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Mechanism secretion of mucus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773890/intraperitoneal-administration-of-the-anti-il-23-antibody-prevents-the-establishment-of-intestinal-nematodes-in-mice
#1
M Gomez-Samblas, D Bernal, A Bolado-Ortiz, S Vilchez, F Bolás-Fernández, A M Espino, M Trelis, A Osuna
Previous studies have established that an increased Th-9 response creates a hostile environment for nematode parasites. Given that IL-23, a cytokine required for maintenance of the IL-17-secreting phenotype, has inhibitory effects on IL-9 production, we hypothesized that reducing circulating IL-23 by treatment with anti-IL-23 antibodies would reduce the establishment and development of parasitic intestinal nematodes. In this study, we show that animals treated with anti-IL-23 monoclonal antibodies showed a drastic reduction in the number of mouse pinworms (Aspiculuris tetraptera) recovered from the intestine (p < 0...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726683/deciphering-the-mechanical-properties-of-type-iii-secretion-system-espa-protein-by-single-molecule-force-spectroscopy
#2
Hila Nadler, Lihi Shaulov, Yossi Blitsman, Moran Mordechai, Jurgen Jopp, Neta Sal-Man, Ronen Berkovich
Bacterial type III secretion systems inject virulence factors by bacterial pathogens into host-cells during bacterial infection. In enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, this system contains an external filament, formed by a self-oligomerizing protein called E. coli secreted protein A (EspA). The EspA filament penetrates the thick viscous mucus layer to facilitate the attachment of the bacteria to the gut-epithelium. To do that, the EspA filament requires noteworthy mechanical endurance considering the mechanical shear stresses found within the intestinal tract...
May 4, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702672/characterization-of-hiv-1-gp120-antibody-specificities-induced-in-anogenital-secretions-of-rv144-vaccine-recipients-after-late-boost-immunizations
#3
Siriwat Akapirat, Chitraporn Karnasuta, Sandhya Vasan, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Sirinan Madnote, Hathairat Savadsuk, Surawach Rittiroongrad, Jiraporn Puangkaew, Sanjay Phogat, James Tartaglia, Faruk Sinangil, Mark S de Souza, Jean-Louis Excler, Jerome H Kim, Merlin L Robb, Nelson L Michael, Viseth Ngauy, Robert J O'Connell, Nicos Karasavvas
Sexual transmission is the principal driver of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. Understanding HIV vaccine-induced immune responses at mucosal surfaces can generate hypotheses regarding mechanisms of protection, and may influence vaccine development. The RV144 (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00223080) efficacy trial showed protection against HIV infections but mucosal samples were not collected, therefore, the contribution of mucosal antibodies to preventing HIV-1 acquisition is unknown. Here, we report the generation, magnitude and persistence of antibody responses to recombinant gp120 envelope and antigens including variable one and two loop scaffold antigens (gp70V1V2) previously shown to correlate with risk in RV144...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698781/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-investigation-of-anti-inflammatory-and-mucus-regulatory-activities-of-a-fixed-combination-of-thyme-and-primula-extracts
#4
Jan Seibel, Kirill Kryshen, Judit E Pongrácz, Martin D Lehner
Hypersecretion of viscous mucus is one of the hallmark symptoms of acute and chronic bronchitis and typically develops secondary to an inflammation of the airway epithelium. Bronchipret® TP film-coated tablets (BRO), an herbal medicinal product containing a fixed combination of thyme herb and primula root extracts, has been successfully used clinically for the treatment of acute bronchitis for more than two decades. However, the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of action have not been fully understood so far...
April 23, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680833/lps-exposure-in-early-life-protects-against-mucus-hypersecretion-in-ovalbumin-induced-asthma-by-down-regulation-of-the-il-13-and-jak-stat6-pathways
#5
Fengxia Ding, Bo Liu, Wenjing Zou, Daiyin Tian, Qubei Li, Jihong Dai, Zhengxiu Luo, Zhou Fu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous studies have shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure may have a protective effect on asthma by reducing airway hyper-responsiveness, airway inflammation and serum IgE levels. However, there are few studies investigating the effect of LPS on mucous secretion in asthma. In this study, we evaluate the relationship between LPS pre-treatment in infant mice and airway mucus hypersecretion in an OVA (ovalbumin)-induced asthma model, and further explore the mechanisms behind this effect...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604272/resistin-upregulates-muc5ac-b-mucin-gene-expression-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#6
Soyoung Kwak, Yong-Dae Kim, Hyung Gyun Na, Chang Hoon Bae, Si-Youn Song, Yoon Seok Choi
Adipokines, a group of proteins including leptin, visfatin, resistin, and adiponectin, are produced by adipocytes. Among adipokines, resistin is implicated in insulin resistance and inflammatory response modulation. Mucus hypersecretion has been greatly linked to airway diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and rhinosinusitis. Increasing evidence has indicated that adipokines, such as leptin and visfatin, play important regulatory roles in various biological processes involved in mucus secretion...
March 28, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582511/comparative-histochemical-analysis-of-glycoconjugates-in-the-nasal-vestibule-of-camel-and-sheep
#7
Dalia Ibrahim, Nobuaki Nakamuta
While Corriedale sheep survive in a wide range of climates, which prevents them to specialize for one climatic condition only, dromedary camels strictly adapted to desert areas. This demands more adaptive mechanisms to hot, dry conditions in camels than in sheep. Being the entrance of the nasal cavity, nasal vestibule is subjected to various environmental stressors. A protective way is the lining epithelium which is cornified in camel, but not in sheep. Mucus nasal secretions also play a key role in the protection of underlyings...
March 26, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565501/the-relationship-between-muc5ac-high-secretion-and-munc18b-upregulation-in-obese-asthma
#8
W-M Hao, S-F Sun, H-P Tang
OBJECTIVE: Mucus production and hypersecretion are important pathophysiological features of asthma. Airway mucus secretion is more serious in obese asthma. Therefore, it is of great significance to elucidate the mechanism of asthma airway mucus high secretion in improving the control of asthma and the prognosis of obese asthmatic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Obese asthmatic mice model was established to test the airway resistance and mucin secretion by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501492/mucus-reduction-promotes-acetyl-salicylic-acid-induced-small-intestinal-mucosal-injury-in-rats
#9
Yosuke Suyama, Osamu Handa, Yuji Naito, Shun Takayama, Rieko Mukai, Chihiro Ushiroda, Atsushi Majima, Yuriko Yasuda-Onozawa, Yasuki Higashimura, Akifumi Fukui, Osamu Dohi, Tetsuya Okayama, Naohisa Yoshida, Kazuhiro Katada, Kazuhiro Kamada, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Takeshi Ishikawa, Tomohisa Takagi, Hideyuki Konishi, Yoshito Itoh
BACKGROUND: Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) is a useful drug for the secondary prevention of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases, but it has adverse effects on the small intestinal mucosa. The pathogenesis and prophylaxis of ASA-induced small intestinal injury remain unclear. In this study, we focused on the intestinal mucus, as the gastrointestinal tract is covered by mucus, which exhibits protective effects against various gastrointestinal diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ASA was injected into the duodenum of rats, and small intestinal mucosal injury was evaluated using Evans blue dye...
March 25, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485849/intestinal-mucin-induces-more-endocytosis-but-less-transcytosis-of-nanoparticles-across-enterocytes-by-triggering-nanoclustering-and-strengthening-the-retrograde-pathway
#10
Dan Yang, Dechun Liu, Mengmeng Qin, Binlong Chen, Siyang Song, Wenbing Dai, Hua Zhang, Xueqing Wang, Yiguang Wang, Bing He, Xing Tang, Qiang Zhang
Mucus, which is secreted by the goblet cells of enterocytes, constitutes the first obstacle encountered for the intestinal absorption of nanomedicines. For decades, mucus has simply been regarded as a physical barrier that hinders the permeation and absorption of drugs, because of its high viscosity and reticular structure, whereas the interaction of mucus ingredients with nanomedicines is usually neglected. It is unclear whether glycoproteins, as the main components of mucus, interact with nanomedicines. We also do not know how the potential interaction affects the subsequent transportation of nanomedicines through the intestinal epithelium...
April 11, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471086/gastroprotective-effect-of-ethanol-extracts-of-cladodes-and-roots-of-pilosocereus-gounellei-a-weber-ex-k-schum-bly-ex-rowl-cactaceae-on-experimental-ulcer-models
#11
Glaubert A Sousa, Irisdalva S Oliveira, Francilene V Silva-Freitas, Ana Flávia S C Viana, Benedito P S Neto, Francisco Valmor M Cunha, Rodrigo L G Gonçalves, Antônio Carlos M Lima Filho, Maurício P M Amaral, Rita de Cássia M Oliveira, Pedro D Fernandes, Jéssica K S Maciel, Tânia Maria S da Silva, Maria de Fátima V Souza, Francisco A Oliveira
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pilosocereus gounellei Cactaceae), popularly known as "xique xique", is a species native from Caatinga region of Northeast Brazil, which is used by traditional communities in folk medicine for a variety of health problems, especially inflammatory processes and gastritis. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study investigates the possible gastric antiulceractivity of ethanol extracts obtained from the cladodes and roots of Pilosocereus gounellei (EECPG and EERPG, respectively) and mechanisms of action underlying this effect...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456654/establishment-of-different-experimental-asthma-models-in-mice
#12
Qian-Lin Yu, Zhangbo Chen
Asthma is a complex disease. The heterogeneity of airway inflammation during asthma indicates there are different mechanisms involved. In order to further study the mechanisms of asthma, different mouse models were established to mimic corresponding subtypes of asthma in clinic. Eosinophilic asthma was established by intraperitoneal injections of ovalbumin (OVA) on day 0 and day 7, followed by inhalation of aerosolized OVA on days 14-17. Neutrophilic asthma was established by transtracheal administration of a high dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 µg) on days 15 and 17 in combination with OVA sensitization and challenge as described previously...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455967/gastroprotective-activity-of-polysaccharide-from-hericium-erinaceus-against-ethanol-induced-gastric-mucosal-lesion-and-pylorus-ligation-induced-gastric-ulcer-and-its-antioxidant-activities
#13
Xiao-Yin Wang, Jun-Yi Yin, Ming-Ming Zhao, Shi-Yu Liu, Shao-Ping Nie, Ming-Yong Xie
The gastroprotective activity of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide was investigated in rats. The antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Pre-treatment of polysaccharide could reduce ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer. The polysaccharide exhibited scavenging activities of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrozyl and hydroxyl radicals, and ferrous ion-chelating ability. In the pylorus ligation-induced model, gastric secretions (volume of gastric juice, gastric acid, pepsin and mucus) of ulcer rats administrated with polysaccharide were regulated...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446320/inhibition-of-mucin-secretion-via-glucocorticoid-induced-regulation-of-calcium-related-proteins-in-mouse-lung
#14
Jin Yong An, Changhwan Ahn, Hee Young Kang, Eui-Bae Jeung
Calcium is important for physiological functioning in many tissues and is essential in mucus secretion and muscle contraction. Intracellular concentrations of calcium are regulated by calcium-related proteins such as TRPV4, TRPV6, CaBP-9k, NCX1, and PMCA1. In this study, the relationship between secretion of pulmonary mucus and calcium regulation was investigated. To confirm the effect of steroid hormones, immature mice were injected with estrogen (E2) or progesterone (P4) and mature mice were injected with dexamethasone (DEX)...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443739/effects-of-exercise-on-secretion-transport-inflammation-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-noncystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Daniele Oliveira Dos Santos, Hugo Celso Dutra de Souza, José Antônio Baddini-Martinez, Ercy Mara Cipulo Ramos, Ada Clarice Gastaldi
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is characterized by pathological and irreversible bronchial dilatation caused by the inefficient mucus and microorganism clearance and progression of inflammatory processes. The most frequent characteristic is the increase in bronchial mucus production resulting in slower transport and damage to the mucociliary transport. AIMS: To evaluate the effects of exercise on mucus transport, inflammation, and resistance of the respiratory and autonomic nervous systems and subsequent effects on quality of life in patients with bronchiectasis who are enrolled in a pulmonary rehabilitation program...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432468/effects-of-manual-hyperinflation-clinical-practice-versus-expert-recommendation-on-displacement-of-mucus-simulant-a-laboratory-study
#16
Marcia S Volpe, Juliane M Naves, Gabriel G Ribeiro, Gualberto Ruas, Mauro R Tucci
INTRODUCTION: Manual hyperinflation (MH), a maneuver applied in mechanically ventilated patients to facilitate secretion removal, has large variation in its performance. Effectiveness of MH is usually evaluated by its capacity to generate an expiratory flow bias. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of MH-and its resulting flow bias-applied according to clinical practice versus according to expert recommendation on mucus movement in a lung model simulating a mechanically ventilated patient...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427515/injury-repair-inflammation-and-metaplasia-in-the-stomach
#17
Anne R Meyer, James R Goldenring
The development of intestinal-type gastric cancer is preceded by the emergence of metaplastic cell lineages in the gastric mucosa. In particular, intestinal metaplasia and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) have been associated with the pathological progression to intestinal-type gastric cancer. The development of SPEM represents a physiological response to damage that recruits reparative cells to sites of mucosal injury. Metaplastic cell lineages are characterized by mucus secretion, adding a protective barrier to the epithelium...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425465/excess-mucin-impairs-subglottic-epithelial-host-defense-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#18
Jason Powell, James Garnett, Michael W Mather, Faye A H Cooles, Andrew Nelson, Bernard Verdon, Jon Scott, Kasim Jiwa, Marie-Hélène Ruchaud-Sparagano, Stephen P Cummings, John D Perry, Stephen E Wright, Janet A Wilson, Jeffrey Pearson, Chris Ward, A John Simpson
RATIONALE: Aspiration of infective subglottic secretions causes ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mechanically ventilated patients. Mechanisms underlying subglottic colonization in critical illness have not been defined, limiting strategies for targeted prevention of VAP. OBJECTIVES: To characterize subglottic host defense dysfunction in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). To determine whether subglottic mucin contributes to neutrophil phagocytic impairment and bacterial growth...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391451/atp12a-promotes-mucus-dysfunction-during-type-2-airway-inflammation
#19
Alison T Lennox, Stefanie L Coburn, John A Leech, Elisa M Heidrich, Thomas R Kleyman, Sally E Wenzel, Joseph M Pilewski, Timothy E Corcoran, Mike M Myerburg
Allergic airway disease is known to cause significant morbidity due to impaired mucociliary clearance, however the mechanism that leads to the mucus dysfunction is not entirely understood. Interleukin 13 (IL-13), a key mediator of Type 2 (T2) inflammation, profoundly alters the ion transport properties of airway epithelium. However, these electrophysiological changes cannot explain the thick, tenacious airway mucus that characterizes the clinical phenotype. Here we report that IL-13 dramatically increases the airway surface liquid (ASL) viscosity in cultured primary human bronchial epithelial cells and thereby inhibits mucus clearance...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343807/house-dust-mite-induced-allergic-airway-disease-is-attenuated-in-cd11ccreil-4r%C3%AE-l%C3%A2-x-mice
#20
Natalie Eva Nieuwenhuizen, Frank Kirstein, Jennifer Claire Hoving, Frank Brombacher
The precise mechanisms leading to development of T helper type (Th)2-driven allergic responses are unknown. We aimed to determine how IL-4 receptor alpha (IL-4Rα) signaling on CD11c+ cells influences allergen-induced Th2 responses in mice. CD11ccreIL-4Rα-/l°x mice, deficient in IL-4Rα on dendritic cells and alveolar macrophages, were compared to IL-4Rα-/l°x littermate controls in models of allergic airway disease induced by OVA/alum, OVA alone or house dust mite. Cytokine responses, eosinophil and neutrophil infiltration into the lungs, airway hyperreactivity and mucus hypersecretion were evaluated after allergen challenge...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
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