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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341867/genetic-and-microbiome-influence-on-lipid-metabolism-and-dyslipidemia
#1
Maria Matey Hernandez, Frances Mk Mk Williams, Tilly Potter, Ana M Valdes, Tim Spector, Cristina Menni
Disruption in the metabolism of lipids is broadly classified under dyslipidemias and relate to the concentration of lipids in the blood. Dyslipidemia is a predictor of cardio-metabolic disease including obesity. Traditionally, the large inter-individual variation has been related to genetic factors and diet. Genome-wide association studies have identified over 150 loci related to abnormal lipid levels, explaining approximately 40% of the total variation. Part of the unexplained variance has been attributed to environmental factors including diet, but the extent of the dietary contribution remains unquantified...
December 20, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338066/endoscopic-scoring-indices-for-evaluation-of-disease-activity-in-ulcerative-colitis
#2
REVIEW
Nadia Mohammed Vashist, Mark Samaan, Mahmoud H Mosli, Claire E Parker, John K MacDonald, Sigrid A Nelson, G Y Zou, Brian G Feagan, Reena Khanna, Vipul Jairath
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic assessment of mucosal disease activity is routinely used to determine eligibility and response to therapy in clinical trials of ulcerative colitis. The operating properties of the existing endoscopic scoring indices are unclear. OBJECTIVES: A systematic review was undertaken to evaluate the development and operating characteristics of endoscopic scoring indices for the evaluation of ulcerative colitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and CENTRAL from inception to 5 July 2016...
January 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335002/leishmania-mortality-in-sand-fly-blood-meal-is-not-species-specific-and-does-not-result-from-direct-effect-of-proteinases
#3
Katerina Pruzinova, Jovana Sadlova, Jitka Myskova, Tereza Lestinova, Jozef Janda, Petr Volf
BACKGROUND: Leishmania development in sand flies is confined to the alimentary tract and is closely connected with blood meal digestion. Previously, it has been published that activities of sand fly midgut proteases are harmful to Leishmania, especially to amastigote-promastigote transition forms. However, our experiments with various Leishmania-sand fly pairs gave quite opposite results. METHODS: We evaluated the effect of semi-digested midgut content on different life stages of Leishmania donovani and Leishmania major in vitro...
January 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334660/global-proteomic-analysis-of-water-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-saliva-at-different-stages-of-estrous-cycle-using-high-throughput-mass-spectrometry
#4
N G Shashikumar, R K Baithalu, S Bathla, S A Ali, P Rawat, A Kumaresan, S Kumar, B R Maharana, G Singh, D S Puneeth Kumar, S K Singh, S S Lathwal, L Jaiswal, T K Mohanty, A K Mohanty
Accurate and efficient detection of estrus is one of the major constraints for exploitation of the production potential of buffalo owing to its poor manifestation of estrus signs, seasonal differences in expression and higher incidences of silent estrus (29%). The current study focused on identification of estrus specific candidate proteins in saliva of buffaloes. Estrus was detected based on behavioral signs in response to the teaser and changes in reproductive organs and confirmed by per-rectal examination, trans-rectal USG of reproductive organs, cervico-vaginal mucus characteristics and blood serum progesterone estimation...
January 9, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333038/antihyperglycemic-potential-of-saponin-enriched-fraction-from-pithecellobium-dulce-benth-seed-extract
#5
Mahesh Kumar, Jeyabalan Govindrajan, Narendra Kumar Nyola
Background: Indian traditional system of medicine uses Pithecellobium dulce for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Objectives: This study aims to develop an extract rich in saponins derived from seeds of the plant and to evaluate its antihyperglycemic potential in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods: Defatted seeds were extracted with methanol and processed to afford saponin-enriched fraction (Pithecellobium dulce saponin-enriched fraction [PDSEF])...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332155/prevalence-of-the-pfdhfr-and-pfdhps-mutations-among-asymptomatic-pregnant-women-in-southeast-nigeria
#6
Ekpereonne Esu, Costanza Tacoli, Prabhanjan Gai, Nicole Berens-Riha, Michael Pritsch, Thomas Loescher, Martin Meremikwu
Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is the recommended drug for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Resistance to SP is related to mutations in the dhfr and dhps gene of Plasmodium falciparum. This study determined the prevalence of Pfdhfr and Pfdhps polymorphisms found in asymptomatic pregnant women attending antenatal care in Calabar, Nigeria. From October 2013 to November 2014, asymptomatic pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics were enrolled after obtaining informed consent...
January 13, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325118/interactive-effects-of-phosphorus-calcium-and-phytase-supplements-on-products-of-phytate-degradation-in-the-digestive-tract-of-broiler-chickens
#7
V Sommerfeld, M Schollenberger, I Kühn, M Rodehutscord
This study aimed to distinguish between the single and interactive effects of phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and phytase on products of phytate degradation, including the disappearance of myo-inositol (MI), P, Ca, and amino acids (AA) in different segments of the digestive tract in broiler chickens. Additionally, all dephosphorylation steps from myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis (dihydrogen phosphate) (InsP6) to MI were investigated in the digesta of the terminal ileum. Unsexed Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated to 56 pens with 19 birds per pen, and assigned to one of 8 dietary treatments...
January 6, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311638/an-assay-for-the-identification-of-plasmodium-simium-infection-for-diagnosis-of-zoonotic-malaria-in-the-brazilian-atlantic-forest
#8
Denise Anete Madureira de Alvarenga, Richard Culleton, Anielle de Pina-Costa, Danielle Fonseca Rodrigues, Cesare Bianco, Sidnei Silva, Ana Júlia Dutra Nunes, Julio César de Souza, Zelinda Maria Braga Hirano, Sílvia Bahadian Moreira, Alcides Pissinatti, Filipe Vieira Santos de Abreu, André Luiz Lisboa Areas, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Mariano Gustavo Zalis, Maria de Fátima Ferreira-da-Cruz, Patricia Brasil, Cláudio Tadeu Daniel-Ribeiro, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito
Zoonotic malaria poses a unique problem for malaria control. Autochthonous cases of human malaria in the Atlantic Forest have recently been attributed to Plasmodium simium, a parasite that commonly infects non-human primates in this Brazilian biome. However, due to its close similarity at both the morphological and molecular level to Plasmodium vivax, the diagnosis of P. simium in this region remains problematic. Therefore, a diagnostic assay able to accurately identify P. simium is important for malaria surveillance...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310696/methods-for-detecting-gemmata-spp-bacteremia-in-the-microbiology-laboratory
#9
Jacques-Robert Christen, Edwin Edmond, Michel Drancourt
OBJECTIVE: Gemmata bacteria are fastidious, Gram-negative and aerobic. The only representatives are Gemmata obscuriglobus and Gemmata massiliana. These Planctomycetes appear to be a part of human digestive tract microbiome, and G. massiliana has been isolated from water. Further specific detection in the blood of two patients with febrile neutropenia suggests that Gemmata bacteremia may remain under-documented. The objective of this study was to develop an effective protocol to document Gemmata spp...
January 8, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300969/influence-of-phytase-or-myo-inositol-supplements-on-performance-and-phytate-degradation-products-in-the-crop-ileum-and-blood-of-broiler-chickens
#10
V Sommerfeld, S Künzel, M Schollenberger, I Kühn, M Rodehutscord
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementation with free myo-inositol (MI) or graded levels of phytase on inositol phosphate (InsP) degradation, concentrations of MI in the digestive tract and blood, bone mineralization, and prececal digestibility of amino acids (AA). Ross 308 broiler hatchlings were allocated to 40 pens with 11 birds each and assigned to one of 5 treatments. The birds were fed a starter diet until d 11 and a grower diet from d 11 to d 22. All diets were based on wheat, soybean meal, and corn...
December 29, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289464/kinetics-of-pancreatic-tissue-proliferation-in-a-polymeric-platform-in-mice
#11
Luciana Xavier Pereira, Celso Tarso Rodrigues Viana, Laura Alejandra Ariza Orellano, Simone Aparecida de Almeida, Marcela Guimarães Takahashi de Lazari, Letícia Chinait Couto, Anilton Cesar Vasconcelos, Silvia Passos Andrade, Paula Peixoto Campos
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pancreas regenerative capacity after injury is not always sufficient to comply with the body's requirement of digestive enzymes and hormones. We present an alternative system to induce pancreas parenchyma proliferation (exocrine and endocrine components), rather than regeneration or remodeling in normoglycemic mice. METHODS: Porous discs of polyether-polyurethane were surgically placed adjacent to the native pancreas and removed at days 15, 30 and 45 after implantation...
December 21, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288925/effects-of-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-combined-with-estrogen-on-regulatory-t-cells-in-patients-with-premature-ovarian-insufficiency
#12
Kaijing Song, Huihua Cai, Dongmei Zhang, Ruichun Huang, Donghua Sun, Yuanli He
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) combined with estrogen on regulatory T cells (Tregs) in patients with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). METHODS: hADSCs were isolated by enzymatic digestion and identified by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from POI patients and healthy controls. PBMCs were cultured in the following experimental groups: the control group, hADSC group, estrogen group and combined group...
December 27, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287392/in-vivo-study-on-the-slow-release-of-glucose-in-vacuum-fried-matrices
#13
Ingrid Contardo, Manuel Villalón, Pedro Bouchon
In vitro studies have shown that vacuum frying may be an effective process to reduce starch digestibility as it may limit gelatinization; this is significant as overconsumption of starchy foods contributes to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although in vitro studies are an instrumental tool, in vivo studies allow observation of the overall effect on a living organism. The aim of this research was to assess how in vivo starch digestibility can be reduced when frying under vacuum (9.9 kPa), after feeding Sprague-Dawley rats, while also understanding its relationship to in vitro starch digestibility...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283003/a-particular-case-of-accidental-asphyxiation
#14
Cristian D'Ovidio, Enrica Rosato, Martina Bonelli, Aldo Carnevale, Luigi T Marsella
The case reported involved a 60-year-old man with psychiatric illness who was found dead at his home. He was almost naked and showed signs of death by violent asphyxiation, which led to the suspicion of homicide. Autopsy findings showed foreign material in the trachea and larynx. However, the partially digested content in his stomach, the study of the gastric content and the microscopic analysis the airways made it possible to define this as accidental death due to inhalation of material from a diaper. Toxicological analysis detected the presence of phenytoin, valproic acid, and phenobarbital in his blood, with values within the therapeutic ranges...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281178/a-novel-anti-hypertensive-peptide-identified-in-thermolysin-digested-rice-bran
#15
Naohisa Shobako, Yutaro Ogawa, Atsushi Ishikado, Kayo Harada, Etsuko Kobayashi, Hirohisa Suido, Takeshi Kusakari, Mariko Maeda, Makoto Suwa, Motonobu Matsumoto, Ryuhei Kanamoto, Kousaku Ohinata
SCOPE: Hypertension is a risk factor for arteriosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the anti-hypertensive effect of protease-digested rice bran in a spontaneously hypertension rat (SHR) model. We also purified a novel anti-hypertensive peptide from the digest. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thermolysin-digested rice bran (TRB) was administered to SHRs for 4 weeks, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured weekly using the tail-cuff method. TRB showed an anti-hypertensive effect in a dose-dependent manner...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280342/targeted-on-line-spe-lc-ms-ms-assay-for-the-quantitation-of-twelve-apolipoproteins-from-human-blood
#16
Julia Dittrich, Melanie Adam, Hilke Maas, Max Hecht, Madlen Reinicke, Renee Ruhaak, Christa Cobbaert, Christoph Engel, Kerstin Wirkner, Markus Löffler, Joachim Thiery, Uta Ceglarek
Laborious sample pretreatment of biological samples represents the most limiting factor for the translation of targeted proteomics assays from research to clinical routine. An optimized method for the simultaneous quantitation of twelve major apolipoproteins combining on-line solid-phase extraction and fast LC-MS/MS analysis in 6.5 min total run time was developed, reducing the manual sample pretreatment time of 3 μL serum or plasma by 60%. Within-run and between-day imprecisions below 10% and 15% (n = 10) and high recovery rates (94%-131%) were obtained applying the high-throughput setup...
December 26, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278656/biological-activities-of-camelina-and-sophia-seeds-phenolics-inhibition-of-ldl-oxidation-dna-damage-and-pancreatic-lipase-and-%C3%AE-glucosidase-activities
#17
Md Jiaur Rahman, Priyatharini Ambigaipalan, Fereidoon Shahidi
The free, esterified and insoluble-bound phenolics of defatted meals of camelina and sophia seeds were extracted using an ultrasonic-assisted procedure and alkaline hydrolysis. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated using DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays as well as inhibition of bleaching of β-carotene in an oil-in-water system. Moreover, inhibition activity against pancreatic lipase, α-glucosidase, low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and DNA damage induced by peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals were examined for all seed extracts using in vitro systems...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277248/communication-pathways-to-and-from-the-inner-ear-and-their-contributions-to-drug-delivery
#18
REVIEW
Alec N Salt, Keiko Hirose
The environment of the inner ear is highly regulated in a manner that some solutes are permitted to enter while others are excluded or transported out. Drug therapies targeting the sensory and supporting cells of the auditory and vestibular systems require the agent to gain entry to the fluid spaces of the inner ear, perilymph or endolymph, which surround the sensory organs. Access to the inner ear fluids from the vasculature is limited by the blood-labyrinth barriers, which include the blood-perilymph and blood-strial barriers...
December 19, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261132/molecular-determinants-of-malignant-brain-cancers-from-intracellular-alterations-to-invasion-mediated-by-extracellular-vesicles
#19
REVIEW
Gabriella Schiera, Carlo Maria Di Liegro, Italia Di Liegro
Malignant glioma cells invade the surrounding brain parenchyma, by migrating along the blood vessels, thus promoting cancer growth. The biological bases of these activities are grounded in profound alterations of the metabolism and the structural organization of the cells, which consequently acquire the ability to modify the surrounding microenvironment, by altering the extracellular matrix and affecting the properties of the other cells present in the brain, such as normal glial-, endothelial- and immune-cells...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261040/fluorescent-nanoparticles-present-in-coca-cola-and-pepsi-cola-physiochemical-properties-cytotoxicity-biodistribution-and-digestion-studies
#20
Shen Li, Chengkun Jiang, Haitao Wang, Shuang Cong, Mingqian Tan
Foodborne nanoparticles (NPs) have drawn great attention due to human health concerns. This study reports the detection of the presence of fluorescent NPs, about 5 nm, in two of the most popular beverages, Coca-Cola (Coke) and Pepsi-Cola (Pepsi). The NPs contain H, C and O, three elements with a tunable emission and with a quantum yield of 3.3 and 4.3% for Coke and Pepsi, respectively. The presence of sp3-hybridized carbon atoms of alcohols and ethers bonds was confirmed by NMR analysis. The NPs can be taken up by living cells and accumulate within cell membrane and cytoplasm...
December 20, 2017: Nanotoxicology
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