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Mechanism secretion of mucus

Yosuke Suyama, Osamu Handa, Yuji Naito, Shun Takayama, Rieko Mukai, Chihiro Ushiroda, Atsushi Majima, Yuriko Yasuda-Onozawa, Yasuki Higashimura, Akifumi Fukui, Osamu Dohi, Tetsuya Okayama, Naohisa Yoshida, Kazuhiro Katada, Kazuhiro Kamada, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Takeshi Ishikawa, Tomohisa Takagi, Hideyuki Konishi, Yoshito Itoh
BACKGROUND: Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) is a useful drug for the secondary prevention of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases, but it has adverse effects on the small intestinal mucosa. The pathogenesis and prophylaxis of ASA-induced small intestinal injury remain unclear. In this study, we focused on the intestinal mucus, as the gastrointestinal tract is covered by mucus, which exhibits protective effects against various gastrointestinal diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ASA was injected into the duodenum of rats, and small intestinal mucosal injury was evaluated using Evans blue dye...
February 28, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Dan Yang, Dechun Liu, Mengmeng Qin, Binlong Chen, Siyang Song, Wenbing Dai, Hua Zhang, Xueqing Wang, Yiguang Wang, Bing He, Xing Tang, Qiang Zhang
Mucus, secreted by the goblet cells of enterocytes, constitutes the first obstacle encountered for the intestinal absorption of nanomedicines. For decades, mucus has simply been regarded as a physical barrier that hinders the permeation and absorption of drugs because of its high viscosity and reticular structure, whereas the interaction of mucus ingredients with nanomedicines is usually neglected. It is unclear whether glycoproteins, as the main components of mucus, interact with nanomedicines. We also do not know how the potential interaction affects the subsequent transportation of nanomedicines through the intestinal epithelium...
February 27, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Glaubert A Sousa, Irisdalva S Oliveira, Francilene V Silva-Freitas, Ana Flávia S C Viana, Benedito P S Neto, Francisco Valmor M Cunha, Rodrigo L G Gonçalves, Antônio Carlos M Lima Filho, Maurício P M Amaral, Rita de Cássia M Oliveira, Pedro D Fernandes, Jéssica K S Maciel, Tânia Maria S da Silva, Maria de Fátima V Souza, Francisco A Oliveira
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pilosocereus gounellei Cactaceae), popularly known as "xique xique", is a species native from Caatinga region of Northeast Brazil, which is used by traditional communities in folk medicine for a variety of health problems, especially inflammatory processes and gastritis. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study investigates the possible gastric antiulceractivity of ethanol extracts obtained from the cladodes and roots of Pilosocereus gounellei (EECPG and EERPG, respectively) and mechanisms of action underlying this effect...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Qian-Lin Yu, Zhangbo Chen
Asthma is a complex disease. The heterogeneity of airway inflammation during asthma indicates there are different mechanisms involved. In order to further study the mechanisms of asthma, different mouse models were established to mimic corresponding subtypes of asthma in clinic. Eosinophilic asthma was established by intraperitoneal injections of ovalbumin (OVA) on day 0 and day 7, followed by inhalation of aerosolized OVA on days 14-17. Neutrophilic asthma was established by transtracheal administration of a high dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 µg) on days 15 and 17 in combination with OVA sensitization and challenge as described previously...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Xiao-Yin Wang, Jun-Yi Yin, Ming-Ming Zhao, Shi-Yu Liu, Shao-Ping Nie, Ming-Yong Xie
The gastroprotective activity of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide was investigated in rats. The antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Pre-treatment of polysaccharide could reduce ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer. The polysaccharide exhibited scavenging activities of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrozyl and hydroxyl radicals, and ferrous ion-chelating ability. In the pylorus ligation-induced model, gastric secretions (volume of gastric juice, gastric acid, pepsin and mucus) of ulcer rats administrated with polysaccharide were regulated...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jin Yong An, Changhwan Ahn, Hee Young Kang, Eui-Bae Jeung
Calcium is important for physiological functioning in many tissues and is essential in mucus secretion and muscle contraction. Intracellular concentrations of calcium are regulated by calcium-related proteins such as TRPV4, TRPV6, CaBP-9k, NCX1, and PMCA1. In this study, the relationship between secretion of pulmonary mucus and calcium regulation was investigated. To confirm the effect of steroid hormones, immature mice were injected with estrogen (E2) or progesterone (P4) and mature mice were injected with dexamethasone (DEX)...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Daniele Oliveira Dos Santos, Hugo Celso Dutra de Souza, José Antônio Baddini-Martinez, Ercy Mara Cipulo Ramos, Ada Clarice Gastaldi
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is characterized by pathological and irreversible bronchial dilatation caused by the inefficient mucus and microorganism clearance and progression of inflammatory processes. The most frequent characteristic is the increase in bronchial mucus production resulting in slower transport and damage to the mucociliary transport. AIMS: To evaluate the effects of exercise on mucus transport, inflammation, and resistance of the respiratory and autonomic nervous systems and subsequent effects on quality of life in patients with bronchiectasis who are enrolled in a pulmonary rehabilitation program...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Marcia S Volpe, Juliane M Naves, Gabriel G Ribeiro, Gualberto Ruas, Mauro R Tucci
INTRODUCTION: Manual hyperinflation (MH), a maneuver applied in mechanically ventilated patients to facilitate secretion removal, has large variation in its performance. Effectiveness of MH is usually evaluated by its capacity to generate an expiratory flow bias. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of MH-and its resulting flow bias-applied according to clinical practice versus according to expert recommendation on mucus movement in a lung model simulating a mechanically ventilated patient...
2018: PloS One
Anne R Meyer, James R Goldenring
The development of intestinal-type gastric cancer is preceded by the emergence of metaplastic cell lineages in the gastric mucosa. In particular, intestinal metaplasia and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) have been associated with the pathological progression to intestinal-type gastric cancer. The development of SPEM represents a physiological response to damage that recruits reparative cells to sites of mucosal injury. Metaplastic cell lineages are characterized by mucus secretion, adding a protective barrier to the epithelium...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Jason Powell, James Garnett, Michael W Mather, Faye A H Cooles, Andrew Nelson, Bernard Verdon, Jon Scott, Kasim Jiwa, Marie-Hélène Ruchaud-Sparagano, Stephen P Cummings, John D Perry, Stephen E Wright, Janet A Wilson, Jeffrey Pearson, Chris Ward, A John Simpson
RATIONALE: Aspiration of infective subglottic secretions causes ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mechanically ventilated patients. Mechanisms underlying subglottic colonization in critical illness have not been defined, limiting strategies for targeted prevention of VAP. OBJECTIVES: To characterize subglottic host defense dysfunction in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). To determine whether subglottic mucin contributes to neutrophil phagocytic impairment and bacterial growth...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Alison T Lennox, Stefanie L Coburn, John A Leech, Elisa M Heidrich, Thomas R Kleyman, Sally E Wenzel, Joseph M Pilewski, Timothy E Corcoran, Mike M Myerburg
Allergic airway disease is known to cause significant morbidity due to impaired mucociliary clearance, however the mechanism that leads to the mucus dysfunction is not entirely understood. Interleukin 13 (IL-13), a key mediator of Type 2 (T2) inflammation, profoundly alters the ion transport properties of airway epithelium. However, these electrophysiological changes cannot explain the thick, tenacious airway mucus that characterizes the clinical phenotype. Here we report that IL-13 dramatically increases the airway surface liquid (ASL) viscosity in cultured primary human bronchial epithelial cells and thereby inhibits mucus clearance...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Natalie Eva Nieuwenhuizen, Frank Kirstein, Jennifer Claire Hoving, Frank Brombacher
The precise mechanisms leading to development of T helper type (Th)2-driven allergic responses are unknown. We aimed to determine how IL-4 receptor alpha (IL-4Rα) signaling on CD11c+ cells influences allergen-induced Th2 responses in mice. CD11ccreIL-4Rα-/l°x mice, deficient in IL-4Rα on dendritic cells and alveolar macrophages, were compared to IL-4Rα-/l°x littermate controls in models of allergic airway disease induced by OVA/alum, OVA alone or house dust mite. Cytokine responses, eosinophil and neutrophil infiltration into the lungs, airway hyperreactivity and mucus hypersecretion were evaluated after allergen challenge...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chengcheng Ren, Jelleke Dokter-Fokkens, Susana Figueroa Lozano, Qiuxiang Zhang, Bart J de Haan, Hao Zhang, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos
SCOPE: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are recognized to promote gastrointestinal health by mechanisms that are not fully understood. LABs might modulate the mucus and thereby enhance intestinal barrier function. Herein, we investigated effects of different LAB strains and species on goblet cell genes involved in mucus synthesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Gene expression profiles of goblet cell-associated products (mucin MUC2, trefoil factor 3, resistin-like molecule β, carbohydrate sulfotransferase 5, and galactose-3-O-sulfotransferase 2) induced by LAB or their derived conditioned medium in human goblet cell line LS174T were studied...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Wenda Zhou, Ying Chen, Terrence Roh, Yinan Lin, Shengjie Ling, Siwei Zhao, James D Lin, Noor Khalil, Dana M Cairns, Eleana Manousiouthakis, Megan Tse, David L Kaplan
The three-dimensional (3D) cultivation of intestinal cells and tissues in dynamic bioreactor systems to represent in vivo intestinal microenvironments is essential for developing regenerative medicine treatments for intestinal diseases. We have previously developed in vitro human intestinal tissue systems using a 3D porous silk scaffold system with intestinal architectures and topographical features for the adhesion, growth, and differentiation of intestinal cells under static culture conditions. In this study, we designed and fabricated a multifunctional bioreactor system that incorporates pre-epithelialized 3D silk scaffolds in a dynamic culture environment for in vitro engineering of human intestine tissues...
January 8, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Jody L Gookin, Kyle G Mathews, John Cullen, Gabriela Seiler
Mucocele formation is characterized by secretion of abnormally thick mucus by the gallbladder epithelium of dogs that may cause obstruction of the bile duct or rupture of the gallbladder. The disease is increasingly recognized and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. The cause of gallbladder mucocele formation in dogs is unknown. There is a strong breed predisposition and affected dogs have a high incidence of concurrent endocrinopathy or hyperlipidemia. These observations suggest a significant influence of both genetic and metabolic factors on disease pathogenesis...
2018: PloS One
Susan E Birket, Joy M Davis, Courtney M Fernandez, Katherine L Tuggle, Ashley M Oden, Kengyeh K Chu, Guillermo J Tearney, Michelle V Fanucchi, Eric J Sorscher, Steven M Rowe
The mechanisms underlying the development and natural progression of the airway mucus defect in cystic fibrosis (CF) remain largely unclear. New animal models of CF, coupled with imaging using micro-optical coherence tomography, can lead to insights regarding these questions. The Cftr-/- (KO) rat allows for longitudinal examination of the development and progression of airway mucus abnormalities. The KO rat exhibits decreased periciliary depth, hyperacidic pH, and increased mucus solid content percentage; however, the transport rates and viscoelastic properties of the mucus are unaffected until the KO rat ages...
January 11, 2018: JCI Insight
Dayane Moreira da Silva, José Luís Rodrigues Martins, Danillo Ramos de Oliveira, Iziara Ferreira Florentino, Daiany Priscilla Bueno da Silva, Fernanda Cristina Alcântara Dos Santos, Elson Alves Costa
Gastric ulcer affects people worldwide, and its inefficacy and recurrence have fueled the search for new therapeutic strategies. Despite the well-known use of allantoin in medicines and cosmetic products, its effect has not yet been studied with regard to gastric ulcer. Hence, the aim of the present study was to explore the pharmaco-mechanistic efficacy of allantoin against commonly harmful agents that cause injuries to the stomach. Ethanol, indomethacin, and stress-induced gastric ulcer models were adopted, in addition to pylorus ligature, a quantification of vascular permeability, glutathione (GSH), gastric adhered mucus, prostaglandin (PGE2), pro-inflammatory cytokines levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and catalase (CAT) activities...
December 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
Hao Wang, Ting Yang, Tao Wang, Nanya Hao, Yongchun Shen, Yanqiu Wu, Zhicheng Yuan, Lei Chen, Fuqiang Wen
BACKGROUNDS: Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced airway mucus hypersecretion and inflammation are the prominent features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As an anti-inflammatory flavonoid, phloretin was found to be involved in various inflammatory disorders such as sepsis. In this study, the effects of phloretin on CS-induced airway mucin secretion and inflammation were investigated in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Phloretin dissolved in 1% DMSO was daily injected intraperitoneally to mice, which were then exposed to CS for four weeks...
December 12, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
Xiao-Hua Zhu, Qiu-Gen Li, Jun Wang, Guo-Zhu Hu, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Qing-Hua Hu, Gang Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the molecular mechanism of action of BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 in treating airway remodeling in asthmatic mice. METHODS: A total of 24 mice were randomly divided into control group, ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma group (OVA group), and JQ1 intervention group (JQ1+OVA group), with 8 mice in each group. OVA sensitization/challenge was performed to establish a mouse model of asthma. At 1 hour before challenge, the mice in the JQ1+OVA group were given intraperitoneal injection of JQ1 solution (50 μg/g)...
December 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
A P Amang, C Mezui, G T Siwe, J Emakoua, G Mbah, E Z Nkwengoua, G E Enow-Orock, P V Tan
Objective: This work investigated the healing and antisecretory effects of the aqueous extract of Eremomastax speciosa on "unhealed gastric ulcers" associated with gastric acid hypersecretion. Materials and Methods: "Unhealed gastric ulcers" were induced using indomethacin following the establishment of acetic-acid-induced chronic gastric ulcers. The extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, per os) was administered concomitantly with indomethacin (1 mg/kg, subcutaneously)...
2017: BioMed Research International
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