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Mechanism secretion of mucus

Pareeya Baiubon, Puongtip Kunanusorn, Parirat Khonsung, Natthakarn Chiranthanut, Ampai Panthong, Chaiyong Rujjanawate
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Zingiber simaoense Y. Y. Qian belongs to the Zingiberaceae family. Its rhizome has been used in Thai folk medicine to relieve gastric disorders; however, scientific evidence of its pharmacological activities has not yet been revealed. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was designed to validate the gastroprotective activity and to identify possible mechanisms of gastroprotection of Z. simaoense rhizome ethanol extract (ZSE) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The gastroprotective effect of ZSE was tested using models of gastric ulcers induced by acidified ethanol, indomethacin, and restraint water immersion stress...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Pamela Vazquez-Gutierrez, Tomas de Wouters, Julia Werder, Christophe Chassard, Christophe Lacroix
The gut microbiota plays an important role in host health, in particular by its barrier effect and competition with exogenous pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the competition of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum PV8-2 (Bp PV8-2) and Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense PV20-2 (Bk PV20-2), isolated from anemic infant gut microbiota and selected for their high iron sequestration properties, was investigated against Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhi) and Escherichia coli O157:H45 (EHEC) by using co-culture tests and assays with intestinal cell lines...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gerard F Ricardo, Ross J Jones, Peta L Clode, Andrew P Negri
Suspended sediments produced from dredging activities, or added to the sediment budget via river runoff, are a concern for marine resource managers. Understanding the impact of suspended sediments on critical life history stages of keystone species like corals is fundamental to effective management of coastlines and reefs. Coral embryos (Acropora tenuis and A. millepora) and larvae (A. tenuis, A. millepora and Pocillopora acuta) were subjected to a range of suspended sediment concentrations of different sediment types (siliciclastic and carbonate) to assess concentration-response relationships on ecologically relevant endpoints, including survivorship and ability to metamorphose...
2016: PloS One
Irene Sarosiek, Mohammad Bashashati, Alicia Alvarez, Mark Hall, Nagasri Shankar, Yvette Gomez, Richard W McCallum, Jerzy Sarosiek
BACKGROUND: Lubiprostone is an effective treatment for chronic constipation (CC). The mechanism of action of lubiprostone is through increasing fluid secretion and lubrication of the intestinal lumen. The effects of lubiprostone on gastrointestinal transit and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) have not been adequately explored. The current study was designed to investigate whether lubiprostone (1) alters gastrointestinal transit and (2) affects SIBO in patients with constipation...
September 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Diego Bagnasco, Matteo Ferrando, Gilda Varricchi, Giovanni Passalacqua, Giorgio Walter Canonica
Asthma is a high-prevalence disease, still accounting for mortality and high direct and indirect costs. It is now recognized that, despite the implementation of guidelines, a large proportion of cases remain not controlled. Certainly, adherence to therapy and the education of patients remain the primary objective, but the increasingly detailed knowledge about the pathogenic mechanisms and new biotechnologies offer the opportunity to better address and treat the disease. Interleukin (IL)-13 and IL-4 appear as the most suitable targets to treat the T helper 2 (TH2)-mediated forms (endotypes) of asthma...
2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Sofie Depluverez, Simon Devos, Bart Devreese
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal inherited disorder in Caucasians. It is caused by mutation of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. A defect in the CFTR ion channel causes a dramatic change in the composition of the airway surface fluid, leading to a highly viscous mucus layer. In healthy individuals, the majority of bacteria trapped in the mucus layer are removed and destroyed by mucociliary clearance. However, in the lungs of patients with CF, the mucociliary clearance is impaired due to dehydration of the airway surface fluid...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Louise Rose, Neill K Adhikari, Joseph Poon, David Leasa, Douglas A McKim
BACKGROUND: Critically ill mechanically ventilated patients experience impaired airway clearance due to ineffective cough and impaired secretion mobilization. Cough augmentation techniques, including mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E), manually assisted cough, and lung volume recruitment, improve cough efficiency. Our objective was to describe use, indications, contraindications, interfaces, settings, complications, and barriers to use across Canada. METHODS: An e-mail survey was sent to nominated local survey champions in eligible Canadian units (ICUs, weaning centers, and intermediate care units) with 4 telephone/e-mail reminders...
October 2016: Respiratory Care
Yanling Qin, Youfan Jiang, Awais Shafiq Sheikh, Shanshan Shen, Jing Liu, Depeng Jiang
Transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A), a channel underlying the calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) currents, has been shown to be a key regulator of mucus overproduction in airway epithelial cells. However, the precise molecular mechanism involved in the TMEM16A-mediated mucus secretion remains unclear. In the present study, we inquired into a novel signaling mechanism for TMEM16A driving mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) production in human airway epithelial cells. Following treatment for 24-48h with type 13 interleukin (IL-13), an upregulation of TMEM16A expression in both mRNA and protein levels was observed in human bronchial epithelial cell line (HBE16), while signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) inhibition could decrease this elevated expression, suggesting that the regulation of TMEM16A expression by IL-13 was via a STAT6-based transcriptional mechanism...
August 30, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Ethan E Mann, Chelsea M Magin, M Ryan Mettetal, Rhea M May, MiKayla M Henry, Heather DeLoid, Justin Prater, Lauren Sullivan, John G Thomas, Mark D Twite, Albert E Parker, Anthony B Brennan, Shravanthi T Reddy
Tracheal intubation disrupts physiological homeostasis of secretion production and clearance, resulting in secretion accumulation within endotracheal tubes (ETTs). Novel in vitro and in vivo models were developed to specifically recapitulate the clinical manifestations of ETT occlusion. The novel Sharklet™ micropatterned ETT was evaluated, using these models, for the ability to reduce the accumulation of both bacterial biofilm and airway mucus compared to a standard care ETT. Novel ETTs with micropattern on the inner and outer surfaces were placed adjacent to standard care ETTs in in vitro biofilm and airway patency (AP) models...
August 17, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Malin E V Johansson, Gunnar C Hansson
A number of mechanisms ensure that the intestine is protected from pathogens and also against our own intestinal microbiota. The outermost of these is the secreted mucus, which entraps bacteria and prevents their translocation into the tissue. Mucus contains many immunomodulatory molecules and is largely produced by the goblet cells. These cells are highly responsive to the signals they receive from the immune system and are also able to deliver antigens from the lumen to dendritic cells in the lamina propria...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
María-Alexandra Cañas, Rosa Giménez, María-José Fábrega, Lorena Toloza, Laura Baldomà, Josefa Badia
Interactions between intestinal microbiota and the human host are complex. The gut mucosal surface is covered by a mucin layer that prevents bacteria from accessing the epithelial cells. Thus, the crosstalk between microbiota and the host mainly rely on secreted factors that can go through the mucus layer and reach the epithelium. In this context, vesicles released by commensal strains are seen as key players in signaling processes in the intestinal mucosa. Studies with Gram-negative pathogens showed that outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are internalized into the host cell by endocytosis, but the entry mechanism for microbiota-derived vesicles is unknown...
2016: PloS One
Yang Juan, Wu Haiqiao, Wenyao Xie, Huang Huaping, Han Zhong, Zhou Xiangdong, Victor P Kolosov, Juliy M Perelman
Acute or chronic cold exposure exacerbates chronic inflammatory airway diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a cold-shock protein and is induced by various environmental stressors, such as hypothermia and hypoxia. In this study, we showed that CIRP gene and protein levels were significantly increased in patients with COPD and in rats with chronic airway inflammation compared with healthy subjects. Similarly, inflammatory cytokine production and MUC5AC secretion were up-regulated in rats following cigarette smoke inhalation...
September 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Clover C M Wong, Lin Zhang, William K K Wu, Jing Shen, Ruby L Y Chan, Lan Lu, Wei Hu, Ming X Li, Long F Li, Shun X Ren, Yi F Li, Jiang Li, Chi H Cho
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The preventive effect of intrarectal administration of mouse cathelicidin (mCRAMP) and oral administration of mCRAMP-encoding Lactococcus lactis (N4I) has been shown in murine experimental colitis. It is pivotal to understand the ability of N4I whether it can promote mucosal repair in existing colitis. METHODS: Mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) were treated orally with L. lactis or its transformed strain with or without nisin induction...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Riccardo Pinciroli, Cristina Mietto, Annop Piriyapatsom, Christopher T Chenelle, John G Thomas, Massimiliano Pirrone, Lynn Bry, Gregory R Wojtkiewicz, Matthias P Nahrendorf, Robert M Kacmarek, Lorenzo Berra
INTRODUCTION: Intubation compromises mucus clearance, allowing secretions to accumulate inside the endotracheal tube (ETT). The purpose of this trial was to evaluate a novel device for ETT cleaning. We hypothesized that its routine use would reduce tube occlusion due to mucus accumulation, while decreasing airway bacterial colonization. METHODS: Subjects were randomized to either the use of the device every 8 h, or the institutional standard of care (blind tracheal suction) only...
July 26, 2016: Respiratory Care
Tomoyuki Chimuro, Hiroyuki Kuroyama, Yukinobu Goso, Kazuhiko Ishihara, Makoto Kurihara
Mucus produced and secreted by gastrointestinal mucosa contains various types of mucins equipped with unique sugar chains considered to play critical roles in protecting mucous membranes; therefore, the identification and verification of mucin sugar chains is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms. In our previous work, we generated three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), RGM22, RGM26, and RGM42, which recognize sugar chains in rat gastric mucin. Here, we immunohistochemically analyzed the rat gastrointestinal mucosa and found that the antigens recognized by RGM22 and RGM42 were expressed in the rat antrum and Brunner's glands, whereas that recognized by RGM26 was detected in the antrum, but rarely in Brunner's glands...
September 2, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
Wei Du, Jinyu Su, Dan Ye, Yuegang Wang, Qiaobing Huang, Xiaowei Gong
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are widely used to manage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, withdrawal of ICS generally causes various adverse effects, warranting careful management of the ICS withdrawal. Pinellia ternata, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been used to treat respiratory diseases in China for centuries. Here, we investigated its role in antagonizing ICS withdrawal-induced side effects, and explored the underlying mechanisms. The rat COPD model was established using a combination of passive cigarette smoking and intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Hye Kyung Kim, Myung-Gyou Kim, Kang-Hyun Leem
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the gastroprotective effects of Acanthopanax senticosus leaves (ASLs) extrusion on acute gastric mucosal lesion in rats induced by compound 48/80 (C48/80). METHODS: Rats were divided into six groups: normal; C48/80-induced gastric lesion control; gastric lesion positive control (famotidine 4 mg/kg); gastric lesion administered with two levels of extruded ASLs (ASLE, 40 and 200 mg/kg); and gastric lesion treated with ASLs (ASL 200 mg/kg)...
April 2016: Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chung i Tsa Chih Ying Wen Pan
Koji Takeuchi, Naoko Abe, Aiko Kumano
We examined the influence of adrenalectomy on NSAID-induced small intestinal damage in rats and investigated the possible involvement of adrenal glucocorticoids in the protective effects of urocortin I, a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) agonist. Male SD rats without fasting were administered indomethacin s.c. and killed 24 h later in order to examine the hemorrhagic lesions that developed in the small intestine. Urocortin I (20 µg/kg) was given i.v. 10 min before the administration of indomethacin. Bilateral adrenalectomy was performed a week before the experiment...
June 30, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Wolfgang Stremmel, Simone Staffer, Hongying Gan-Schreier, Andreas Wannhoff, Margund Bach, Annika Gauss
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant phospholipid in intestinal mucus, indicative of a specific transport system across the mucosal epithelium to the intestinal lumen. To elucidate this transport mechanism, we employed a transwell tissue culture system with polarized CaCo2 cells. It was shown that PC could not substantially be internalized by the cells. However, after basal application of increasing PC concentrations, an apical transport of 47.1±6.3nmolh(-1)mMPC(-1) was observed. Equilibrium distribution studies with PC applied in equal concentrations to the basal and apical compartments showed a 1...
September 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Nathan A Zaidman, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Scott M O'Grady
Glucocorticoids strongly influence the mucosal-defense functions performed by the bronchial epithelium, and inhaled corticosteroids are critical in the treatment of patients with inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis. A common pathology associated with these diseases is reduced mucociliary clearance, a defense mechanism involving the coordinated transport of salt, water, and mucus by the bronchial epithelium, ultimately leading to retention of pathogens and particles in the airways and to further disease progression...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
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