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developmental optometry

Eileen P Storey, Stephen R Master, Julia E Lockyer, Olivia E Podolak, Matthew F Grady, Christina L Master
PURPOSE: To determine the incidence of abnormal near point of convergence (NPC) after acute concussion in pediatric patients and to describe the clinical course of such patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 275 pediatric patients 5 to 18 years of age presenting to a tertiary care children's hospital subspecialty concussion program with a new concussion between July 1, 2014 and June 30, 2015 was conducted. RESULTS: Sixty-seven out of 275 pediatric patients presenting to a subspecialty concussion referral program were found to have abnormal NPC on physical examination as measured by an accommodative rule...
January 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Anna M Horwood, Patricia M Riddell
PURPOSE: Vergence and accommodation studies often use adult participants with experience of vision science. Reports of infant and clinical responses are generally more variable and of lower gain, with the implication that differences lie in immaturity or sub-optimal clinical characteristics but expert/naïve differences are rarely considered or quantified. METHODS: Sixteen undergraduates, naïve to vision science, were individually matched by age, visual acuity, refractive error, heterophoria, stereoacuity and near point of accommodation to second- and third-year orthoptics and optometry undergraduates ('experts')...
March 2010: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Maureen K Powers
Instruments for assessing visual function are valuable tools for optometry, ophthalmology, vision science, education, and public health. Inspired by my observations in the Teller lab, with Dobson, on the process of developing a useful clinical tool from laboratory work, I present four examples of functional vision tests that are made of paper and currently used in the field: the Amsler Grid, the Pelli-Robson Contrast Sensitivity Chart, the Teller Acuity Cards, and the Developmental Eye Movement Test. All are characterized by ease of use and rigorous design...
June 2009: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
William V Good
Cortical visual impairment is the leading cause of bilateral low vision in children in the U.S., yet very little research is being performed to find new diagnostic measures and treatments. Dr. Velma Dobson pioneering work on visual assessments of developmentally delayed children stands out as highly significant in this field. Future research will assess new diagnostic measures, including advanced imaging techniques. In addition, research will evaluate methods to prevent, treat, and rehabilitate infants and children afflicted with this condition...
June 2009: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Joseph N Trachtman
Although autism existed before 1943, it was Leo Kanner who is credited with the first detailed description of autistic behavior. Before Kanner's report, the behavior was generally known as childhood schizophrenia. He noted that the outstanding common feature of all the children was certain parental personalities, like obsessiveness and lack of warm-heartedness. Concurrent with Kanner's report and observations were those of Asperger in 1944. However, Asperger's report, in a German-language journal, was not brought to the forefront until the 1980s...
July 2008: Optometry: Journal of the American Optometric Association
Barry S Kran, Darick W Wright
The scope of clinical low vision services and access to comprehensive eye care through U.S. schools for the blind and visually impaired is not well known. Advances in medicine and educational trends toward inclusion have resulted in higher numbers of visually impaired children with additional cognitive, motor, and developmental impairments enrolled in U.S. schools for the blind and visually impaired. The availability and frequency of eye care and vision education services for individuals with visual and multiple impairments at schools for the blind is explored in this report using data collected in a 24-item telephone survey from 35 of 42 identified U...
July 2008: Optometry: Journal of the American Optometric Association
Christine L Allison, Helen Gabriel, Darrell Schlange, Sara Fredrickson
BACKGROUND: Sensory integration dysfunction is a neurologic condition that can cause children to process environmental sensations in an inappropriate way. As a result, they may either seek out strong sensations or avoid even mild sensations. Some of the characteristics of these children may be hyperactivity, poor awareness of pain, high risk taking, listening to loud sounds, clumsiness, poor fine motor skills, poor gross motor skills, poor visual tracking, problems with sequencing, and problems with balance...
December 2007: Optometry: Journal of the American Optometric Association
Shaun P Collin
Clinical and Experimental Optometry, in conjunction with Optometrists Association Australia and Professor Shaun P Collin of the University of Queensland, announce the launch of a web-based archive of previously published topographic maps of retinal cell distribution in vertebrates. At present, the archive boasts more than 770 different maps of the distribution of retinal neurons (for example, photoreceptors, bipolar cells, amacrine cells, horizontal cells and ganglion cells) in nearly 200 species within all vertebrate classes (Cephalospidomorpha, Actinopterygii, Sarcopterygii, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia)...
January 2008: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
J T Tassinari, Paul DeLand
BACKGROUND: The Developmental Eye Movement Test (DEM) is a widely used visual skill test, especially in the context of a vision therapy evaluation. It is intended to diagnose oculomotor dysfunction (OMD) and can also identify deficient rapid automatized naming. As such, its reliability and associated symptomatology are important. METHODS: The DEM test-retest reliability was investigated within two populations: a group of 53 office patients who were participating in vision therapy evaluation in a private optometry practice, and a smaller group of 13 subjects at their school...
July 2005: Optometry: Journal of the American Optometric Association
(no author information available yet)
Visual impairment is an important cause of developmental disability among children. Ocular conditions, if undetected or untreated, can have substantial long-term implications for the quality of life of the child and the family and can place a burden on public health resources. For these reasons, the national health objectives for 2010 now include three vision objectives for children: 1) reducing visual impairment and blindness, 2) increasing the proportion of preschool children who receive vision screening, and 3) increasing the use of protective eyewear in recreational activities and hazardous situations around the home (objective nos...
May 6, 2005: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Carrie Lahnstein Campbell
BACKGROUND: Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a rare disorder characterized by optic nerve hypoplasia with any combination of absent septum pellucidum and/or pituitary dysfunction. SOD may manifest as strabismus, nystagmus, decreased visual acuity, or visual impairment; as an endocrine dysfunction in isolation; or in addition to mental retardation, cerebral palsy, developmental delay, or delayed growth. METHOD: This article reviews the presenting signs and symptoms of SOD, optic nerve hypoplasia, consequences of an absent septum pellucidum, endocrine findings associated with SOD, SOD diagnosis determination, syndromes associated with SOD, and optometry's role in caring for these patients...
July 2003: Optometry: Journal of the American Optometric Association
A S Vilupuru, A Glasser
AIM: To investigate the interrelationships between optical and biometric properties of the porcine crystalline lens, to compare these findings with similar relationships found for the human lens and to attempt to fit this data to a geometric model of the optical and biometric properties of the pig lens. METHODS: Weight, focal length, spherical aberration, surface curvatures, thickness and diameters of 20 isolated pig lenses were measured and equivalent refractive index was calculated...
July 2001: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
R A Coulter, J Shallo-Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: The developmental eye movement (DEM) test is a clinical test used widely to evaluate ocular motility function (accuracy and speed) in school-age children. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate, retrospectively, the change in accuracy over time while performing the DEM horizontal reading task in children. METHODS: The charts from children who had performed the DEM test during a routine eye examination in a pediatric optometry service were reviewed...
August 2000: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
D M Maino, M E Rado, W J Pizzi
BACKGROUND: Oculo-visual findings commonly associated with persons diagnosed as having mental illness and/or dual diagnosis (i.e. mental illness with mental retardation) have not been fully investigated. This study determines the most common eye and vision anomalies associated with these disorders and discusses the similarities and differences between these two unique populations. METHODS: Data were obtained by the random selection of 88 patient records from the Illinois Eye Institute/Easter Seal Society of Metropolitan Chicago Eye Care and Treatment Program (Illinois College of Optometry)...
December 1996: Journal of the American Optometric Association
S Winbery, K Blaho
Most children with congenital anomalies, teratogenesis, inborn errors of metabolism, and acquired toxicity or injury will have abnormal growth and development during the first few years of life. Many of the conditions are treatable, and early intervention is associated with improved prognosis. Developmental and growth assessment should be part of any routine visit to a primary care clinician. An overview of normal growth and development is outlined, and some common abnormalities are discussed.
1996: Optometry Clinics: the Official Publication of the Prentice Society
A J Libov, D M Maino
BACKGROUND: First described in 1956, Prader-Willi syndrome is a neurogenetic condition characterized by infantile hypotonia, hypogonadism and obesity. Mental deficiency, behavioral abnormalities, and obvious dysmorphic features are frequently found as well. It is a relatively common condition, with an incidence estimated to be between 1 in 10,000 to 25,000 live births. Few studies have been published that investigated the ocular defects associated with this syndrome. METHODS: This case report discusses the systemic and oculo-visual abnormalities of a 34-year-old white male enrolled in the Easter Seal Society of Metropolitan Chicago/Illinois College of Optometry Eye Care and Treatment Program...
May 1994: Journal of the American Optometric Association
D M Maino, J Kofman, M F Flynn, L Lai
BACKGROUND: Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism) is a congenital syndrome characterized by large body size for patient age, advanced bone age, and unusual facial characteristics with varying levels of cognitive, developmental and perceptual deficits. While more than 150 cases have been reported, only a single case report has been published in the ophthalmic literature. This study briefly reviews the pertinent aspects of this syndrome and reports on the medical, physical, developmental and ocular manifestations of 32 subjects...
May 1994: Journal of the American Optometric Association
S W Hatch, D Pattison, J E Richman
BACKGROUND: The Developmental Eye Movement Test (DEM) is a popular visual-verbal saccade test. An advantage of the DEM is that patients with below-average verbalization or automaticity can be distinguished from patients with eye movement coordination problems. The standardized norms for the DEM were previously determined in a sample of suburban and urban children with expected age to grade levels. We hypothesize that language difficulties common in some minority groups would be reflected by subnormal DEM automaticity but not eye movement dysfunction...
October 1994: Journal of the American Optometric Association
J A Bachman, W G Bachman, A S Franzel, M C Marcus
Early identification and treatment of vision problems is a key element in learning. For preschool children already identified with developmental delay, vision screening and visual correction are particularly essential. Participants drawn from a public Special School District were 105 preschoolers ages 3 to 5 years identified as having developmental delay. Examples included autism, Down syndrome, physical handicap, or cognitive impairment. A partnership was created between the public preschool and the University Schools of Nursing and Optometry to implement vision screening...
November 1994: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
A S Seiderman
Thirty-six children attending a private school for learning disabled children were diagnosed as having visual and/or perceptual disorders. The experimental group received individual programming in visual and perceptual development at their appropriate developmental levels. The control group received instruction in physical education, art or music classes. Both groups received individualized reading assistance. Statistical analysis of the two year demonstration project, which included nine months of actual training, indicated that the experimental group made significant gains in reading as compared to the control group...
May 1980: Journal of the American Optometric Association
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