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Johanna Lilja, Johanna Ivaska
The formation of correct synaptic structures and neuronal connections is paramount for normal brain development and a functioning adult brain. The integrin family of cell adhesion receptors and their ligands play essential roles in the control of several processes regulating neuronal connectivity - including neurite outgrowth, the formation and maintenance of synapses, and synaptic plasticity - that are affected in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and schizophrenia. Many ASD- and schizophrenia-associated genes are linked to alterations in the genetic code of integrins and associated signalling pathways...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Emily D Wolodiger, Alice W Pope
OBJECTIVE: To examine the reciprocal relationships between parenting stress and psychosocial adjustment of children with congenital craniofacial anomalies (CFAs) at 2 time points: school entry and approximately 2.5 years later, after children had time to adjust to school. DESIGN: Retrospective review of medical charts of children with CFAs. SETTING: Department of reconstructive plastic surgery at an urban medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Parents of 42 children aged 3...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Gloria R Sue, Woodrow C Covington, James Chang
BACKGROUND: A paradigm shift is underway in the world of humanitarian global surgery to address the large unmet need for reconstructive surgical services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Here, we discuss the ReSurge Global Training Program (RGTP), a model for surgical training and capacity building in reconstructive surgery in the developing world. The program includes an online reconstructive surgery curriculum, visiting educator trips, expert reconstructive surgeon involvement, trainee competency tracking system, and identification of local outreach partners to provide safe reconstructive surgery to the neediest of patients in the developing world...
June 13, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Yuru Vernon Shih, Shyni Varghese
Recent advances in materials development and tissue engineering has resulted in a substantial number of bioinspired materials that recapitulate cardinal features of bone extracellular matrix (ECM) such as dynamic inorganic and organic environment(s), hierarchical organization, and topographical features. Bone mimicking materials, as defined by its self-explanatory term, are developed based on the current understandings of the natural bone ECM during development, remodeling, and fracture repair. Compared to conventional plastic cultures, biomaterials that resemble some aspects of the native environment could elicit a more natural molecular and cellular response relevant to the bone tissue...
June 6, 2018: Biomaterials
Guillaume de Lartigue, Chelsea Xu
Sensory neurons of the vagus nerve receive many different peripheral signals that can change rapidly and frequently throughout the day. The ability of these neurons to convey the vast array of nuanced information to the brain requires neuronal adaptability. In this review we discuss evidence for neural plasticity in vagal afferent neurons as a mechanism for conveying nuanced information to the brain important for the control of feeding behavior. We provide evidence that synaptic plasticity, changes in membrane conductance, and neuropeptide specification are mechanisms that allow flexibility in response to metabolic cues that can be disrupted by chronic intake of energy dense diets...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research
Benjamin W Lindsey, Zachary J Hall, Aurélie Heuzé, Jean-Stéphane Joly, Vincent Tropepe, Jan Kaslin
Neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) are the primary source of new neurons in the brain and serve critical roles in tissue homeostasis and plasticity throughout life. Within the vertebrate brain, NSPCs are located within distinct neurogenic niches differing in their location, cellular composition, and proliferative behaviour. Heterogeneity in the NSPC population is hypothesized to reflect varying capacities for neurogenesis, plasticity and repair between different neurogenic zones. Since the discovery of adult neurogenesis, studies have predominantly focused on the behaviour and biological significance of adult NSPCs (aNSPCs) in rodents...
June 11, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Ron B Somogyi, Natalia Ziolkowski, Fahima Osman, Alexandra Ginty, Mitchell Brown
OBJECTIVE: To offer primary care providers a comprehensive summary of breast reconstruction options and complications. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A literature search was conducted in PubMed with no time restriction using the search terms breast reconstruction, summary, review, complications, and options. Levels of evidence range from I to III. MAIN MESSAGE: As breast cancer survival rates increase, the focus of breast cancer management must shift to include the restoration of a patient's quality of life after cancer...
June 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Didem Civancik-Uslu, Laura Ferrer, Rita Puig, Pere Fullana-I-Palmer
The use of functional fillers can be advantageous in terms of cost reduction and improved properties in plastics. There are many types of fillers used in industry, organic and inorganic, with a wide application area. As a response to the growing concerns about environmental damage that plastics cause, recently fillers have started to be considered as a way to reduce it by decreasing the need for petrochemical resources. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is identified as a proper tool to evaluate potential environmental impacts of products or systems...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Frédérique Le Roux, Melanie Blokesch
Vibrio is a genus of ubiquitous heterotrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Although they are a small percentage of the bacteria in these environments, vibrios can predominate during blooms. Vibrios also play important roles in the degradation of polymeric substances, such as chitin, and in other biogeochemical processes. Vibrios can be found as free-living bacteria, attached to particles, or associated with other organisms in a mutualistic, commensal, or pathogenic relationship. This review focuses on vibrio ecology and genome plasticity, which confers an ability to adapt to new niches and is driven, at least in part, by horizontal gene transfer (HGT)...
June 13, 2018: Annual Review of Microbiology
Ryuta Koyama, Yuji Ikegaya
The question of whether mossy fiber sprouting is epileptogenic has not been resolved; both sprouting-induced recurrent excitatory and inhibitory circuit hypotheses have been experimentally (but not fully) supported. Therefore, whether mossy fiber sprouting is a potential therapeutic target for epilepsy remains under debate. Moreover, the axon guidance mechanisms of mossy fiber sprouting have attracted the interest of neuroscientists. Sprouting of mossy fibers exhibits several uncommon axonal growth features in the basically non-plastic adult brain...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Xin Zhang, Tong Tong Ge, Guanghao Yin, Ranji Cui, Guoqing Zhao, Wei Yang
The amygdala plays a major role in the processing of physiologic and behavioral responses to stress and is characterized by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated high inhibitory tone under resting state. Human and animal studies showed that stress lead to a hyperactivity of amygdala, which was accompanied by the removal of inhibitory control. However, the contribution of hyperactivity of amygdala to stress-induced neuropsychiatric diseases, such as anxiety and mood disorders, is still dubious. In this review, we will summarize stress-induced various structural and functional alterations in amygdala, including the GABA receptors expression, GABAergic transmission and synaptic plasticity...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Raffaele Nuzzi, Laura Dallorto, Teresa Rolle
Background: Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The increasing interest in the involvement of the cortical visual pathway in glaucomatous patients is due to the implications in recent therapies, such as neuroprotection and neuroregeneration. Objective: In this review, we outline the current understanding of brain structural, functional, and metabolic changes detected with the modern techniques of neuroimaging in glaucomatous subjects. Methods: We screened MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL, LILACS, Trip Database, and NICE for original contributions published until 31 October 2017...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Guillaume Mas, Sebastian Hiller
How proteins reach their native conformation and location has been a major question of biology during the last 50 years. To counterbalance protein misfolding and the accumulation of aggregation products, a complex network of chaperones and proteases takes care of protein quality control in the cell. Such a chaperone network is in place in the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria, where it is necessary for the survival of the bacteria as well as for outer membrane biogenesis. First mechanistic insights into the periplasmic chaperones that comprise this system came from crystal structures of their apo states...
July 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Emma Flanagan, Michael Müller, Michael Hornberger, David Vauzour
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarises the most recent evidence regarding the effects of dietary flavonoids on age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence indicates that plant-derived flavonoids may exert powerful actions on mammalian cognition and protect against the development of age-related cognitive decline and pathological neurodegeneration. The neuroprotective effects of flavonoids have been suggested to be due to interactions with the cellular and molecular architecture of brain regions responsible for memory...
June 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
Jesse P Harrison, Carl Boardman, Kenneth O'Callaghan, Anne-Marie Delort, Jim Song
Plastic litter is encountered in aquatic ecosystems across the globe, including polar environments and the deep sea. To mitigate the adverse societal and ecological impacts of this waste, there has been debate on whether 'biodegradable' materials should be granted exemptions from plastic bag bans and levies. However, great care must be exercised when attempting to define this term, due to the broad and complex range of physical and chemical conditions encountered within natural ecosystems. Here, we review existing international industry standards and regional test methods for evaluating the biodegradability of plastics within aquatic environments (wastewater, unmanaged freshwater and marine habitats)...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Heng Li, Ting Jiang, Meng-Qi Li, Xi-Long Zheng, Guo-Jun Zhao
Diversity and plasticity are the hallmarks of cells from the monocyte-macrophage lineage. Macrophages undergo classical M1 or alternative M2 activation in response to the microenvironment signals. Several transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, signal transducers and activators of transcription, CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins, interferon regulatory factors, Kruppel-like factors, GATA binding protein 3, nuclear transcription factor-κB, and c-MYC, were found to promote the expression of specific genes, which dictate the functional polarization of macrophages...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Bethania Mongi-Bragato, María P Avalos, Andrea S Guzmán, Flavia A Bollati, Liliana M Cancela
Enkephalin expression is high in mesocorticolimbic areas associated with psychostimulant-induced behavioral and neurobiological effects, and may also modulate local neurotransmission in this circuit network. Psychostimulant drugs, like amphetamine and cocaine, significantly increase the content of enkephalin in these brain structures, but we do not yet understand the specific significance of this drug-induced adaptation. In this review, we summarize the neurochemical and molecular mechanism of psychostimulant-induced enkephalin activation in mesocorticolimbic brain areas, and the contribution of this opioid peptide in the pivotal neuroadaptations and long-term behavioral changes underlying psychostimulant addiction...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Donald Lucas, Sara M Petty, Olya Keen, Bob Luedeka, Martin Schlummer, Roland Weber, Ramin Yazdani, Brian Riise, James Rhodes, Dave Nightingale, Miriam L Diamond, John Vijgen, Avery Lindeman, Arlene Blum, Catherine P Koshland
This is Part II of a review covering the wide range of issues associated with all aspects of the use and responsible disposal of foam and plastic wastes containing toxic or potentially toxic flame retardants. We identify basic and applied research needs in the areas of responsible collection, pretreatment, processing, and management of these wastes. In Part II, we explore alternative technologies for the management of halogenated flame retardant (HFR) containing wastes, including chemical, mechanical, and thermal processes for recycling, treatment, and disposal...
June 1, 2018: Environmental Engineering Science
Donald Lucas, Sara M Petty, Olya Keen, Bob Luedeka, Martin Schlummer, Roland Weber, Morton Barlaz, Ramin Yazdani, Brian Riise, James Rhodes, Dave Nightingale, Miriam L Diamond, John Vijgen, Avery Lindeman, Arlene Blum, Catherine P Koshland
Flame retardants (FRs) are added to foams and plastics to comply with flammability standards and test requirements in products for household and industrial uses. When these regulations were implemented, potential health and environmental impacts of FR use were not fully recognized or understood. Extensive research in the past decades reveal that exposure to halogenated FRs, such as those used widely in furniture foam, is associated with and/or causally related to numerous health effects in animals and humans...
June 1, 2018: Environmental Engineering Science
Manuella da L D Barros, Raul Manhães-de-Castro, Daniele T Alves, Omar Guzmán Quevedo, Ana Elisa Toscano, Alexandre Bonnin, Ligia Galindo
Serotonin exerts a modulating function on the development of the central nervous system, including hypothalamic circuits controlling feeding behavior and energy expenditure. Based on the developmental plasticity theory, early disturbances of synaptic availability of serotonin may promote phenotypic adaptations and late disorders of energy balance regulation leading to obesity and associated diseases. The aim of this systematic review is to determine the effects of pharmacological neonatal inhibition of serotonin reuptake by fluoxetine, on parameters related to feeding behavior and energy balance...
June 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
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