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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775956/typology-of-new-psychoactive-substance-use-among-the-general-australian-population
#1
Rachel Sutherland, Amy Peacock, Amanda Roxburgh, Monica J Barratt, Lucinda Burns, Raimondo Bruno
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the typology of Australian illicit drug consumers to determine whether those who use new psychoactive substances (NPS) differ from those using other illicit substances. METHODS: Data were from the 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey, a representative population study; analyses were limited to participants reporting past year illicit drug use (including NPS; n = 3309). Latent class analysis identified groups based on past year substance use, and a weighted multivariable, multinomial regression model was used to examine characteristics associated with group membership...
May 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774805/men-s-preconception-health-a-primary-health-care-viewpoint
#2
Anthony Paul O'Brien, John Hurley, Paul Linsley, Karen Anne McNeil, Richard Fletcher, John Robert Aitken
The purpose of this article is to theoretically explore men's preconception health as a mechanism to enhance fertility, as well as the health and well-being of the subject and his descendants. Premorbid risk factors and behaviors associated with stress, environmental toxins, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, lack of exercise/obesity, and the use of illicit drugs are all known to affect fecundity. While there are many health clinics available to women, where advice in areas such as postnatal care of the newborn, family planning, and couples fertility is provided, there are few, if any, equivalent health clinics available to men...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774570/high-mobility-group-box-1-drives-fibrosis-progression-signaling-via-the-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-mice
#3
Xiaodong Ge, Elena Arriazu, Fernando Magdaleno, Daniel J Antoine, Rouchelle Dela Cruz, Neil Theise, Natalia Nieto
BACKGROUND & RATIONALE: High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) increased in response to liver injury. Since HMGB1 is a ligand for the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), we hypothesized that induction of HMGB1 could participate in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis via RAGE cell-specific signaling mechanisms. RESULTS: liver HMGB1 protein expression correlated with fibrosis stage in patients with chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH)...
May 18, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773359/-psychoactive-substances-use-in-r%C3%A3-union-island-and-mayotte-french-departments-in-indian-ocean
#4
Amélie Daveluy, Françoise Haramburu
INTRODUCTION: The government plan for the fight against drugs and addictive behaviors 2013-2017 includes several actions concerning French overseas territories, in particular to strengthen information on drug addiction. The Interministerial mission for combating drugs and addictive behaviors (MILD&CA) has commissioned the Bordeaux addictovigilance center to strengthen exchanges on addictovigilance with Réunion Island and Mayotte and to make an inventory of problematic drug use in these two French departments of Indian Ocean...
February 27, 2018: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773302/experiences-and-perceptions-of-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men-about-acquiring-hiv-a-qualitative-narrative-perspective
#5
Austin Nation, Catherine M Waters, Carol Dawson-Rose
In the United States, Black men who have sex with men (MSM), between the ages of 18 and 34 years, have the highest rates of new HIV infections. The prevalence of HIV in this population is three to four times higher than their White MSM counterparts. Twelve Black MSM from the Bay Area, nine with HIV and three without HIV, were interviewed regarding their experiences and perceived risks of acquiring HIV. Narrative analysis revealed these themes: (a) tested regularly for HIV, (b) HIV knowledge varied before arriving in San Francisco, (c) condom use typically nonexistent when under the influence of alcohol and other drugs, (d) inability to negotiate sex and condom usage, and (e) sense of anticipation, resignation, and acceptance about acquiring HIV...
April 25, 2018: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773209/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-type-2-diabetes-in-insomnia-sufferers-a-study-on-1311-individuals-referred-for-sleep-examinations
#6
Matthieu Hein, Jean-Pol Lanquart, Gwénolé Loas, Philippe Hubain, Paul Linkowski
BACKGROUND: Several studies have investigated the particular relationship between insomnia and type 2 diabetes. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in insomnia sufferers. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors of type 2 diabetes in a large sample of insomnia sufferers. METHODS: Data from 1311 insomnia sufferers recruited from the research database of the Erasme Hospital sleep laboratory were analyzed...
June 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772772/multiplicative-effects-of-social-and-psychological-risk-factors-on-college-students-suicidal-behaviors
#7
Shervin Assari
Less is known about the multiplicative effects of social and psychological risk and protective factors of suicidality on college campuses. The current study aimed to investigate the multiplicative effects of social (identifying oneself as gay/lesbian, financial difficulty, violence victimization, and religiosity) and psychological (anxiety, depression, problem alcohol use, drug use) and risk/protective factors on suicidal behaviors among college students in the United States. Using a cross-sectional design, the Healthy Mind Study (HMS; 2016⁻2017), is a national online survey of college students in the United States...
May 17, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772747/involvement-of-cyp4f2-in-the-metabolism-of-a-novel-monophosphate-ester-prodrug-of-gemcitabine-and-its-interaction-potential-in-vitro
#8
Yedong Wang, Yuan Li, Jia Lu, Huixin Qi, Isabel Cheng, Hongjian Zhang
Compound- 3 is an oral monophosphate prodrug of gemcitabine. Previous data showed that Compound- 3 was more potent than gemcitabine and it was orally active in a tumor xenograft model. In the present study, the metabolism of Compound- 3 was investigated in several well-known in vitro matrices. While relatively stable in human and rat plasma, Compound- 3 demonstrated noticeable metabolism in liver and intestinal microsomes in the presence of NADPH and human hepatocytes. Compound- 3 could also be hydrolyzed by alkaline phosphatase, leading to gemcitabine formation...
May 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772452/epidemiological-aspects-of-drowning-and-non-fatal-drowning-in-the-waters-of-amsterdam
#9
G Reijnen, M van de Westeringh, M C Buster, P J E Vos, U L J Reijnders
We examined who, when, and where people non-fatally drowned of drowned in Amsterdam between January 2011 and December 2015 so that in the future more targeted and effective measures can be taken to prevent drowning. Data on non fatal drownings (N = 515, fire department database) were combined with the forensic medicine data on drowning fatalities (N=88). Who drowns in Amsterdam? The majority of those who drowned were men (82%). A high percentage of the people who drowned were under the influence of alcohol or drugs (up to 55%)...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771782/differential-patterns-of-risk-and-vulnerability-suggest-the-need-for-novel-prevention-strategies-for-black-bisexual-men-in-the-hptn-061-study
#10
Typhanye V Dyer, Maria R Khan, Rotrease Regan, Nina T Harawa, LaRon E Nelson, Leo Wilton, Lei Wang, Lili Peng, San San Ou, Steve Shoptaw
BACKGROUND: Black men who have sex with men (BMSM); some who also have sex with women (BMSMW), account for over 70% of new HIV infections in the US representing an elevated HIV risk in this group, also informing risks for HIV transmission to other BMSM and female sexual partners. SETTINGS: We examined trajectories of self-reported substance use, HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial vulnerabilities among BMSMW versus BMSM over a one-year study period...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771559/body-mass-index-across-adolescence-and-substance-use-problems-in-early-adulthood
#11
Ashley N Gearhardt, Rebecca Waller, Jennifer M Jester, Luke W Hyde, Robert A Zucker
Excessive substance use and obesity are underpinned by a number of shared risk factors (e.g., reward dysfunction, impulsivity). Food and drugs of abuse engage similar reward-related neural circuitry and the food-drug competition hypothesis proposes that excess consumption of food may diminish desire for drugs of abuse by competing for neural receptors associated with reward and motivation. Adolescence is a high-risk period for both increased substance use and excessive weight gain. In the present study, the authors tested whether, consistent with the food-drug competition hypothesis, elevated body mass index (BMI) across adolescence predicted fewer substance use problems in young adulthood...
May 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771124/genistein-ameliorates-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-targeting-thromboxane-a2-pathway
#12
Wenzhe Wang, Junliang Chen, Jinyan Mao, Hongling Li, Mingfu Wang, Hao Zhang, Haitao Li, Wei Chen
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now a public health issue worldwide, but no drug has received approval yet. Genistein, an isoflavonoid derived from soybean, ameliorates high fat diet-induced NAFLD in mice, but the molecular underpinnings remain largely elusive. Arachidonic acid is a major ingredient of animal fats, and arachidonic acid cascade has been implicated in chronic inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether genistein against NAFLD by targeting arachidonic acid cascade. By using a mouse model, we showed that genistein supplementation improved high-fat diet induced NAFLD by normalizing hepatomegaly, liver steatosis, aminotransferase abnormalities and glucose tolerance...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770947/when-marijuana-is-used-before-cigarettes-or-alcohol-demographic-predictors-and-associations-with-heavy-use-cannabis-use-disorder-and-other-drug-related-outcomes
#13
Brian J Fairman, C Debra Furr-Holden, Renee M Johnson
Recent loosening of state and federal policy restrictions on marijuana, along with changes in social norms regarding marijuana use and decreases in prevalence of other types of substance use, may lead to increases in youth initiating marijuana before other types of substances such as alcohol and tobacco. We investigated predictors and potential consequences of initiating marijuana before other drugs for youth aged 12-21-years in the USA. Nationally representative, cross-sectional survey data from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health supplied self-reported age of first marijuana, cigarettes, alcohol, other tobacco, and other illegal drug use among 12-21-year-old samples from 2004 to 2014 (n = 275,559)...
May 17, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770511/liver-enzyme-abnormalities-of-inpatients-with-rheumatic-diseases-a-10-year-retrospective-study-in-a-korean-medicine-hospital
#14
Hyeonhoon Lee, Seunghoon Lee, Jung Won Kang, Jae-Dong Lee
Herbal medicines have been used as a treatment option for rheumatic disease (RD), but they often produce liver enzyme abnormality. This study examines the incidence of herb-induced liver injury (HILI) and the relationship between risk factors and liver enzyme abnormality (LEA) in inpatients with RD. HILI was analyzed using the Roussel Uclaf causality assessment method liver injury criteria and causality assessment. Multivariable analysis was performed to assess the relationship between patient characteristics and LEA in RD...
May 16, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769804/prevalence-of-alcohol-tobacco-cannabis-and-other-illicit-substance-use-in-a-population-of-canadian-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-compared-to-a-general-adolescent-population
#15
Kathryn Potter, Paola Luca, Danièle Pacaud, Heidi Virtanen, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Laura Kaminsky, Josephine Ho
Background: Youth with chronic conditions may engage in risky behaviour to the same, if not higher, degree as their healthy peers. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and illicit substance use in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) compared to a general adolescent population. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of adolescents with T1DM (13 to 18 years). A published contemporary Canadian youth survey on use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs was used as data representative of the general adolescent population...
May 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769185/unusual-case-of-iron-overload-with-cancer-mimicking-abdominal-splenosis
#16
Giacomo Marchi, Giacomo Avesani, Alberto Zamò, Domenico Girelli
A 48-year-old man, former alcohol abuser and drug addicted, was referred to our tertiary referral centre for iron disorders because of marked hyperferritinaemia. His clinical history revealed chronic hepatitis C, ß-thalassaemia trait and post-traumatic splenectomy at age of 22. MRI-estimated liver iron content was markedly elevated, while first-line genetic test for haemochromatosis was negative. Alpha-fetoprotein was increased but liver ultrasonography did not reveal focal liver lesions. Multiphasic contrast-enhanced CT confirmed this result but showed two abdominal masses (diameter of 9 cm and 7 cm, respectively) among bowel loops, strongly suspicious for cancer...
May 16, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768586/gender-stereotypes-in-psychosocial-care-for-female-crack-and-powder-cocaine-users
#17
Érika Barbosa de Oliveira Silva, Adriana Lenho de Figueiredo Pereira, Lúcia Helena Garcia Penna
The study analyzed health professionals' conceptions toward female users of crack and powder cocaine currently receiving psychosocial care, based on a gender perspective. Seventeen health professionals were interviewed, and systematic observations were made of the spaces for collective care in a Center for Psychosocial Care specializing in alcohol and drug addiction in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Analysis of the interviews and field diaries using the hermeneutic-dialectic method revealed three categories: frailty as a constitutive attribute of women's condition, the women's emotional addiction to crack and powder cocaine use, and gender stereotypes during psychosocial care...
May 10, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768070/web-based-intervention-to-reduce-substance-abuse-and-depression-a-three-arm-randomized-trial-in-mexico
#18
Marcela Tiburcio, Ma Asunción Lara, Nora Martínez, Morise Fernández, Araceli Aguilar
BACKGROUND: Web-based cognitive-behavioral interventions to reduce substance use can be a useful low-cost treatment for a large number of people, and an attractive option in countries where a greater availability of treatment is needed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and initial effectiveness of a web-based cognitive-behavioral intervention for the reduction of substance use and depression compared with treatment as usual, with and without a printed self-help manual...
May 16, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767522/traceless-release-of-alcohols-using-thiol-sensitive-oxanorbornadiene-linkers
#19
Allison G Aioub, Cody J Higginson, M G Finn
A class of ester-amide oxanorbornadiene (EA-OND) molecules was developed to release alcohol cargos by succinimide formation upon addition of a thiol reagent. The resulting ring-closed adducts undergo further fragmentation by retro-Diels-Alder reaction to release a furan moiety in a manner similar to oxanorbornadiene diesters. The rates of each of these fragmentation pathways in the same medium were found to be sensitive to the steric nature of the amide substituent. Alcohol release was much faster in protic solvents than in aprotic ones, suggesting that this system may be useful for rapid response to thiols in biological environments...
May 16, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766143/when-should-screening-of-pediatric-trauma-patients-for-adult-behaviors-start
#20
Adrian A Maung, Robert D Becher, Kevin M Schuster, Kimberly A Davis
Background: Care of patients with trauma is not only limited to the sustained physical injuries but also requires addressing social issues, such as substance abuse and interpersonal violence, which are responsible for trauma-related recidivism. This study investigates whether there are age-related variations in these problematic social behaviors to analyze whether there is an age cut-off at which point adolescents should be screened for adult social behaviors. Methods: Retrospective review of patients with trauma aged 12-21 admitted to an urban Level 1 adult and pediatric trauma center between February 2013 and April 2016...
2018: Trauma surgery & acute care open
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