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Mechanism secretion of mucus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918442/the-role-of-periostin-in-lung-fibrosis-and-airway-remodeling
#1
REVIEW
David N O'Dwyer, Bethany B Moore
Periostin is a protein that plays a key role in development and repair within the biological matrix of the lung. As a matricellular protein that does not contribute to extracellular matrix structure, periostin interacts with other extracellular matrix proteins to regulate the composition of the matrix in the lung and other organs. In this review, we discuss the studies exploring the role of periostin to date in chronic respiratory diseases, namely asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Asthma is a major health problem globally affecting millions of people worldwide with significant associated morbidity and mortality...
September 16, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894207/positive-feedback-of-the-amphiregulin-egfr-erk-pathway-mediates-pm2-5-from-wood-smoke-induced-muc5ac-expression-in-epithelial-cells
#2
Lingmei Huang, Jinding Pu, Fang He, Baoling Liao, Binwei Hao, Wei Hong, Xiuqin Ye, Jinglong Chen, Jun Zhao, Sha Liu, Juan Xu, Bing Li, Pixin Ran
Biomass fuel smoke is thought to contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which is characterized by mucous cell metaplasia and enhanced mucus secretion. We investigated the effect of particulate matter (PM) with a diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) from wood smoke (WSPM2.5) on the expression of the most prominent secreted mucin, MUC5AC. Wood smoke was able to induce MUC5AC expression in the rat respiratory tract after 3 months of exposure. WSPM2.5 could induce MUC5AC production in both primary human airway epithelial cells and the NCI-H292 cell line...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882824/a-physics-based-model-for-maintenance-of-the-ph-gradient-in-the-gastric-mucus-layer
#3
Owen L Lewis, James P Keener, Aaron L Fogelson
It is generally accepted that the gastric mucus layer provides a protective barrier between the lumen and the mucosa, shielding the mucosa from acid and digestive enzymes and preventing auto-digestion of the stomach epithelium. However, the precise mechanisms that contribute to this protective function are still up for debate. In particular, it is not clear what physical processes are responsible for transporting hydrogen protons, secreted within the gastric pits, across the mucus layer to the lumen without acidifying the environment adjacent to the epithelium...
September 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861741/probiotics-and-the-gut-immune-system-indirect-regulation
#4
REVIEW
Giorgio La Fata, Peter Weber, M Hasan Mohajeri
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) represents the largest interface between the human organism and the external environment. In the lumen and upper part of the mucus layer, this organ hosts an enormous number of microorganisms whose composition affects the functions of the epithelial barrier and the gut immune system. Consequentially, the microorganisms in the GIT influence the health status of the organism. Probiotics are living microorganisms which, in specific conditions, confer a health benefit to the host...
August 31, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861518/butyrate-supplementation-at-high-concentrations-alters-enteric-bacterial-communities-and-reduces-intestinal-inflammation-in-mice-infected-with-citrobacter-rodentium
#5
Janelle A Jiminez, Trina C Uwiera, D Wade Abbott, Richard R E Uwiera, G Douglas Inglis
Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid by-product of the microbial fermentation of dietary fermentable materials in the large intestine; it is the main energy source for enterocyte regeneration, modulates the enteric microbial community, and contributes to increasing host health via mechanisms that are relatively poorly defined. Limited research has examined the therapeutic potential of butyrate using models of enteric inflammation incited by pathogenic organisms. We used Citrobacter rodentium to incite acute Th1/Th17 inflammation to ascertain the impact of butyrate on the host-microbiota relationship...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843904/regulation-of-epithelial-cell-expressed-c3-in-the-intestine-relevance-for-the-pathophysiology-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
Annika Sünderhauf, Kerstin Skibbe, Sophie Preisker, Karen Ebbert, Admar Verschoor, Christian M Karsten, Claudia Kemper, Markus Huber-Lang, Marijana Basic, André Bleich, Jürgen Büning, Klaus Fellermann, Christian Sina, Stefanie Derer
The complement system not only plays a critical role in efficient detection and clearance of bacteria, but also in intestinal immune homeostasis as mice deficient for key complement components display enhanced intestinal inflammation upon experimental colitis. Because underlying molecular mechanisms for this observation are unclear, we investigated the crosstalk between intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), bacteria and the complement system in the course of chronic colitis. Surprisingly, mouse intestinal epithelial cell lines constitutively express high mRNA levels of complement component 3 (C3), Toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2) and Tlr4...
August 24, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830530/prenatal-tobacco-smoke-exposure-predisposes-offspring-mice-to-exacerbated-allergic-airway-inflammation-associated-with-altered-innate-effector-function
#7
Maria Ferrini, Sophia Carvalho, Yoon Hee Cho, Britten Postma, Lucas Miranda Marques, Kent Pinkerton, Kevan Roberts, Zeina Jaffar
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that prenatal and early life environmental exposures have adverse effects on pulmonary function and are important contributors in the development of childhood asthma and allergic disease. The mechanism by which environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in utero promotes the development of allergic asthma remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the immunological consequences of prenatal exposure to ETS in order to understand events responsible for the development or exacerbation of allergic asthma...
August 22, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822242/mucosal-immunity-of-the-postpartum-bovine-genital-tract
#8
REVIEW
Dinesh Dadarwal, Colin Palmer, Philip Griebel
In this review, mucosal immune defense mechanisms used to control infections in the bovine genital tract (vestibule, vagina, cervix, uterus and oviduct) during the postpartum period are reviewed. Knowledge gaps are highlighted to emphasize the need for further investigations. Physical barriers to the entry of microbes include vulvar sealing, vestibule-vaginal constriction, a narrow cervical opening and the mucosal epithelium along with the overlying mucus layer. Genital tract mucosal epithelial cells recognize damage-associated molecular patterns and pathogen-associated molecular patterns and respond by secreting antimicrobial peptides and cytokines to recruit and activate immune cells...
August 10, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811169/tissue-engineered-extracellular-matrices-ecms-in-urology-evolution-and-future-directions
#9
REVIEW
N F Davis, E M Cunnane, F J O'Brien, J J Mulvihill, M T Walsh
Autologous gastrointestinal tissue has remained the gold-standard reconstructive biomaterial in urology for >100 years. Mucus-secreting epithelium is associated with lifelong metabolic and neuromechanical complications when implanted into the urinary tract. Therefore, the availability of biocompatible tissue-engineered biomaterials such as extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds may provide an attractive alternative for urologists. ECMs are decellularised, biodegradable membranes that have shown promise for repairing defective urinary tract segments in vitro and in vivo by inducing a host-derived tissue remodelling response after implantation...
August 12, 2017: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805732/the-mechanistic-links-between-insulin-and-cystic-fibrosis-transmembrane-conductance-regulator-cftr-cl-channel
#10
REVIEW
Yoshinori Marunaka
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily and regulates Cl(-) secretion in epithelial cells for water secretion. Loss-of-function mutations to the CFTR gene cause dehydrated mucus on the apical side of epithelial cells and increase the susceptibility of bacterial infection, especially in the airway and pulmonary tissues. Therefore, research on the molecular properties of CFTR, such as its gating mechanism and subcellular trafficking, have been intensively pursued...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780040/long-term-direct-visualization-of-passively-transferred-fluorophore-conjugated-antibodies
#11
Jeffrey R Schneider, Ann M Carias, Arangaserry R Bastian, Gianguido C Cianci, Patrick F Kiser, Ronald S Veazey, Thomas J Hope
The use of therapeutic antibodies, delivered by intravenous (IV) instillation, is a rapidly expanding area of biomedical treatment for a variety of conditions. However, little is known about how the antibodies are anatomically distributed following infusion and the underlying mechanism mediating therapeutic antibody distribution to specific anatomical sites remains to be elucidated. Current efforts utilize low resolution and sensitivity methods such as ELISA and indirect labeling imaging techniques, which often leads to high background and difficulty in assessing biodistribution...
November 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775098/influenza-virus-infection-alters-ion-channel-function-of-airway-and-alveolar-cells-mechanisms-and-physiological-sequelae
#12
James D Londino, Ahmed Lazrak, James F Collawn, Zsuzsanna Bebok, Kevin S Harrod, Sadis Matalon
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) are located in the apical membranes of airway and alveolar epithelial cells. These transporters play an important role in the regulation of lung fluid balance across airway and alveolar epithelia by being the conduits for chloride (Cl(-)) and bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) secretion and sodium (Na(+)) ion absorption, respectively. The functional role of these channels in the respiratory tract is to maintain the optimum volume and ionic composition of the bronchial pericilary fluid (PCL) and alveolar lining fluid (ALF) layers...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737155/dawestrema-cycloancistrium-monogenea-from-the-head-pores-of-arapaimas
#13
Cláudia Portes Santos, Maralina Torres da Silva, Franti Ek Moravec
Arapaima gigas is one of the main cultured fish species in South America, and monogenean parasites of this species cause large economic losses to fish farmers. During surveys of the parasites of cultured arapaimas from Mexiana Island in the Amazon River Delta, Rio Branco, in northwestern Brazilian Amazonia, and Yurimaguas, Peru, the monogenean Dawestrema cycloancistrium was found in the gills of A. gigas as well as in previously unreported sites, i.e. the head pores and chambers. The aim of this study was to investigate the transmission route of this parasite and its geographical distribution as well as to describe its morphology as observed by light and confocal imaging...
July 24, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709893/regulatory-effect-of-baicalin-on-the-imbalance-of-th17-treg-responses-in-mice-with-allergic-asthma
#14
Lu Xu, Jinxia Li, Yu Zhang, Peng Zhao, Xuemei Zhang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: Baicalin, a flavonoid compound, was isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. The study aimed to explore the regulatory effect of baicalin on immunological balance of Th17/Treg responses and the possible mechanisms in mice with allergic asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA+LPS by intranasal instillation, and were intragastrically treated with baicalin from days 22-36 after sensitization...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671030/continuous-in-vitro-exposure-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells-to-e171-food-additive-causes-oxidative-stress-inducing-oxidation-of-dna-bases-but-no-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#15
Marie Dorier, David Béal, Caroline Marie-Desvergne, Muriel Dubosson, Frédérick Barreau, Eric Houdeau, Nathalie Herlin-Boime, Marie Carriere
The whitening and opacifying properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) are commonly exploited when it is used as a food additive (E171). However, the safety of this additive can be questioned as TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) have been classed at potentially toxic. This study aimed to shed some light on the mechanisms behind the potential toxicity of E171 on epithelial intestinal cells, using two in vitro models: (i) a monoculture of differentiated Caco-2 cells and (ii) a coculture of Caco-2 with HT29-MTX mucus-secreting cells...
July 19, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670393/chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-decreases-pulmonary-clearance-of-99m-tc-labelled-particulate-matter-in-mice
#16
Cuiping Fu, Huan Lu, Xu Wu, Jie Liu, Chengying Liu, Zilong Liu, Wei Yuan, Jian Zhou, Shanqun Li
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) could cause systematic inflammation including pulmonary inflammatory response, whereas the influence of OSAHS in pulmonary clearance ability remains unknown. The main pathophysiological feature of OSAHS is chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). The goal of this study is to clarify the airway clearance of particulate matter (PM) in CIH mice, and to explore the potential mechanism. METHODS: Balb/c mice were divided into a CIH group and a control group, exposed to intermittent hypoxia and air chamber, respectively...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662942/secretion-clearance-strategies-in-australian-and-new-zealand-intensive-care-units
#17
George Ntoumenopoulos, Naomi Hammond, Nicola R Watts, Kelly Thompson, Gabrielle Hanlon, Jennifer D Paratz, Peter Thomas
INTRODUCTION/AIMS: To describe the processes of care for secretion clearance in adult, intubated and mechanically ventilated patients in Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Units (ICUs). METHODS/RESULTS: A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted through the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group (ANZICS CTG) Point Prevalence Program. Forty-seven ICUs collected data from 230 patients intubated and ventilated on the study day...
June 26, 2017: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658554/are-ilc2s-jekyll-and-hyde-in-airway-inflammation
#18
REVIEW
Kafi N Ealey, Kazuyo Moro, Shigeo Koyasu
Asthma is a complex heterogeneous disease of the airways characterized by lung inflammation, airway hyperreactivity (AHR), mucus overproduction, and remodeling of the airways. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) play a crucial role in the initiation and propagation of type 2 inflammatory programs in allergic asthma models, independent of adaptive immunity. In response to allergen, helminths or viral infection, damaged airway epithelial cells secrete IL-33, IL-25, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), which activate ILC2s to produce type 2 cytokines such as IL-5, IL-13, and IL-9...
July 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600348/loss-of-the-wnt-receptor-frizzled-7-in-the-mouse-gastric-epithelium-is-deleterious-and-triggers-rapid-repopulation-in-vivo
#19
Dustin J Flanagan, Nick Barker, Cameron Nowell, Hans Clevers, Matthias Ernst, Toby J Phesse, Elizabeth Vincan
The gastric epithelium consists of tubular glandular units, each containing several differentiated cell types, and populations of stem cells, which enable the stomach to secrete the acid, mucus and various digestive enzymes required for its function. Very little is known about which cell signalling pathways are required for homeostasis of the gastric epithelium. Many diseases, such as cancer, arise as a result of deregulation of signalling pathways that regulate homeostasis of the diseased organ. Therefore, it is important to understand the biology of how normal conditions are maintained in a tissue to help inform the mechanisms driving disease in that same tissue, and to identify potential points of therapeutic intervention...
August 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588563/insight-into-potential-probiotic-markers-predicted-in-lactobacillus-pentosus-mp-10-genome-sequence
#20
Hikmate Abriouel, Beatriz Pérez Montoro, Carlos S Casimiro-Soriguer, Antonio J Pérez Pulido, Charles W Knapp, Natacha Caballero Gómez, Sonia Castillo-Gutiérrez, María D Estudillo-Martínez, Antonio Gálvez, Nabil Benomar
Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10 is a potential probiotic lactic acid bacterium originally isolated from naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives. The entire genome sequence was annotated to in silico analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of L. pentosus MP-10 to the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT), such as carbohydrate metabolism (related with prebiotic utilization) and the proteins involved in bacteria-host interactions. We predicted an arsenal of genes coding for carbohydrate-modifying enzymes to modify oligo- and polysaccharides, such as glycoside hydrolases, glycoside transferases, and isomerases, and other enzymes involved in complex carbohydrate metabolism especially starch, raffinose, and levan...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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