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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636893/controlled-release-from-aspirin-based-linear-biodegradable-poly-anhydride-esters-for-anti-inflammatory-activity
#1
Queeny Dasgupta, Sahitya Movva, Kaushik Chatterjee, Giridhar Madras
This work reports the synthesis of a novel, aspirin-loaded, linear poly (anhydride ester) and provides mechanistic insights into the release of aspirin from this polymer for anti-inflammatory activity. As compared to conventional drug delivery systems that rely on diffusion based release, incorporation of bioactives in the polymer backbone is challenging and high loading is difficult to achieve. In the present study, we exploit the pentafunctional sugar alcohol (xylitol) to provide sites for drug (aspirin) attachment at its non-terminal OH groups...
June 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636875/effects-of-prenatal-binge-like-ethanol-exposure-and-maternal-stress-on-postnatal-morphological-development-of-hippocampal-neurons-in-rats
#2
Ewa Jakubowska-Dogru, Birsen Elibol, Ilknur Dursun, Sinan Yürüker
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is one of the most commonly used drugs of abuse negatively affecting human health and it is known as a potent teratogen responsible for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is characterized by cognitive deficits especially pronounced in juveniles but ameliorating in adults. Searching for the potential morphological correlates of these effects, in this study, we compared the course of developmental changes in the morphology of principal hippocampal neurons in fetal-alcohol (A group), intubated control (IC group), and intact control male rats (C group) over a protracted period of the first two postnatal months...
June 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635324/gliptins-suppress-inflammatory-macrophage-activation-to-mitigate-inflammation-fibrosis-oxidative-stress-and-vascular-dysfunction-in-models-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-liver-fibrosis
#3
Xiaoyu Wang, Michael Hausding, Shih-Yen Weng, Yong Ook Kim, Sebastian Steven, Thomas Klein, Andreas Daiber, Detlef Schuppan
AIMS: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by steatosis, panlobular inflammation, liver fibrosis and increased cardiovascular mortality. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) are indirect glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists with antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activity, used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Their potential and underlying mechanisms to treat metabolic liver inflammation and fibrosis as well as the associated vascular dysfunction remain to be explored...
June 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634840/self-inflicted-abdominal-stab-wounds-have-a-higher-rate-of-non-therapeutic-laparotomy-laparoscopy-and-a-lower-risk-of-injury
#4
Nikolay Bugaev, Kevin McKay, Janis L Breeze, Sandra S Arabian, Reuven Rabinovici
BACKGROUND: The profile and management of self-inflicted abdominal stab wounds (SI-ASW) patients is still obscure. METHODS: The National Trauma Data Bank (2012) was queried for adults with abdominal stab wounds (n = 9544). Patients with SI-ASW (n = 1724) and non-SI-ASW (n = 7820) were compared. Predictors for non-therapeutic laparotomy/laparoscopy (non-TL) in SI-ASW patients were identified. RESULTS: SI-ASW patients were older, had more females and behavioral disorders, similar physiology, but a lower Injury Severity Score...
June 20, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633998/changes-in-risk-behaviours-during-and-following-treatment-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-people-who-inject-drugs-the-activate-study
#5
Håvard Midgard, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Evan B Cunningham, Brian Conway, Markus Backmund, Philip Bruggmann, Julie Bruneau, Stefan Bourgeois, Adrian Dunlop, Graham R Foster, Margaret Hellard, Geert Robaeys, Maria C Thurnheer, Martin Weltman, Janaki Amin, Philippa S Marks, Sophie Quiene, Gregory J Dore, Olav Dalgard, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND: The risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) reinfection due to continued injecting risk behaviours might remain a barrier to HCV treatment among people who inject drugs. We aimed to evaluate changes in risk behaviours during and following HCV treatment among people with ongoing injecting drug use or receiving opioid substitution treatment (OST). METHODS: ACTIVATE was an international multicentre clinical trial conducted between 2012 and 2014. Participants with HCV genotypes 2/3 infection were treated with peg-interferon/ribavirin for 12 or 24 weeks and completed a self-administered behavioural questionnaire at each study visit...
June 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633956/a-time-adjustable-pulsatile-release-system-for-ketoprofen-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-investigation-in-a-pharmacokinetic-study-and-an-ivivc-evaluation
#6
Haiying Wang, Lizhen Cheng, Haoyang Wen, Caiyan Li, Yuenan Li, Xiaoyu Zhang, Yongfei Wang, Yanyan Wang, Tuanjie Wang, Weisan Pan, Xinggang Yang
A time-adjustable pulsatile release system (TAPS) containing ketoprofen (KF) as an active pharmaceutical agent was developed having been designed for bedtime dosing and releasing drug in the early morning to control the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The formulation involved a tablet core (KF) and a control-release layer, and the coating membrane was composed of EC and Eudragit L100. A single-factor study, a central composite design and a response surface method were selected to optimize the formula and the optimum prescription was as follows: tablet core (KF 50mg, MCC 70mg, lactose 40mg, L-HPC 38mg), and film (EC 7...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633318/evaluation-of-oral-fluid-as-a-specimen-for-duid
#7
Allison M Veitenheimer, Jarrad R Wagner
Drugged driving has become more prevalent than drunk driving and is quickly gaining national attention due to increased prescription drug abuse and recent cannabis legalization. Unlike alcohol, police officers do not generally have access to approved devices to screen for drugs at the roadside. Onsite drug screening devices do exist and are used in other countries, but have not garnered widespread approval for use in the United States in driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) cases. One reason for this is that the devices are designed to test oral fluid, which is not a commonly accepted specimen for DUID...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632097/the-moderating-effect-of-neighborhood-sense-of-community-on-predictors-of-substance-use-among-hispanic-urban-youth
#8
David T Lardier, Marisa MacDonnell, Veronica R Barrios, Pauline Garcia-Reid, Robert J Reid
Hispanic adolescents represent a disproportionate number of youth living in urban communities. These youth confront significant social problems that increase their likelihood for substance use. However, youth that have a greater neighborhood sense of community are postulated, through empowerment theory, to be less influenced by negative environmental experiences and less inclined to engage in drug and alcohol use. We examine the moderating effect neighborhood SOC has on predictors of substance use among Hispanic (N = 538) urban youth in low- (n = 246) and high-conflict homes (n = 292)...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632074/isopropyl-alcohol-swabs-as-a-preferred-substance-of-abuse
#9
Aditi Sharma, Jonathan D Morrow
The authors describe the treatment of a 36-year-old woman who presented with excessive consumption of antiseptic alcohol swabs. Her behavior was diagnosed as a severe substance use disorder with isopropyl alcohol as the primary drug of choice. Diagnostic and treatment challenges involved in the case are discussed in detail, with particular focus on the differential diagnosis for this unusual presentation, including obsessive compulsive disorder, pica, and intentional self-injurious behavior. A brief review of the literature on non-ethanol ingestion for the purposes of intoxication is included, as well as clinical information about the potential dangers posed by isopropyl alcohol consumption...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631584/clinical-characterization-of-italian-suicide-attempters-with-bipolar-disorder
#10
Bernardo Dell'Osso, Matteo Vismara, Cristina Dobrea, Laura Cremaschi, Benedetta Grancini, Chiara Arici, Beatrice Benatti, Massimiliano Buoli, Terence A Ketter, A Carlo Altamura
Introduction Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic, highly disabling condition associated with psychiatric/medical comorbidity and substantive morbidity, mortality, and suicide risks. In prior reports, varying parameters have been associated with suicide risk. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate sociodemographic and clinical variables characterizing Italian individuals with BD with versus without prior suicide attempt (PSA). METHODS: A sample of 362 Italian patients categorized as BD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM IV-TR) was assessed and divided in 2 subgroups: with and without PSA...
June 20, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629984/the-contribution-of-the-in-vivo-fate-of-an-oil-depot-to-drug-absorption
#11
R W Kalicharan, C Oussoren, P Schot, E de Rijk, H Vromans
Sustained release of lipophilic compounds can be achieved with oil depots. These parenteral formulations are generally injected in the vastus lateralis and deltoid muscle. It is known that the absorption rate differs between these two muscles. The reason for this is not fully understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the fate of an oil depot in different tissues to elucidate whether the disappearance rate of oil is the cause of observed differences in absorption rate. A study with healthy volunteers was conducted to determine 1...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629367/african-american-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-expression-profile-reveals-dysregulation-of-stress-response-and-detox-networks
#12
Hayriye Verda Erkizan, Kory Johnson, Svetlana Ghimbovschi, Deepa Karkera, Gregory Trachiotis, Houtan Adib, Eric P Hoffman, Robert G Wadleigh
BACKGROUND: Esophageal carcinoma is the third most common gastrointestinal malignancy worldwide and is largely unresponsive to therapy. African-Americans have an increased risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the subtype that shows marked variation in geographic frequency. The molecular architecture of African-American ESCC is still poorly understood. It is unclear why African-American ESCC is more aggressive and the survival rate in these patients is worse than those of other ethnic groups...
June 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629185/leptadenia-reticulata-retz-wight-arn-jivanti-botanical-agronomical-phytochemical-pharmacological-and-biotechnological-aspects
#13
REVIEW
Sudipta Kumar Mohanty, Mallappa Kumara Swamy, Uma Rani Sinniah, Maniyam Anuradha
Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight & Arn. (Apocynaceae), is a traditional medicinal plant species widely used to treat various ailments such as tuberculosis, hematopoiesis, emaciation, cough, dyspnea, fever, burning sensation, night blindness, cancer, and dysentery. In Ayurveda, it is known for its revitalizing, rejuvenating, and lactogenic properties. This plant is one of the major ingredients in many commercial herbal formulations, including Speman, Envirocare, Calshakti, Antisept, and Chyawanprash. The therapeutic potential of this herb is because of the presence of diverse bioactive compounds such as α-amyrin, β-amyrin, ferulic acid, luteolin, diosmetin, rutin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, hentricontanol, a triterpene alcohol simiarenol, apigenin, reticulin, deniculatin, and leptaculatin...
June 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629035/sodium-alginate-polyvinyl-alcohol-bovin-serum-albumin-coated-fe3o4-nanoparticles-as-anticancer-drug-delivery-vehicle-doxorubicin-loading-and-in-vitro-release-study-and-cytotoxicity-to-hepg2-and-l02-cells
#14
G Prabha, V Raj
The challenging part of this work was to research the potential aspects of sodium alginate (SA)-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-bovin serum albumin (BSA) coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4-SA-PVA-BSA) as a drug delivery system for doxorubicin (DOX). The anticancer drug doxorubicin was selected as a model drug which is powerful for numerous cancer treatments. Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method. The mixture solution of Fe3O4-sodium alginate (SA) - doxorubicin (DOX) was crosslinked with Ca(2+) to form (Fe3O4-SA-DOX) nanoparticles and addition of PVA and BSA with (Fe3O4-SA-DOX) nanoparticles was prepared by coating procedure...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628397/culturally-informed-interventions-for-substance-abuse-among-indigenous-youth-in-the-united-states-a-review
#15
Jessica Liddell, Catherine E Burnette
PURPOSE: Given the disproportionately high levels of alcohol and other drug abuse among Indigenous youth in the United States, the purpose of this systematic review was to explicate the current state of empirically-based and culturally-informed substance abuse prevention and intervention programs for Indigenous youth (ages 9-18). METHOD: The 14 articles that met inclusion criteria for this review were analyzed both in terms of the cultural intervention itself (primary population, intervention, core tenants, focus of intervention, intervention goals, location, intervention location, and program length) and their evaluation approach...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627914/group-motivational-interviewing-for-homeless-young-adults-associations-of-change-talk-with-substance-use-and-sexual-risk-behavior
#16
Elizabeth J D'Amico, Jon M Houck, Joan S Tucker, Brett A Ewing, Eric R Pedersen
Homeless young adults exhibit high rates of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and sexual risk behaviors. This study is a secondary analysis of data collected in a randomized clinical trial of AWARE, a new 4 session group motivational interviewing intervention. AWARE mainly focused on alcohol use and sexual risk behavior given focus group feedback. We used sequential coding to analyze how the group process affected both AOD use and sexual risk behavior at 3-month follow up among homeless young adults by examining facilitator behavior and participant change talk (CT) and sustain talk (ST)...
June 19, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627903/predictors-of-substance-use-in-youth-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#17
Franco Scalzo, Carol A Hulbert, Jennifer K Betts, Sue M Cotton, Andrew M Chanen
Concomitant substance misuse in adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with a more severe course of illness and poorer outcomes. Previous research has found an association between the number of borderline personality features and substance misuse in community samples. This study examined the relationship between substance use and severity of BPD in youth presenting for the first time for treatment (first presentation) of BPD. Participants were 117 help-seeking youth aged 15-25 years (93 females; Mage = 19...
June 19, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627395/the-opioid-epidemic-is-an-historic-opportunity-to-improve-both-prevention-and-treatment
#18
Robert L DuPont
The current narrative describing the national opioid epidemic as the result of overprescribing opioid pain medicines fails to capture the full dimensions of problem and leads to inadequate and even confounding solutions. Overlooked is the fact that polysubstance use is nearly ubiquitous among overdose deaths, demonstrating that the opioid overdose death problem is bigger than opioids. The foundation of the nation's opioid overdose crisis - and the totality of the nation's drug epidemic - is widespread recreational pharmacology, the use of drugs for fun or "self-medication...
June 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626835/disrupted-er-to-golgi-trafficking-underlies-anti-hiv-drugs-and-alcohol-induced-cellular-stress-and-hepatic-injury
#19
Hui Han, Yuxin He, Jay Hu, Rhema Lau, Harrison Lee, Cheng Ji
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) are involved in anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drugs and alcohol-induced liver disease in a significant number of patients infected with HIV. However, the precise mechanism by which the drugs and alcohol cause ER stress remains elusive. We found that ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (RL) activated two canonical UPR branches without activation of the third canonical activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) branch in either HepG2 cells or primary mouse hepatocytes...
April 2017: Hepatol Commun
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626480/development-of-dry-powder-inhaler-containing-tadalafil-loaded-plga-nanoparticles
#20
Jaleh Varshosaz, Somayeh Taymouri, Hamed Hamishehkar, Razieh Vatankhah, Shadi Yaghubi
Inhalable dry powders containing poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) were developed for the delivery of tadalafil (TAD) for treatment of life-treating pulmonary arterial hypertension. Taguchi design was employed to evaluate the effects of different formulation variables on the physicochemical characteristics of PLGA-NPs prepared using emulsion solvent evaporation method. Inhalable PLGA-NPs of TAD were successfully prepared by co-spray drying the PLGA-NPs with inert carriers. Physicochemical characteristics and in vitro deposition of the aerosolized drug were also evaluated...
June 2017: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
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