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Mechanism secretion of mucus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126792/in-vivo-cellular-and-molecular-gastroprotective-mechanisms-of-chrysin-emphasis-on-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-angiogenesis
#1
Mina Y George, Ahmed Esmat, Mariane G Tadros, Ebtehal El-Demerdash
Gastric ulcer is one of the major gastrointestinal disorders affecting people worldwide. Despite medical advances, management of gastric ulcer and its complications remains a challenge facing medicine nowadays. In addition, currently available medicines exhibit limited efficacy and several side effects. In the current study, the potential protective effects of chrysin -naturally occurring flavonoid- were tested against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. It was found that chrysin in both doses; 50 and 100mg/kg were effective in promoting mucus secretion and preventing the rise in ulcer and lesion indices, acid production and histologic changes induced by indomethacin...
November 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108861/a-slippery-slope-on-the-origin-role-and-physiology-of-mucus
#2
Farhan Taherali, Felipe Varum, Abdul W Basit
The mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, eyes, nose, lungs, cervix and vagina is lined by epithelium interspersed with mucus-secreting goblet cells, all of which contribute to their unique functions. This mucus provides an integral defence to the epithelium against noxious agents and pathogens. However, it can equally act as a barrier to drugs and delivery systems targeting epithelial passive and active transport mechanisms. This review highlights the various mucins expressed at different mucosal surfaces on the human body, and their role in creating a mucoid architecture to protect epithelia with specialized functions...
November 3, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102290/ion-channels-as-targets-to-treat-cystic-fibrosis-lung-disease
#3
S Lorraine Martin, Vinciane Saint-Criq, Tzyh-Chang Hwang, László Csanády
Lung health relies on effective mucociliary clearance and innate immune defence mechanisms. In cystic fibrosis (CF), an imbalance in ion transport due to an absence of chloride ion secretion, caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and a concomitant sodium hyperabsorption, caused by dyregulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), results in mucus stasis which predisposes the lungs to cycles of chronic infection and inflammation leading to lung function decline...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037916/pfaffia-paniculata-brazilian-ginseng-extract-modulates-mapk-and-mucin-pathways-in-intestinal-inflammation
#4
C A R A Costa, A E V Quaglio, L C Di Stasi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pfaffia paniculata is endemic Brazilian plant traditionally used against fatigue, stress, inflammation and low immune system functioning and with proven intestinal anti-inflammatory activity. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate intestinal anti-inflammatory mechanism of P. paniculata by determination of mRNA abundance of Hsp70, Heparanase, Mapk1, Mapk3, Mapk6, Mapk9, Muc1, Muc2, Muc3, Muc4, and NF-κB, as well as the mucin content in colonic samples...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030304/interaction-of-cruciferin-based-nanoparticles-with-caco-2-cells-and-caco-2-ht29-mtx-co-cultures
#5
Ali Akbari, Afsaneh Lavasanifar, Jianping Wu
The objective of this work was to assess the potential of Cruciferin/Calcium (Cru/Ca) and Cruciferin/Chitosan (Cru/Cs) nanoparticles for oral drug delivery. For this purpose, Cru/Ca and Cru/Cs nanoparticles were developed through cold gelation of Cruciferin, a major canola protein, and in interaction with calcium and chitosan, respectively. The extent and rate of particle uptake in Caco-2 cells and Caco-2/HT29 co-culture was then evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy as well as flow cytometry. Through pre-incubation of Caco-2 cell monolayer with specific endocytosis inhibitors, the mechanism of cell uptake was investigated...
December 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983630/rebamipide-upregulates-mucin-secretion-of-intestinal-goblet-cells-via-akt-phosphorylation
#6
Yuriko Yasuda-Onozawa, Osamu Handa, Yuji Naito, Chihiro Ushiroda, Yosuke Suyama, Yuki Toyokawa, Takaaki Murakami, Tomoyo Yasuda, Tomohiro Ueda, Atsushi Majima, Yuma Hotta, Toshifumi Doi, Makoto Tanaka, Yusuke Horii, Yasuki Higashimura, Katsura Mizushima, Mayuko Morita, Yukiko Uehara, Hideki Horie, Akifumi Fukui, Osamu Dohi, Tetsuya Okayama, Naohisa Yoshida, Kazuhiro Kamada, Kazuhiro Katada, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Takeshi Ishikawa, Tomohisa Takagi, Hideyuki Konishi, Yoshito Itoh
Mucin is produced and secreted by epithelial goblet cells and is a key component of the innate immune system, acting as a barrier in the intestinal tract. However, no studies have been conducted investigating the increase in mucin secretion to enhance the intestinal barrier function. The present study investigated whether rebamipide (Reb) acts as a secretagogue of intestinal mucin and the underlying mechanisms involved, thereby focusing on the effect on goblet cells. The LS174T cell line was used as goblet cell‑like cells...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982736/an-epoxide-hydrolase-secreted-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-decreases-mucociliary-transport-and-hinders-bacterial-clearance-from-the-lung
#7
Kelli L Hvorecny, Emily Dolben, Sophie Moreau-Marquis, Thomas H Hampton, Tamer B Shabaneh, Becca A Flitter, Christopher D Bahl, Jennifer M Bomberger, Bruce D Levy, Bruce A Stanton, Deborah A Hogan, Dean R Madden
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonizes the lungs of susceptible individuals by deploying virulence factors targeting host defenses. The secreted CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif) dysregulates the endocytic recycling of CFTR and thus reduces CFTR abundance in host epithelial membranes. We have postulated that the decrease in ion secretion mediated by Cif would slow mucociliary transport and decrease bacterial clearance from the lungs. To test this hypothesis, we explored the effects of Cif in cultured epithelia and in the lungs of mice...
October 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974617/entamoeba-histolytica-induced-mucin-exocytosis-is-mediated-by-vamp8-and-is-critical-in-mucosal-innate-host-defense
#8
Steve Cornick, France Moreau, Herbert Y Gaisano, Kris Chadee
Intestinal mucus secretion is critical in maintaining mucosal host defense against a myriad of pathogens by preventing direct association with the epithelium. Entamoeba histolytica specifically binds colonic MUC2 mucin and also induces potent hypersecretion from goblet cells; however, characterization of the nature of the mechanisms controlling mucus release remains elusive. In this report, we identify vesicle SNARE vesicle-associated membrane protein 8 (VAMP8) present on mucin granules as orchestrating regulated exocytosis in human goblet cells in response to the presence of E...
October 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944827/cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-induces-airway-mucus-hypersecretion-in-rats-and-activates-il%C3%A2-13%C3%A2-associated-inflammatory-mechanisms
#9
Baoning Xu, Lei Zhang, Yuqin Che, Chengyang Song, Wenjun Jiang, Jianhua Fan, Dali Tian
The majority of patients that suffer a stroke have excessive sputum, which accelerates the development of pulmonary complications. However, it is unclear whether cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury induces mucus hypersecretion, and the potential role of inflammation remains unknown. In the present study, the reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion model was applied in rats to induce cerebral I/R injury. The rats were grouped according to the duration of reperfusion (6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h). Neurological dysfunction was evaluated by Longa scoring and lung dry‑to‑wet weight (dw/ww) ratios were determined to reflect the degree of mucus secretion...
November 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943470/eosinophils-release-extracellular-dna-traps-in-response-to-aspergillus-fumigatus
#10
Valdirene S Muniz, Juliana C Silva, Yasmim A V Braga, Rossana C N Melo, Shigeharu Ueki, Masahide Takeda, Akira Hebisawa, Koichiro Asano, Rodrigo T Figueiredo, Josiane S Neves
BACKGROUND: Eosinophils mediate the immune response in different infectious conditions. The release of extracellular DNA traps (ETs) by leukocytes has been described as an innate immune response mechanism that is relevant in many disorders including fungal diseases. Different stimuli induce the release of human eosinophil ETs (EETs). Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungus that may cause eosinophilic allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). It has been reported that eosinophils are important to the clearance of A fumigatus in infected mice lungs...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942146/leptin-positively-regulates-muc5ac-production-and-secretion-induced-by-interleukin-13-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#11
Wanming Hao, Jing Wang, Yu Zhang, Yunying Wang, Lixin Sun, Wei Han
Mucus hypersecretion and plugging of lower respiratory tract airways due to mucus plugs have long been recognized as the leading cause of the morbidity and mortality in asthma. MUC5AC protein is a major component of airway mucus. Here, we showed that interleukin (IL)-13 induced MUC5AC production and secretion, and leptin expression in the human bronchial epithelial cell line-16 (HBE16) cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Leptin knockdown suppressed MUC5AC production and secretion induced by IL-13. We further investigated the molecular mechanism by which leptin functioned, and found that leptin regulated IL-13-induced MUC5AC production and secretion via the JAK2-STAT3 pathway...
November 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918442/the-role-of-periostin-in-lung-fibrosis-and-airway-remodeling
#12
REVIEW
David N O'Dwyer, Bethany B Moore
Periostin is a protein that plays a key role in development and repair within the biological matrix of the lung. As a matricellular protein that does not contribute to extracellular matrix structure, periostin interacts with other extracellular matrix proteins to regulate the composition of the matrix in the lung and other organs. In this review, we discuss the studies exploring the role of periostin to date in chronic respiratory diseases, namely asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Asthma is a major health problem globally affecting millions of people worldwide with significant associated morbidity and mortality...
December 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894207/positive-feedback-of-the-amphiregulin-egfr-erk-pathway-mediates-pm2-5-from-wood-smoke-induced-muc5ac-expression-in-epithelial-cells
#13
Lingmei Huang, Jinding Pu, Fang He, Baoling Liao, Binwei Hao, Wei Hong, Xiuqin Ye, Jinglong Chen, Jun Zhao, Sha Liu, Juan Xu, Bing Li, Pixin Ran
Biomass fuel smoke is thought to contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which is characterized by mucous cell metaplasia and enhanced mucus secretion. We investigated the effect of particulate matter (PM) with a diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) from wood smoke (WSPM2.5) on the expression of the most prominent secreted mucin, MUC5AC. Wood smoke was able to induce MUC5AC expression in the rat respiratory tract after 3 months of exposure. WSPM2.5 could induce MUC5AC production in both primary human airway epithelial cells and the NCI-H292 cell line...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882824/a-physics-based-model-for-maintenance-of-the-ph-gradient-in-the-gastric-mucus-layer
#14
Owen L Lewis, James P Keener, Aaron L Fogelson
It is generally accepted that the gastric mucus layer provides a protective barrier between the lumen and the mucosa, shielding the mucosa from acid and digestive enzymes and preventing auto-digestion of the stomach epithelium. However, the precise mechanisms that contribute to this protective function are still up for debate. In particular, it is not clear what physical processes are responsible for transporting hydrogen protons, secreted within the gastric pits, across the mucus layer to the lumen without acidifying the environment adjacent to the epithelium...
September 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861741/probiotics-and-the-gut-immune-system-indirect-regulation
#15
REVIEW
Giorgio La Fata, Peter Weber, M Hasan Mohajeri
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) represents the largest interface between the human organism and the external environment. In the lumen and upper part of the mucus layer, this organ hosts an enormous number of microorganisms whose composition affects the functions of the epithelial barrier and the gut immune system. Consequentially, the microorganisms in the GIT influence the health status of the organism. Probiotics are living microorganisms which, in specific conditions, confer a health benefit to the host...
August 31, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861518/butyrate-supplementation-at-high-concentrations-alters-enteric-bacterial-communities-and-reduces-intestinal-inflammation-in-mice-infected-with-citrobacter-rodentium
#16
Janelle A Jiminez, Trina C Uwiera, D Wade Abbott, Richard R E Uwiera, G Douglas Inglis
Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid by-product of the microbial fermentation of dietary fermentable materials in the large intestine; it is the main energy source for enterocyte regeneration, modulates the enteric microbial community, and contributes to increasing host health via mechanisms that are relatively poorly defined. Limited research has examined the therapeutic potential of butyrate using models of enteric inflammation incited by pathogenic organisms. We used Citrobacter rodentium to incite acute Th1/Th17 inflammation to ascertain the impact of butyrate on the host-microbiota relationship...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843904/regulation-of-epithelial-cell-expressed-c3-in-the-intestine-relevance-for-the-pathophysiology-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#17
Annika Sünderhauf, Kerstin Skibbe, Sophie Preisker, Karen Ebbert, Admar Verschoor, Christian M Karsten, Claudia Kemper, Markus Huber-Lang, Marijana Basic, André Bleich, Jürgen Büning, Klaus Fellermann, Christian Sina, Stefanie Derer
The complement system not only plays a critical role in efficient detection and clearance of bacteria, but also in intestinal immune homeostasis as mice deficient for key complement components display enhanced intestinal inflammation upon experimental colitis. Because underlying molecular mechanisms for this observation are unclear, we investigated the crosstalk between intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), bacteria and the complement system in the course of chronic colitis. Surprisingly, mouse intestinal epithelial cell lines constitutively express high mRNA levels of complement component 3 (C3), Toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2) and Tlr4...
October 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830530/prenatal-tobacco-smoke-exposure-predisposes-offspring-mice-to-exacerbated-allergic-airway-inflammation-associated-with-altered-innate-effector-function
#18
Maria Ferrini, Sophia Carvalho, Yoon Hee Cho, Britten Postma, Lucas Miranda Marques, Kent Pinkerton, Kevan Roberts, Zeina Jaffar
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that prenatal and early life environmental exposures have adverse effects on pulmonary function and are important contributors in the development of childhood asthma and allergic disease. The mechanism by which environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in utero promotes the development of allergic asthma remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the immunological consequences of prenatal exposure to ETS in order to understand events responsible for the development or exacerbation of allergic asthma...
August 22, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822242/mucosal-immunity-of-the-postpartum-bovine-genital-tract
#19
REVIEW
Dinesh Dadarwal, Colin Palmer, Philip Griebel
In this review, mucosal immune defense mechanisms used to control infections in the bovine genital tract (vestibule, vagina, cervix, uterus and oviduct) during the postpartum period are reviewed. Knowledge gaps are highlighted to emphasize the need for further investigations. Physical barriers to the entry of microbes include vulvar sealing, vestibule-vaginal constriction, a narrow cervical opening and the mucosal epithelium along with the overlying mucus layer. Genital tract mucosal epithelial cells recognize damage-associated molecular patterns and pathogen-associated molecular patterns and respond by secreting antimicrobial peptides and cytokines to recruit and activate immune cells...
August 10, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811169/tissue-engineered-extracellular-matrices-ecms-in-urology-evolution-and-future-directions
#20
REVIEW
N F Davis, E M Cunnane, F J O'Brien, J J Mulvihill, M T Walsh
Autologous gastrointestinal tissue has remained the gold-standard reconstructive biomaterial in urology for >100 years. Mucus-secreting epithelium is associated with lifelong metabolic and neuromechanical complications when implanted into the urinary tract. Therefore, the availability of biocompatible tissue-engineered biomaterials such as extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds may provide an attractive alternative for urologists. ECMs are decellularised, biodegradable membranes that have shown promise for repairing defective urinary tract segments in vitro and in vivo by inducing a host-derived tissue remodelling response after implantation...
August 12, 2017: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
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