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Mechanism secretion of mucus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908847/homeostasis-of-the-gut-barrier-and-potential-biomarkers
#1
Jerry M Wells, Robert J Brummer, Muriel Derrien, Thomas T MacDonald, Freddy Troost, Patrice D Cani, Vassilia Theodorou, Jan Dekker, Agnes Méheust, Willem M de Vos, Annick Mercenier, Arjen Nauta, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
The gut barrier plays a crucial role by spatially compartmentalizing bacteria to the lumen through the production of secreted mucus and is fortified by the production of sIgA and antimicrobial peptides and proteins. With exception of sIgA the expression of these protective barrier factors is largely controlled by innate immune recognition of microbial molecular ligands. Several specialized adaptations and checkpoints are operating in the mucosa to scale the immune response according to the threat and prevent overreaction to the trillions of symbionts inhabiting the human intestine...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888644/myrtol-standardized-affects-mucociliary-clearance
#2
Ying Ying Li, Jing Liu, Chun Wei Li, Somasundaram Subramaniam, Siew Shuen Chao, Feng Gang Yu, Noam A Cohen, Shi Li, Yun Wang
BACKGROUND: Myrtol standardized (Gelomyrtol forte) has been shown to be effective in controlling nasal symptoms of rhinosinusitis by promoting mucociliary clearance. Our aim was to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of myrtol on ciliated columnar cells and goblet cells in an in-vitro setting. METHODS: Nasal epithelial cells were harvested (42 days) from an air-liquid interface (ALI) culture of human nasal epithelial stem/progenitor cells (hNESPCs), which was derived from biopsies of nasal inferior turbinate mucosa...
November 26, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865862/impaired-mucus-clearance-exacerbates-allergen-induced-type-2-airway-inflammation-in-juvenile-mice
#3
Benedikt Fritzsching, Matthias Hagner, Lu Dai, Sandra Christochowitz, Raman Agrawal, Charlotte van Bodegom, Simone Schmidt, Jolanthe Schatterny, Stephanie Hirtz, Ryan Brown, Michelle Goritzka, Julia Duerr, Zhe Zhou-Suckow, Marcus A Mall
BACKGROUND: Type 2 airway inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of allergen-induced asthma, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We recently demonstrated that reduced mucociliary clearance, a characteristic feature of asthma, produces spontaneous type 2 airway inflammation in juvenile Scnn1b-transgenic (Scnn1b-Tg) mice. OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of impaired mucus clearance in the pathogenesis of allergen-induced type 2 airway inflammation and identify cellular sources of the signature cytokine IL-13...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863247/a-dietary-fiber-deprived-gut-microbiota-degrades-the-colonic-mucus-barrier-and-enhances-pathogen-susceptibility
#4
Mahesh S Desai, Anna M Seekatz, Nicole M Koropatkin, Nobuhiko Kamada, Christina A Hickey, Mathis Wolter, Nicholas A Pudlo, Sho Kitamoto, Nicolas Terrapon, Arnaud Muller, Vincent B Young, Bernard Henrissat, Paul Wilmes, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck, Gabriel Núñez, Eric C Martens
Despite the accepted health benefits of consuming dietary fiber, little is known about the mechanisms by which fiber deprivation impacts the gut microbiota and alters disease risk. Using a gnotobiotic mouse model, in which animals were colonized with a synthetic human gut microbiota composed of fully sequenced commensal bacteria, we elucidated the functional interactions between dietary fiber, the gut microbiota, and the colonic mucus barrier, which serves as a primary defense against enteric pathogens. We show that during chronic or intermittent dietary fiber deficiency, the gut microbiota resorts to host-secreted mucus glycoproteins as a nutrient source, leading to erosion of the colonic mucus barrier...
November 17, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825045/therapeutic-effects-of-rosmarinic-acid-on-airway-responses-in-a-murine-model-of-asthma
#5
Zhengmin Liang, Haiying Nie, Yangfeng Xu, Jianbo Peng, Yun Zeng, Yingyi Wei, Xuemei Wen, Jiaming Qiu, Weiting Zhong, Xuming Deng, Jiakang He
Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an active component of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Previously, we reported that RA exerted a strong anti-inflammatory effect in a mouse acute lung injury model. Therefore, we hypothesized that RA might also have potential therapeutic effects in a murine model of asthma. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-asthmatic activity of RA and explored its possible molecular mechanisms of action. Female BALB/c mice that had been sensitized to and challenged with ovalbumin (Ova) were treated with RA (20mg/kg) 1h after challenge...
November 5, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799314/il-27-is-essential-for-suppression-of-experimental-allergic-asthma-by-the-tlr7-8-agonist-r848-resiquimod
#6
Adan Chari Jirmo, Kathleen Daluege, Christine Happle, Melanie Albrecht, Anna-Maria Dittrich, Mandy Busse, Anika Habener, Jelena Skuljec, Gesine Hansen
Different models of experimental allergic asthma have shown that the TLR7/8 agonist resiquimod (R848) is a potential inhibitor of type 2 helper cell-driven inflammatory responses. However, the mechanisms mediating its therapeutic effects are not fully understood. Using a model of experimental allergic asthma, we show that induction of IL-27 by R848 is critical for the observed ameliorative effects. R848 significantly inhibited all hallmarks of experimental allergic asthma, including airway hyperreactivity, eosinophilic airway inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and Ag-specific Ig production...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794589/tilianin-inhibits-muc5ac-expression-mediated-via-down-regulation-of-egfr-mek-erk-sp1-signaling-pathway-in-nci-h292-human-airway-cells
#7
Won-Yong Song, Yong-Seok Song, Hyung Won Ryu, Sei-Ryang Oh, JinTae Hong, Do-Young Yoon
In human airway, mucus exists to protect respiratory system as a primary barrier of innate immune system. However, hyper-expressed mucus limits airflow, resulting in decrease of lung function. Among more than 20 mucin family, MUC5AC and MUC5B are major glycoproteins in human airway mucus. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is one of the mechanisms of these mucins expression and Specificity protein-1 (Sp1) transcription factor is the downstream signal of this pathway, playing pivotal roles in mucin expression...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786259/goblet-cell-hyperplasia-requires-high-bicarbonate-transport-to-support-mucin-release
#8
Giulia Gorrieri, Paolo Scudieri, Emanuela Caci, Marco Schiavon, Valeria Tomati, Francesco Sirci, Francesco Napolitano, Diego Carrella, Ambra Gianotti, Ilaria Musante, Maria Favia, Valeria Casavola, Lorenzo Guerra, Federico Rea, Roberto Ravazzolo, Diego Di Bernardo, Luis J V Galietta
Goblet cell hyperplasia, a feature of asthma and other respiratory diseases, is driven by the Th-2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. In human bronchial epithelial cells, we find that IL-4 induces the expression of many genes coding for ion channels and transporters, including TMEM16A, SLC26A4, SLC12A2, and ATP12A. At the functional level, we find that IL-4 enhances calcium- and cAMP-activated chloride/bicarbonate secretion, resulting in high bicarbonate concentration and alkaline pH in the fluid covering the apical surface of epithelia...
October 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780710/the-effects-of-baicalein-on-gastric-mucosal-ulcerations-in-mice-protective-pathways-and-anti-secretory-mechanisms
#9
Ana Roseli S Ribeiro, José Diego do Nascimento Valença, Jeferson da Silva Santos, Thaise Boeing, Luisa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade, Ricardo L C Albuquerque-Júnior, Sara Maria Thomazzi
Many flavonoids have been shown to present good results for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Baicalein, a bioactive flavonoid derived from the Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi root, possesses several biological effects, such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. This study was conducted to assess the gastroprotective properties of baicalein. Anti-ulcerogenic assay was performed using the protocol of ulcer induced by ethanol/HCl in mice; then, the role of presynaptic α2-receptors, sulfhydryl (SH) compounds, nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) and ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels in gastroprotection of baicalein was investigated...
October 22, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765607/gastroprotective-activity-of-the-rhizome-ethanol-extract-of-zingiber-simaoense-y-y-qian-in-rats
#10
Pareeya Baiubon, Puongtip Kunanusorn, Parirat Khonsung, Natthakarn Chiranthanut, Ampai Panthong, Chaiyong Rujjanawate
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Zingiber simaoense Y. Y. Qian belongs to the Zingiberaceae family. Its rhizome has been used in Thai folk medicine to relieve gastric disorders; however, scientific evidence of its pharmacological activities has not yet been revealed. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was designed to validate the gastroprotective activity and to identify possible mechanisms of gastroprotection of Z. simaoense rhizome ethanol extract (ZSE) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The gastroprotective effect of ZSE was tested using models of gastric ulcers induced by acidified ethanol, indomethacin, and restraint water immersion stress...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713730/high-iron-sequestrating-bifidobacteria-inhibit-enteropathogen-growth-and-adhesion-to-intestinal-epithelial-cells-in-vitro
#11
Pamela Vazquez-Gutierrez, Tomas de Wouters, Julia Werder, Christophe Chassard, Christophe Lacroix
The gut microbiota plays an important role in host health, in particular by its barrier effect and competition with exogenous pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the competition of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum PV8-2 (Bp PV8-2) and Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense PV20-2 (Bk PV20-2), isolated from anemic infant gut microbiota and selected for their high iron sequestration properties, was investigated against Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhi) and Escherichia coli O157:H45 (EHEC) by using co-culture tests and assays with intestinal cell lines...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682581/mucous-secretion-and-cilia-beating-defend-developing-coral-larvae-from-suspended-sediments
#12
Gerard F Ricardo, Ross J Jones, Peta L Clode, Andrew P Negri
Suspended sediments produced from dredging activities, or added to the sediment budget via river runoff, are a concern for marine resource managers. Understanding the impact of suspended sediments on critical life history stages of keystone species like corals is fundamental to effective management of coastlines and reefs. Coral embryos (Acropora tenuis and A. millepora) and larvae (A. tenuis, A. millepora and Pocillopora acuta) were subjected to a range of suspended sediment concentrations of different sediment types (siliciclastic and carbonate) to assess concentration-response relationships on ecologically relevant endpoints, including survivorship and ability to metamorphose...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650225/lubiprostone-accelerates-intestinal-transit-and-alleviates-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-in-patients-with-chronic-constipation
#13
Irene Sarosiek, Mohammad Bashashati, Alicia Alvarez, Mark Hall, Nagasri Shankar, Yvette Gomez, Richard W McCallum, Jerzy Sarosiek
BACKGROUND: Lubiprostone is an effective treatment for chronic constipation (CC). The mechanism of action of lubiprostone is through increasing fluid secretion and lubrication of the intestinal lumen. The effects of lubiprostone on gastrointestinal transit and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) have not been adequately explored. The current study was designed to investigate whether lubiprostone (1) alters gastrointestinal transit and (2) affects SIBO in patients with constipation...
September 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637004/a-critical-evaluation-of-anti-il-13-and-anti-il-4-strategies-in-severe-asthma
#14
Diego Bagnasco, Matteo Ferrando, Gilda Varricchi, Giovanni Passalacqua, Giorgio Walter Canonica
Asthma is a high-prevalence disease, still accounting for mortality and high direct and indirect costs. It is now recognized that, despite the implementation of guidelines, a large proportion of cases remain not controlled. Certainly, adherence to therapy and the education of patients remain the primary objective, but the increasingly detailed knowledge about the pathogenic mechanisms and new biotechnologies offer the opportunity to better address and treat the disease. Interleukin (IL)-13 and IL-4 appear as the most suitable targets to treat the T helper 2 (TH2)-mediated forms (endotypes) of asthma...
2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625638/the-role-of-bacterial-secretion-systems-in-the-virulence-of-gram-negative-airway-pathogens-associated-with-cystic-fibrosis
#15
REVIEW
Sofie Depluverez, Simon Devos, Bart Devreese
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal inherited disorder in Caucasians. It is caused by mutation of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. A defect in the CFTR ion channel causes a dramatic change in the composition of the airway surface fluid, leading to a highly viscous mucus layer. In healthy individuals, the majority of bacteria trapped in the mucus layer are removed and destroyed by mucociliary clearance. However, in the lungs of patients with CF, the mucociliary clearance is impaired due to dehydration of the airway surface fluid...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624630/cough-augmentation-techniques-in-the-critically-ill-a-canadian-national-survey
#16
Louise Rose, Neill K Adhikari, Joseph Poon, David Leasa, Douglas A McKim
BACKGROUND: Critically ill mechanically ventilated patients experience impaired airway clearance due to ineffective cough and impaired secretion mobilization. Cough augmentation techniques, including mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E), manually assisted cough, and lung volume recruitment, improve cough efficiency. Our objective was to describe use, indications, contraindications, interfaces, settings, complications, and barriers to use across Canada. METHODS: An e-mail survey was sent to nominated local survey champions in eligible Canadian units (ICUs, weaning centers, and intermediate care units) with 4 telephone/e-mail reminders...
October 2016: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588910/interleukin-13-stimulates-muc5ac-expression-via-a-stat6-tmem16a-erk1-2-pathway-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#17
Yanling Qin, Youfan Jiang, Awais Shafiq Sheikh, Shanshan Shen, Jing Liu, Depeng Jiang
Transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A), a channel underlying the calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) currents, has been shown to be a key regulator of mucus overproduction in airway epithelial cells. However, the precise molecular mechanism involved in the TMEM16A-mediated mucus secretion remains unclear. In the present study, we inquired into a novel signaling mechanism for TMEM16A driving mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) production in human airway epithelial cells. Following treatment for 24-48h with type 13 interleukin (IL-13), an upregulation of TMEM16A expression in both mRNA and protein levels was observed in human bronchial epithelial cell line (HBE16), while signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) inhibition could decrease this elevated expression, suggesting that the regulation of TMEM16A expression by IL-13 was via a STAT6-based transcriptional mechanism...
August 30, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535564/micropatterned-endotracheal-tubes-reduce-secretion-related-lumen-occlusion
#18
Ethan E Mann, Chelsea M Magin, M Ryan Mettetal, Rhea M May, MiKayla M Henry, Heather DeLoid, Justin Prater, Lauren Sullivan, John G Thomas, Mark D Twite, Albert E Parker, Anthony B Brennan, Shravanthi T Reddy
Tracheal intubation disrupts physiological homeostasis of secretion production and clearance, resulting in secretion accumulation within endotracheal tubes (ETTs). Novel in vitro and in vivo models were developed to specifically recapitulate the clinical manifestations of ETT occlusion. The novel Sharklet™ micropatterned ETT was evaluated, using these models, for the ability to reduce the accumulation of both bacterial biofilm and airway mucus compared to a standard care ETT. Novel ETTs with micropattern on the inner and outer surfaces were placed adjacent to standard care ETTs in in vitro biofilm and airway patency (AP) models...
December 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498766/immunological-aspects-of-intestinal-mucus-and-mucins
#19
Malin E V Johansson, Gunnar C Hansson
A number of mechanisms ensure that the intestine is protected from pathogens and also against our own intestinal microbiota. The outermost of these is the secreted mucus, which entraps bacteria and prevents their translocation into the tissue. Mucus contains many immunomodulatory molecules and is largely produced by the goblet cells. These cells are highly responsive to the signals they receive from the immune system and are also able to deliver antigens from the lumen to dendritic cells in the lamina propria...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487076/outer-membrane-vesicles-from-the-probiotic-escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-and-the-commensal-ecor12-enter-intestinal-epithelial-cells-via-clathrin-dependent-endocytosis-and-elicit-differential-effects-on-dna-damage
#20
María-Alexandra Cañas, Rosa Giménez, María-José Fábrega, Lorena Toloza, Laura Baldomà, Josefa Badia
Interactions between intestinal microbiota and the human host are complex. The gut mucosal surface is covered by a mucin layer that prevents bacteria from accessing the epithelial cells. Thus, the crosstalk between microbiota and the host mainly rely on secreted factors that can go through the mucus layer and reach the epithelium. In this context, vesicles released by commensal strains are seen as key players in signaling processes in the intestinal mucosa. Studies with Gram-negative pathogens showed that outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are internalized into the host cell by endocytosis, but the entry mechanism for microbiota-derived vesicles is unknown...
2016: PloS One
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