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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641602/milk-replacers-supplemented-with-either-l-arginine-or-l-carnitine-potentially-improve-muscle-maturation-of-early-reared-low-birth-weight-piglets-from-hyperprolific-sows
#1
J G Madsen, S Mueller, M Kreuzer, M B Bigler, P Silacci, G Bee
As a result of the selection for genotypes with greater sow prolificacy, litter size increased and, concomitantly, average litter birth weight and early postnatal survival rates of low birth weight (L-BtW) offspring decreased. This study compared the impact of l-carnitine (CAR) and l-arginine (ARG) supplemented with a milk replacer and fed to L-BtW piglets born from large litters from days 7 to 28 of age on growth performance, carcass composition, organ and Semitendinosus muscle (STM) development. A total of 30 female and castrated Swiss Large White piglets weaned at 7 days of age were assigned to three milk replacer diets containing either no supplement (CON), CAR (0...
June 23, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633597/effect-of-t-2-toxin-injected-shrimp-muscle-extracts-on-mouse-macrophage-cells-raw264-7
#2
Zhanrui Huang, Yaling Wang, Mei Qiu, Lijun Sun, Jianmeng Liao, Rundong Wang, Xiaodong Sun, Siyuan Bi, Ravi Gooneratne
Following intramuscular injections of 0.1 mL, 3 mg kg(-1 )BW(-1)(1/10 LD50) T-2 toxin (T-2), the tissue concentration of T-2 in shrimp was quantitatively detected using LC-MS/MS. The biological half-time (t1/2) of T-2 in blood was 40.47 ± 0.24 min. The highest number of intramuscular T-2 shrimp could tolerate when given at blood t1/2 intervals was 4. The shrimps which were injected 5 T-2 died. The T-2 toxin highest accumulation was 0.471 ± 0.012 ng g(-1 )BW(-1). The effect of toxic shrimp muscle subjected to different processing conditions (high pressure, trifluoroacetic acid, acid and alkali digestions, artificial digestive juice [to simulate exposure to gastric and intestinal juices]) on mouse macrophage cells (RAW267...
February 10, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631163/evaluation-of-streck-bct-and-paxgene-stabilised-blood-collection-tubes-for-cell-free-circulating-dna-studies-in-plasma
#3
Kristina Warton, Nicole L Yuwono, Mark J Cowley, Mark J McCabe, Alwin So, Caroline E Ford
INTRODUCTION: Blood samples for studies of circulating DNA in disease are often collected in clinical settings where prompt processing of samples is not possible. In order to avoid problems associated with leukocyte lysis after prolonged blood storage, stabilised blood tubes have been developed containing preservatives that prevent cell lysis. We evaluated Streck BCT tubes and PAXgene ccfDNA tubes, as well as standard EDTA blood collection tubes, in terms of DNA yield and fragment size...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630704/the-effects-of-a-post-exercise-carbohydrate-and-protein-supplement-on-repeat-performance-serum-chemistry-insulin-and-glucagon-in-competitive-weight-pulling-dogs
#4
Christopher W Frye, Gretchen M VanDeventer, Gina K Dinallo, Jennifer A Poplarski, Sabine Mann, Ella Pittman, Brian M Zanghi, Joseph J Wakshlag
The physiological demands of weight-pulling dogs have yet to be investigated. Two groups of competitive weight-pulling dogs both underwent two identical pull series 3 h apart. The control group (n 8) was compared with a group fed a rapidly digestible carbohydrate and protein supplement after the first pull series (n 9). Blood was drawn before and after each pull series as well as at 15 and 30 min after the first pull series finished. Biochemistry values remained unremarkable throughout the study in both groups regardless of supplementation or exercise over time...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629466/intra-articular-injection-in-the-knee-of-adipose-derived-stromal-cells-stromal-vascular-fraction-and-platelet-rich-plasma-for-osteoarthritis
#5
Himanshu Bansal, Kristin Comella, Jerry Leon, Poonam Verma, Diwaker Agrawal, Prasad Koka, Thomas Ichim
BACKGROUND: Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) can easily be obtained from a mini-lipoaspirate procedure of fat tissue and platelet rich plasma (PRP) can be obtained from peripheral blood. We evaluated the safety and preliminary efficacy of administering SVF and PRP intra-articularly into patients with osteoarthritis grade 1 and 2. METHODS: A total of ten patients underwent a local tumescent liposuction procedure to remove approximately 100 ml of fat tissue from the abdomen...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627057/vitamin-d-metabolism-in-growing-pigs-influence-of-uvb-irradiation-and-dietary-vitamin-d-supply-on-calcium-homeostasis-its-regulation-and-bone-metabolism
#6
E Kolp, M R Wilkens, W Pendl, B Eichenberger, A Liesegang
The aim of this study was to prove whether pigs are able to synthesize vitamin D (vitD) in the skin and to investigate the influence of ultraviolet irradiation (UVB) on vitD status and calcium (Ca) homeostasis of growing pigs. Thirty-two 11-week-old pigs were kept without access to sunlight and divided into four groups receiving the following treatment in a 2 × 2 factorial design: (i) UVB irradiation or not and (ii) vitD in feed or not. Blood, urine and faeces were sampled every third week. In serum, vitD metabolites, Ca, phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) and bone markers were analysed...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622139/immune-regulation-and-functions-of-eicosanoid-lipid-mediators
#7
Julia Esser-von Bieren
Bioactive lipids regulate most physiological processes, from digestion to blood flow and from hemostasis to labor. Lipid mediators are also involved in multiple pathologies including cancer, autoimmunity or asthma. The pathological roles of lipid mediators are based on their intricate involvement in the immune system, which comprises source and target cells of these mediators. Based on their biosynthetic origin, bioactive lipids can be grouped into different classes (e.g. sphingolipids, formed from sphingosine or eicosanoids, formed from arachidonic acid)...
June 15, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620737/analysis-of-bmaa-enantiomers-in-cycads-cyanobacteria-and-mammals-in-vivo-formation-and-toxicity-of-d-bmaa
#8
J S Metcalf, Doug Lobner, Sandra Anne Banack, Gregory A Cox, Peter B Nunn, Peter B Wyatt, Paul Alan Cox
Chronic dietary exposure to the cyanobacterial toxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) triggers neuropathology in non-human primates, providing support for the theory that BMAA causes a fatal neurodegenerative illness among the indigenous Chamorro people of Guam. However, since there are two stereoisomers of BMAA, it is important to know if both can occur in nature, and if so, what role they might play in disease causation. As a first step, we analysed both BMAA enantiomers in cyanobacteria, cycads, and in mammals orally dosed with L-BMAA, to determine if enantiomeric changes could occur in vivo...
June 15, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617865/a-human-genotyping-trial-to-estimate-the-post-feeding-time-from-mosquito-blood-meals
#9
Yuuji Hiroshige, Masaaki Hara, Atsushi Nagai, Tomoyuki Hikitsuchi, Mitsuo Umeda, Yumi Kawajiri, Koji Nakayama, Koichi Suzuki, Aya Takada, Akira Ishii, Toshimichi Yamamoto
Mosquitoes occur almost worldwide, and females of some species feed on blood from humans and other animals to support ovum maturation. In warm and hot seasons, such as the summer in Japan, fed mosquitoes are often observed at crime scenes. The current study attempted to estimate the time that elapsed since feeding from the degree of human DNA digestion in mosquito blood meals and also to identify the individual human sources of the DNA using genotyping in two species of mosquito: Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes albopictus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612954/effect-of-graded-levels-of-dietary-corn-steep-liquor-on-growth-performance-nutrient-digestibility-haematology-and-histopathology-of-broilers
#10
Z Ullah, M Yousaf, M M Shami, M Sharif, Kh Mahrose
This experiment was conducted to assess nutritional potential of corn steep liquor (CSL) as an alternative protein source in broiler's diet. A total of 280-day-old unsexed broiler chicks were randomly distributed into four experimental groups in a simple randomised experimental design (each group had seven replicates; 10 birds per each). Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric broiler starter and finisher diets (C, LCSL, MCSL and HCSL) were formulated containing 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% CSL respectively. Results revealed that chicks fed MCSL diet had significantly (p ≤ ...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612173/evaluation-of-the-feeding-value-of-dichrostachys-cinerea-pods-for-fattening-pigs-in-cuba
#11
N Martín-Casas, M Reinoso-Pérez, J R García-Díaz, H H Hansen, M O Nielsen
Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn. is a tropical leguminous shrub widely regarded as an invasive species in Cuba, after having invaded a significant proportion of its arable land during the past decades. Concurrently, smallholder pig producers are highly constrained by the scarcity of protein feeds. This study aimed to assess the feeding value of D. cinerea pod meal (DCPM) as an alternative protein supplement for pigs in Cuban smallholder production systems. An on-farm feeding trial was carried out with three groups (N = 10) of growing-fattening pigs over 60 days, where DCPM replaced 0, 15, and 30% in DM of a dietary commercial concentrate...
June 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611755/efficacy-of-phage-therapy-in-controlling-rabbit-colibacillosis-and-changes-in-cecal-microbiota
#12
Jian Zhao, Yan Liu, Chenwen Xiao, Shaojie He, Huochun Yao, Guolian Bao
Phage therapy is a valid weapon that we could use to fight against pathogens. Bacteriophages kill bacteria and self-proliferate in the digestive tract. Furthermore, it was assumed that phage therapy could preserve the existing gut microbiota. In this study, 45 rabbits were equally divided into three groups after they were orally inoculated with pathogenic Escherichia coli to induce gut infection. Each group was treated with bacteriophage ZRP1 (Group P), ciprofloxacin lactate (Group A), or phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) (Group N)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608536/feeding-value-of-whole-raw-soya-beans-as-a-protein-supplement-for-beef-cattle-consuming-low-quality-forages
#13
H M Arelovich, S Lagrange, R Torre, M F Martinez, H E Laborde
Experiments (Exp) I and II were conducted to compare raw whole soya beans (WSB), roasted (rWSB) or other protein sources as supplements of low-quality forages fed ad libitum to beef cattle, upon DM intake (DMI), ruminal and blood parameters, and animal performance. Exp I: treatments for wheat straw fed to four ruminally cannulated steers were (i) Control-WS: no supplement; (ii) WSB-WS: whole soya beans; (iii) rWSB-WS: roasted WSB; and (iv) SBM-WS: soybean meal-wheat midds mixture; all fed at 1.4 kg DM/day...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605609/effects-of-macro-and-micro-nutrients-on-exercise-induced-hepcidin-response-in-highly-trained-endurance-athletes
#14
Dylan Timothy Dahlquist, Trent Stellingwerff, Brad Pendleton Dieter, Donald C McKenzie, Michael S Koehle
Iron deficiency (ID) has ergolytic effects on athletic performance. Exercise induced inflammation impedes iron absorption in the digestive tract by up-regulating the expression of the iron regulatory protein, hepcidin. Limited research indicates the potential of specific macro- and micro- nutrients on blunting exercise induced hepcidin. Therefore, we investigated the effects of post-exercise supplementation with protein and carbohydrate (CHO) and vitamins D3 and K2 on the post-exercise hepcidin response. Ten highly-trained male cyclists (age: 26...
June 12, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603749/isolation-and-cultivation-of-primary-brain-endothelial-cells-from-adult-mice
#15
Julian Christopher Assmann, Kristin Müller, Jan Wenzel, Thomas Walther, Josefine Brands, Peter Thornton, Stuart M Allan, Markus Schwaninger
Brain endothelial cells are the major building block of the blood-brain barrier. To study the role of brain endothelial cells in vitro, the isolation of primary cells is of critical value. Here, we describe a protocol in which vessel fragments are isolated from adult mice. After density centrifugation and mild digestion of the fragments, outgrowing endothelial cells are selected by puromycin treatment and grown to confluence within one week.
May 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596485/rumen-derived-lipopolysaccharide-provoked-inflammatory-injury-in-the-liver-of-dairy-cows-fed-a-high-concentrate-diet
#16
Junfei Guo, Guangjun Chang, Kai Zhang, Lei Xu, Di Jin, Muhammad Shahid Bilal, Xiangzhen Shen
Rumen-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is translocated from the rumen into the bloodstream when subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) occurs following long-term feeding with a high-concentrate (HC) diet in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of inflammatory responses in the liver caused by HC diet feeding. We found that SARA was induced in dairy cows when rumen pH below 5.6 lasted for at least 3 h/d with HC diet feeding. Also, the LPS levels in the portal and hepatic veins were increased significantly and hepatocytes were impaired as well as the liver function was inhibited during SARA condition...
May 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596277/the-liver-in-regulation-of-iron-homeostasis
#17
Gautam Rishi, V Nathan Subramaniam
The liver is one of the largest and most functionally diverse organs in the human body. In addition to roles in detoxification of xenobiotics, digestion, synthesis of important plasma proteins, gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism and storage, the liver also plays a significant role in iron homeostasis. Apart from being the storage site for excess body iron, it also plays a vital role in regulating the amount of iron released into the blood by enterocytes and macrophages. Since iron is essential for many important physiological and molecular processes, it increases the importance of liver in the proper functioning of the body's metabolism...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592100/-the-association-between-aflatoxin-exposure-and-primary-hepatocellular-carcinoma-risks-a-case-control-study-in-chongqing
#18
C F Zheng, H Zeng, J Wang, H Lin, X B Feng, J A Chen, Z Q Qiu, J H Luo, A W Xu, L Q Wang, Y Tan, S Chen, P Jiang, W Q Shu
Objective: To investigate the association between aflatoxin exposure and primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC) development. Methods: From December 2013 to May 2016, we selected 214 patients newly diagnosed with PHC as cases, and 214 patients as controls from three hospitals in Chongqing. Cases were confirmed with PHC diagnosis standard. And cases caused by clear reasons such as drug-induced liver injury, alcoholic liver damage, fatty liver and gallstones etiology, were excluded. Controls were included with no cancer and no digestive system disease, and recruited simultaneously with cases...
June 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589099/serine-protease-inhibitors-in-ticks-an-overview-of-their-role-in-tick-biology-and-tick-borne-pathogen-transmission
#19
REVIEW
Adrien A Blisnick, Thierry Foulon, Sarah I Bonnet
New tick and tick-borne pathogen control approaches that are both environmentally sustainable and which provide broad protection are urgently needed. Their development, however, will rely on a greater understanding of tick biology, tick-pathogen, and tick-host interactions. The recent advances in new generation technologies to study genomes, transcriptomes, and proteomes has resulted in a plethora of tick biomacromolecular studies. Among these, many enzyme inhibitors have been described, notably serine protease inhibitors (SPIs), whose importance in various tick biological processes is only just beginning to be fully appreciated...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588266/rumen-fluid-metabolomics-analysis-associated-with-feed-efficiency-on-crossbred-steers
#20
Virginia M Artegoitia, Andrew P Foote, Ronald M Lewis, Harvey C Freetly
The rumen has a central role in the efficiency of digestion in ruminants. To identify potential differences in rumen function that lead to differences in average daily gain (ADG), rumen fluid metabolomic analysis by LC-MS and multivariate/univariate statistical analysis were used to identify differences in rumen metabolites. Individual feed intake and body-weight was measured on 144 steers during 105 d on a high concentrate ration. Eight steers with the greatest ADG and 8 steers with the least-ADG with dry matter intake near the population average were selected...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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