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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149222/personalized-medicine-and-hispanic-health-improving-health-outcomes-and-reducing-health-disparities-a-national-heart-lung-and-blood-institute-workshop-report
#1
M Larissa Avilés-Santa, John Heintzman, Nangel M Lindberg, Rafael Guerrero-Preston, Kenneth Ramos, Ana L Abraído-Lanza, Jonca Bull, Adolph Falcón, Mary Ann McBurnie, Ernest Moy, George Papanicolaou, Ileana L Piña, Jennifer Popovic, Shakira F Suglia, Miguel A Vázquez
Persons of Hispanic/Latino descent may represent different ancestries, ethnic and cultural groups and countries of birth. In the U.S., the Hispanic/Latino population is projected to constitute 29% of the population by 2060. A personalized approach focusing on individual variability in genetics, environment, lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants of health may advance the understanding of some of the major factors contributing to the health disparities experienced by Hispanics/Latinos and other groups in the U...
2017: BMC Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146584/microrna-tissue-atlas-of-the-malaria-mosquito-anopheles-gambiae
#2
Lena Lampe, Elena A Levashina
Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes transmit the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, which causes the majority of fatal malaria cases worldwide. The hematophagous life style defines the mosquito reproductive biology and is exploited by P. falciparum for its own sexual reproduction and transmission. The two main phases of the mosquito reproductive cycle, pre-vitellogenic (PV) and post-blood meal (PBM) shape its capacity to transmit malaria. Transition between these phases is tightly coordinated to ensure homeostasis between mosquito tissues and successful reproduction...
November 16, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146098/characterization-of-polymorphism-in-the-fsh-receptor-gene-and-its-impact-on-some-reproductive-indices-in-dairy-cows
#3
Hassan Sharifiyazdi, Abdolah Mirzaei, Zahra Ghanaatian
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is released from the anterior pituitary gland and has an important role in female fertility. As FSH is a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone which cannot pass through the cell membrane, its influence on target cells must be mediated by the FSH receptor (FSHR). Accordingly, any kind of mutation in FSHR can affect reproduction in dairy cows. In this study, the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used for recognition of a point mutation (A/G: position -278) located in the FSHR gene in Iranian dairy cows...
November 6, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137467/evaluation-of-serum-copper-level-in-naswar-smokeless-tobacco-addicts-using-flame-atomic-absorption-spectroscopy
#4
Asmat Ullah, Abad Khan, Zafar Iqbal, Ismail Khan
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse and its consequences are a matter of great concern in South-East Asian countries, especially Pakistan and Afghanistan. Due to contamination of Naswar with copper, or by any other physiological mechanism, there is a great chance of copper poisoning in addicts. Keeping in view the literature, there is no comparative study on serum copper levels (SCuL) in Naswar addicts. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate SCuL in this population. METHODS: The current study was performed in September 2016 where a total of 75 volunteers (selected from villages near the University of Peshawar, Pakistan) were grouped as Naswar addicts (n = 45) and the control group (n = 30)...
October 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136189/serum-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-treatment-outcomes-among-women-undergoing-assisted-reproduction
#5
Y-H Chiu, A E Karmon, A J Gaskins, M Arvizu, P L Williams, I Souter, B R Rueda, R Hause, J E Chavarro
STUDY QUESTION: Are serum polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentrations, including omega-3 (ω3-PUFA) and omega-6 (ω6-PUFA), related to ART outcomes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Serum levels of long-chain ω3-PUFA were positively associated with probability of live birth among women undergoing ART. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Intake of ω3-PUFA improves oocyte and embryo quality in animal and human studies. However, a recent cohort study found no relation between circulating ω3-PUFA levels and pregnancy rates after ART...
November 10, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135251/micellar-thrombin-binding-aptamers-reversible-nanoscale-anticoagulants
#6
Alexander Roloff, Andrea S Carlini, Cassandra E Callmann, Nathan C Gianneschi
Aptamers are nucleic acid-based ligands that exhibit promising features including specific and reversible target binding and inhibition. Aptamers can function as anticoagulants if they are directed against enzymes of the coagulation cascade. However, they typically suffer from nucleolytic digestion and fast clearance from the bloodstream. We present thrombin-binding aptamer amphiphiles that self-assemble into nanoscale polymeric micelles with a densely functionalized aptamer-displaying corona. We show that these micellar aptamers retain their native secondary structure in a crowded environment and are stabilized against degradation by nucleases in human serum...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134690/faecal-calcium-excretion-does-not-decrease-during-long-term-feeding-of-a-low-calcium-diet-in-adult-dogs
#7
S Schmitt, J Mack, E Kienzle, L G Alexander, P J Morris, A Colyer, B Dobenecker
According to a previous meta-analysis, adult dogs do not notably increase calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal tract when calcium intake is decreased. This results in a negative calcium balance even with a moderate calcium reduction. In this study we wanted to verify (i) whether a negative calcium balance occurs at a calcium intake equivalent to NRC (2006) (Nutrient requirements of dogs and cats, 2006, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC) minimal requirements, and if so (ii) whether the negative calcium balance will persist for up to 6 months on a low-calcium diet...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128213/the-effects-of-feeding-a-partial-mixed-ration-plus-a-top-dress-before-feeding-on-milk-production-and-the-daily-rhythm-of-feed-intake-and-plasma-hormones-and-metabolites-in-dairy-cows
#8
M Niu, K J Harvatine
Total mixed rations (TMR) are commonly fed to dairy cows with a goal of reducing ruminal acidosis, but the daily pattern of feed intake has major implication for rumen fermentation and postabsorptive physiology. Generally there is low feed intake during the overnight period and high intake after feeding and during the afternoon. The objective of this study was to determine if feeding a partial mixed ration (PMR) plus a high starch top-dress before feeding of the PMR would improve production and modify key daily rhythms...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125542/slowly-digestible-carbohydrate-for-balanced-energy-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evidence
#9
Vishnupriya Gourineni, Maria L Stewart, Rob Skorge, Bernard C Sekula
There is growing interest among consumers in foods for sustained energy management, and an increasing number of ingredients are emerging to address this demand. The SUSTRA™ 2434 slowly digestible carbohydrate is a blend of tapioca flour and corn starch, with the potential to provide balanced energy after a meal. The aim of the study was to characterize this starch's digestion profile in vitro (modified Englyst assay) and in vivo (intact and cecectomized rooster study), and to determine its effects on available energy, by measuring post-prandial glycemia in healthy adults (n = 14), in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, with two food forms: cold-pressed bar and pudding...
November 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121944/first-experience-of-robotic-spleen-preserving-distal-pancreatectomy-in-a-child-with-insulinoma
#10
Ming-Gen Hu, Yuan-Hong Xiao, Dong-Da Song, Guo-Dong Zhao, Yan-Zhe Liu, Zheng Wang, Hao-Yu Li, Rong Liu
BACKGROUND: An insulinoma is a functional neuroendocrine pancreatic tumor, and surgical resection is indicated. Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgeries have been shown to be generally safe and feasible for treatment of pediatric cases of urologic and digestive disease. CASE PRESENTATION: In July 2016, a 9-year-old girl (24 kg, 120 cm) was admitted with a pancreatic tail insulinoma and underwent robot-assisted spleen-preserving laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy...
November 9, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118560/the-effectiveness-of-intravenous-iron-for-iron-deficiency-anemia-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-patients-a-retrospective-study
#11
Laurens Verhaeghe, Luk Bruyneel, Elisabeth Stragier, Marc Ferrante, Daan Dierickx, Hans Prenen
Background: Knowledge of the role of intravenous iron without the use of additional erythropoietic stimulating agents in anemic cancer patients is limited. This study evaluated the effect of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in a group of digestive oncology (DIO) patients and aimed to differentiate therapy response according to different types of iron deficiency (ID) anemia. Methods: In this retrospective study, we identified DIO patients who were receiving FCM and had eligible baseline and follow-up hemoglobin (Hb) levels that did not require red blood cell transfusion...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114654/the-presence-of-food-derived-collagen-peptides-in-human-body-structure-and-biological-activity
#12
REVIEW
Kenji Sato
It has been demonstrated that the ingestion of some protein hydrolysates exerts health-promoting effects. For understanding the underlying mechanisms responsible for these effects, the identification of bioactive peptides in the target organ is crucial. For this purpose, in vitro activity-guided fractionation for peptides in the protein hydrolysate has been performed. However, the peptides in the hydrolysate may be further degraded during digestion. The concentration of the active peptides, which were identified by in vitro activity-guided fractionation, in human blood is frequently very low (nanomolar levels)...
November 8, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113783/multiple-legumain-isoenzymes-in-ticks
#13
David Hartmann, Radek Šíma, Jitka Konvičková, Jan Perner, Petr Kopáček, Daniel Sojka
By searching nucleotide databases for the North American Lyme disease vector, Ixodes scapularis, we have complemented the previously characterized European Ixodes ricinus legumain IrAE1 with a full set of nine analogous genes (isae1-9). Six of these were PCR confirmed as genes present in all tick genomes tested. The absolute mRNA copy number examined by quantitative (q)PCR enabled expression profiling and an absolute comparison of mRNA levels for individual I. scapularis (Is)AEs in tick tissues. Four IsAEs (1, 2, 4, 9) were expressed solely in the gut and thus are proposed to be involved in host blood digestion...
November 4, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113258/combination-of-calcineurin-b-subunit-cnb-and-5-fluorouracil-reverses-5-fluorouracil-induced-immunosuppressive-effect-and-enhances-the-antitumor-activity-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Wenlong Zhang, Youxiu Zhong, Hongfei Cui, Liya Wang, Rui Yang, Zhenyi Su, Benqiong Xiang, Qun Wei
Five-fluorouracil (5-FU) is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent for digestive system tumors; however, continuous use of 5-FU may cause severe side effects, including myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Our previous study revealed that calcineurin B subunit (CnB), an innovative genetic engineering antitumor protein, possesses tumor-suppressive effects with low toxicity. CnB can bind to and activate integrin αM on macrophages, subsequently promoting the expression, and secretion of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, a specific proapoptotic cytokine...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113099/a-blood-meal-enhances-innexin-mrna-expression-in-the-midgut-malpighian-tubules-and-ovaries-of-the-yellow-fever-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#15
Travis L Calkins, Peter M Piermarini
Mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens that cause diseases of medical and veterinary importance. Female mosquitoes transmit these pathogens while taking a blood meal, which most species require to produce eggs. The period after a blood meal is a time of extreme physiological change that requires rapid coordination of specific tissues. Gap junctions (GJ) are intercellular channels that aid in the coordination of cells within tissues via the direct transfer of certain small molecules and ions between cells. Evolutionarily distinct groups of proteins form the gap junctions of vertebrate and invertebrate animals (connexins and innexins, respectively)...
November 6, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110579/effects-of-glyphosate-residues-and-different-concentrate-feed-proportions-on-performance-energy-metabolism-and-health-characteristics-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#16
Karina Schnabel, Rolf Schmitz, Dirk von Soosten, Jana Frahm, Susanne Kersten, Ulrich Meyer, Gerhard Breves, Rudolf Hackenberg, Madeleine Spitzke, Sven Dänicke
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of glyphosate (GL) residues in feedstuffs on performance, energy balance and health-related characteristics of lactating dairy cows fed diets with different concentrate feed proportions. After an adaption period, 64 German Holstein cows (207 ± 49 d in milk; mean ± SD) were assigned to either groups receiving a GL contaminated total mixed ration (TMR) (GL groups) or an uncontaminated TMR (CON groups) during a 16 weeks trial. Contaminated feedstuffs used were legally GL-treated peas and wheat (straw and grain)...
December 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109346/-a-case-of-metastatic-uveal-melanoma-of-the-liver-and-digestive-tract
#17
Mami Hachiya, Kenichi Satoh, Shinichiro Takami, Shinichiro Uetake, Seiji Arihiro, Atsushi Hokari, Tomohisa Ishikawa, Ichiro Takagi, Hisao Tajiri, Masayuki Saruta
Metastasis of uveal melanoma of the digestive tract is rare. We report a case of a patient with metastatic uveal melanoma of the liver and digestive tract. A 68-year-old man was admitted with primary complaint of appetite loss and fatigue. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a 13-cm diameter tumor in the right lobe of the liver. We diagnosed him with metastatic uveal melanoma. We performed a liver tumor biopsy and diagnosed metastatic melanoma;we found distant metastases in the stomach, duodenum, and rectum on endoscopic biopsy...
2017: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108973/dietary-administration-of-the-commercially-available-probiotics-enhanced-the-survival-growth-and-innate-immune-responses-in-mori-cirrhinus-mrigala-in-a-natural-earthen-polyculture-system
#18
Amin Ullah, Amina Zuberi, Muhammad Ahmad, Aqsa Bashir Shah, Naima Younus, Sami Ullah, Muhammad Nasir Khan Khattak
The use of probiotics is considered effective for survival, growth and enhanced immune response in aquaculture. In the current study, effects of commercially available probiotic (Magic Plus) was investigated on survival, growth and immune response of Mori (Cirrhinus mrigala) in a polyculture system. The experiment was conducted for 90 days on 1200 fingerlings in two groups i.e. control and probiotic supplemented groups each having 600 fingerlings. Control group was fed with 35% protein basal diet without any supplements and the other group was supplemented with commercially available probiotic at the rate of (10(12) CFU kg(-1) diet)...
November 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107658/physiological-characterization-and-regulation-of-the-contractile-properties-of-the-mosquito-ventral-diverticulum-crop
#19
Travis L Calkins, Andrew DeLaat, Peter M Piermarini
In adult dipteran insects (flies), the crop is a diverticulum of the esophagus that serves as a food storage organ. The crop pumps stored contents into the alimentary canal for digestion and absorption. The pumping is mediated by peristaltic contractions of the crop musculature. In adult female mosquitoes, the crop (ventral diverticulum) selectively stores sugar solutions (e.g., nectar); proteinaceous blood meals by-pass the crop and are transferred directly to the midgut for digestion. The mechanisms that regulate crop contractions have never been investigated in mosquitoes...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103715/effect-of-supplemental-yeast-culture-and-dietary-starch-content-on-rumen-fermentation-and-digestion-in-dairy-cows
#20
A L G Dias, J A Freitas, B Micai, R A Azevedo, L F Greco, J E P Santos
The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the effect of feeding a culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on rumen metabolism and digestibility when cows are fed diets varying in starch content. Four lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were low starch (LS; 23% of diet DM) and no yeast culture (YC; LS-control), LS and 15 g of YC/d (LS-YC), high starch (HS; 29% of diet DM) and no YC (HS-control), and HS and 15 g of YC/d (HS-YC)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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