rodriguez-Lorenzo, Alke Petri-Fink, Christophe von Garnier, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser
Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) offer site-specific delivery, deposition and cellular uptake due to their unique physicochemical properties and were shown to modulate immune responses. The respiratory tract with its vast surface area is an attractive target organ for innovative immunomodulatory therapeutic applications by pulmonary administration of such NPs, enabling interactions with resident antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells and macrophages. Depending on the respiratory tract compartment, e...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067168/sumoylation-in-neurological-diseases
#6
F-Y Liu, Y-F Liu, Y Yang, Z-W Luo, J-W Xiang, Z-G Chen, R-L Qi, T-H Yang, Y Xiao, W-J Qing, D W-C Li
Since the discovery of SUMOs (small ubiquitin-like modifiers) over 20 years ago, sumoylation has recently emerged as an important post-translational modification involved in almost all aspects of cellular physiology. In neurons, sumoylation dynamically modulates protein function and consequently plays an important role in neuronal maturation, synapse formation and plasticity. Thus, the dysfunction of sumoylation pathway is associated with many different neurological disorders. Hundreds of different proteins implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders are SUMO-modified, indicating the importance of sumoylation involved in the neurological diseases...
January 9, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066801/cell-assisted-lipotransfer-in-breast-augmentation-and-reconstruction-a-systematic-review-of-safety-efficacy-use%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-patient-reported-outcomes-and-study-quality
#7
Zeeshaan Arshad, Lindsey Karmen, Rajan Choudhary, James A Smith, Olivier A Branford, David A Brindley, David Pettitt, Benjamin M Davies
BACKGROUND: Cell assisted lipotransfer serves as a novel technique for both breast reconstruction and breast augmentation. This systematic review assesses the efficacy, safety and use of patient reported outcome measures in studies involving cell assisted lipotransfer. We also carry out an objective assessment of study quality focussing on recruitment, follow-up and provide an up-to-date clinical trial landscaping analysis. METHODS: Key electronic databases were searched according to PRISMA guidelines and pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria...
December 2016: JPRAS Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065806/-tagging-along-memories-in-aging-synaptic-tagging-and-capture-mechanisms-in-the-aged-hippocampus
#8
REVIEW
Mahesh Shivarama Shetty, Sreedharan Sajikumar
Aging is accompanied by a general decline in the physiological functions of the body with the deteriorating organ systems. Brain is no exception to this and deficits in cognitive functions are quite common in advanced aging. Though a variety of age-related alterations are observed in the structure and function throughout the brain, certain regions show selective vulnerability. Medial temporal lobe, especially the hippocampus, is one such preferentially vulnerable region and is a crucial structure involved in the learning and long-term memory functions...
January 5, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064843/challenges-and-opportunities-of-biodegradable-plastics-a-mini-review
#9
Maja Rujnić-Sokele, Ana Pilipović
The concept of materials coming from nature with environmental advantages of being biodegradable and/or biobased (often referred to as bioplastics) is very attractive to the industry and to the consumers. Bioplastics already play an important role in the fields of packaging, agriculture, gastronomy, consumer electronics and automotive, but still they have a very low share in the total production of plastics (currently about 1% of the about 300 million tonnes of plastic produced annually). Biodegradable plastics are often perceived as the possible solution for the waste problem, but biodegradability is just an additional feature of the material to be exploited at the end of its life in specific terms, in the specific disposal environment and in a specific time, which is often forgotten...
January 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062965/patient-satisfaction-and-clinical-outcomes-following-414-breast-reductions-application-of-breast-q
#10
A Cogliandro, M Barone, G Cassotta, S Tenna, B Cagli, P Persichetti
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to measure breast satisfaction and quality of life using the BREAST-Q Reduction Module in a large sample of postoperative patients having breast reduction using the inverted T technique. METHODS: With due approval from the ethics committee of our university, 414 patients who were seen in consultation for breast reduction surgery between 2005 and 2015 performed by the same team were asked to fill out BREAST-Q surveys. The patient factors collected for all those undergoing breast reduction included age, body mass index, incision pattern, areola complex pedicle used, amount of tissue resected, concurrent procedures, and complications...
January 7, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061977/the-big-role-of-small-rnas-in-anxiety-and-stress-related-disorders
#11
S Malan-Müller, S M J Hemmings
In the study of complex, heterogeneous disorders, such as anxiety and stress-related disorders, epigenetic factors provide an additional level of heritable complexity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, noncoding RNAs that function as epigenetic modulators of gene expression by binding to target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and subsequently blocking translation or accelerating their degradation. In light of their abundance in the central nervous system (CNS) and their involvement in synaptic plasticity and neuronal differentiation, miRNAs represent an exciting frontier to be explored in the etiology and treatment of anxiety and stress-related disorders...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060744/targeting-macrophage-anti-tumor-activity-to-suppress-melanoma-progression
#12
REVIEW
Huafeng Wang, Lijuan Zhang, Luhong Yang, Chengfang Liu, Qi Zhang, Linjing Zhang
By phagocytosing cancer cells and their cellular debris, macrophages play a critical role in nonspecific defense (innate immunity) and, as antigen presenters, they help initiate specific defense mechanisms (adaptive immunity). Malignant melanoma is a lethal disease due to its aggressive capacity for metastasis and resistance to therapy. For decades, considerable effort has gone into development of an effective immunotherapy for treatment of metastatic melanoma. In this review, we focus on the anti-tumor activities of macrophages in melanoma and their potential as therapeutic targets in melanoma...
January 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059854/perforator-phase-contrast-angiography-of-deep-inferior-epigastric-perforators-a-better-preoperative-imaging-tool-for-flap-surgery-than-computed-tomographic-angiography
#13
Xiangyu Yang, Michael J Miller, Harry T Friel, Allison Slijepcevic, Michael V Knopp
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo perforator visualization by a newly proposed magnetic resonance-based perforator phase contrast angiography (pPCA) technique for deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap surgery and to prospectively compare its image quality and clinical value with computed tomographic angiography (CTA), the state-of-the-art perforator imaging technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained...
January 4, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057584/coregulator-mediated-control-of-skeletal-muscle-plasticity-a-mini-review
#14
Svenia Schnyder, Barbara Kupr, Christoph Handschin
Skeletal muscle plasticity is a complex process entailing massive transcriptional programs. These changes are mediated by the action of nuclear receptors and other transcription factors. In addition, coregulator proteins have emerged as important players in this process by linking transcription factors to the RNA polymerase II complex and inducing changes in the chromatic structure. An accumulating body of work highlights the pleiotropic functions of coregulator proteins in the control of tissue-specific and whole body metabolism...
January 2, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057445/plasticity-vs-mutation-the-role-of-micrornas-in-human-adaptation
#15
REVIEW
Konstantinos Voskarides
The variability potential of a phenotype, on the background of the same genotype, is termed "phenotypic plasticity". This is considered by some scientists as a more important evolutionary procedure than mutation based natural selection. In this review, I discuss the fact that microRNAs have the potential to determine significantly the spectrum of phenotypic plasticity by regulating translation rate. MicroRNAs constitute a complicate network that can adjust at a variety of external environmental stimuli. They can also rebalance genome's function after genomic duplication events...
January 3, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049644/functional-prions-in-the-brain
#16
REVIEW
Joseph B Rayman, Eric R Kandel
Prions are proteins that can adopt self-perpetuating conformations and are traditionally regarded as etiological agents of infectious neurodegenerative diseases in humans, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, kuru, and transmissible encephalopathies. More recently, a growing consensus has emerged that prion-like, self-templating mechanisms also underlie a variety of neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease. Perhaps most surprising, not all prion-like aggregates are associated with pathological changes...
January 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049565/adapting-the-concepts-of-brain-and-cognitive-reserve-to-post-stroke-cognitive-deficits-implications-for-understanding-neglect
#17
Roza M Umarova
Advanced lesion mapping and connectivity analyses are currently the main tools used to understand the mechanisms underlying post-stroke cognitive deficits. However, the factors contributing to pre-stroke architecture of cognitive networks are often ignored, even though they reportedly play a decisive role in the manifestation of cognitive impairment in neurodegeneration. The present review on post-stroke cognitive deficits therefore adopts the concept of brain and cognitive reserve, which was originally developed to account for the individual differences in the course of aging and neurodegenerative diseases...
December 16, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048924/mo-b-brb-02-3d-dosimetry-in-the-clinic-imrt-technique-validation-in-sweden
#18
S Ceberg
: Full three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry using volumetric chemical dosimeters probed by 3D imaging systems has long been a promising technique for the radiation therapy clinic, since it provides a unique methodology for dose measurements in the volume irradiated using complex conformal delivery techniques such as IMRT and VMAT. To date true 3D dosimetry is still not widely practiced in the community; it has been confined to centres of specialized expertise especially for quality assurance or commissioning roles where other dosimetry techniques are difficult to implement...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048590/we-ab-brb-03-real-time-volumetric-scintillation-dosimetry-for-radiation-therapy
#19
S Beddar
: Despite widespread IMRT treatments at modern radiation therapy clinics, precise dosimetric commissioning of an IMRT system remains a challenge. In the most recent report from the Radiological Physics Center (RPC), nearly 20% of institutions failed an end-to-end test with an anthropomorphic head and neck phantom, a test that has rather lenient dose difference and distance-to-agreement criteria of 7% and 4 mm. The RPC report provides strong evidence that IMRT implementation is prone to error and that improved quality assurance tools are required...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048274/mo-b-brb-03-3d-dosimetry-in-the-clinic-validating-special-techniques
#20
T Juang
: Full three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry using volumetric chemical dosimeters probed by 3D imaging systems has long been a promising technique for the radiation therapy clinic, since it provides a unique methodology for dose measurements in the volume irradiated using complex conformal delivery techniques such as IMRT and VMAT. To date true 3D dosimetry is still not widely practiced in the community; it has been confined to centres of specialized expertise especially for quality assurance or commissioning roles where other dosimetry techniques are difficult to implement...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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