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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921242/use-of-computer-assisted-design-and-manufacturing-to-localize-dural-venous-sinuses-during-reconstructive-surgery-for-craniosynostosis
#1
Rajiv R Iyer, Adela Wu, Alexandra Macmillan, Leila Musavi, Regina Cho, Joseph Lopez, George I Jallo, Amir H Dorafshar, Edward S Ahn
OBJECTIVE: Cranial vault remodeling surgery for craniosynostosis carries the potential risk of dural venous sinus injury given the extensive bony exposure. Identification of the dural venous sinuses can be challenging in patients with craniosynostosis given the lack of accurate surface-localizing landmarks. Computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) has allowed surgeons to pre-operatively plan these complex procedures in an effort to increase reconstructive efficiency. An added benefit of this technology is the ability to intraoperatively map the dural venous sinuses based on pre-operative imaging...
September 18, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919821/prevalence-of-fertility-desire-and-its-associated-factors-among-15-to-49-year-old-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study-design
#2
Takele Menna Adilo, Hirut Megerssa Wordofa
BACKGROUND: The magnitude of unprotected sex to satisfy the desire for fertility among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) may rise more due to the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in most HIV-affected countries. This could, however, have the risk of passing on HIV to sexual partners and children. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the magnitude and factors associated with the fertility desire of reproductive-age PLHIV in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, for research-based and timely actions...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919116/global-regional-and-national-age-sex-specific-mortality-for-264-causes-of-death-1980-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#3
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. METHODS: We estimated cause-specific deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919115/global-regional-and-national-under-5-mortality-adult-mortality-age-specific-mortality-and-life-expectancy-1970-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#4
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify exemplars for best practice. To accomplish this, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) estimated age-specific and sex-specific all-cause mortality between 1970 and 2016 for 195 countries and territories and at the subnational level for the five countries with a population greater than 200 million in 2016...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918487/clinical-risk-stratification-of-paediatric-renal-transplant-recipients-using-c1q-and-c3d-fixing-of-de-novo-donor-specific-antibodies
#5
Jon Jin Kim, Olivia Shaw, Chloe Martin, George Michaelides, Ramnath Balasubramaniam, Neil J Sebire, Nizam Mamode, Anthony Dorling, Robert Vaughan, Stephen D Marks
INTRODUCTION: We have previously shown that children who developed de novo donor-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies (DSA) had greater decline in allograft function. We hypothesised that patients with complement-activating DSA would have poorer renal allograft outcomes. METHODS: A total of 75 children developed DSA in the original study. The first positive DSA sample was subsequently tested for C1q and C3d fixing. The primary event was defined as 50% reduction from baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate and was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator...
September 16, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916577/evaluation-of-nutrition-interventions-in-children-in-conflict-zones-a-narrative-review
#6
REVIEW
Grace J Carroll, Sonam D Lama, Josefa L Martinez-Brockman, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
Food and nutrition insecurity becomes increasingly worse in areas affected by armed conflict. Children affected by conflict, or in war-torn settings, face a disproportionate burden of malnutrition and poor health outcomes. As noted by humanitarian response reviews, there is a need for a stronger evidence-based response to humanitarian crises. To achieve this, we systematically searched and evaluated existing nutrition interventions carried out in conflict settings that assessed their impact on children's nutrition status...
September 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915813/the-relationship-between-burden-of-childhood-disease-and-foreign-aid-for-child-health
#7
J Clay Bavinger, Paul Wise, Eran Bendavid
BACKGROUND: We sought to examine the relationship between child specific health aid (CHA) and burden of disease. Based on existing evidence, we hypothesized that foreign aid for child health would not be proportional to burden of disease. METHODS: In order to examine CHA and burden of disease, we obtained estimates of these parameters from established sources. Estimates of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) in children (0-5 years) were obtained from the World Health Organization for 2000 and 2012...
September 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915078/pediatric-specific-end-of-life-care-quality-measures-an-unmet-need-of-a-vulnerable-population
#8
Emily E Johnston, Abby R Rosenberg, Arif H Kamal
We must ensure that the 20,000 US children (age 0 to 19 years) who die as a result of serious illness annually receive high-quality end-of-life care. Ensuring high-quality end-of-life care requires recognition that pediatric end-of-life care is conceptually and operationally different than that for adults. For example, in-hospital adult death is considered an outcome to be avoided, whereas many pediatric families may prefer hospital death. Because pediatric deaths are comparatively rare, not all centers offer pediatric-focused palliative care and hospice services...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914250/a-comparative-evaluation-of-retention-of-pit-and-fissure-sealant-bonded-using-sixth-seventh-and-eighth-generation-adhesives-an-in-vivo-study
#9
Mitakshra Nirwan, Anant Gopal Nigam, Nikhil Marwah, Ullal Anand Nayak, Aayushi Bansal, Manvendra Singh Gahlot
INTRODUCTION: Dental caries is one of the most common preventable childhood infections. a number of measures are available to prevent occlusal caries; pit and fissure sealants are one of the various methods currently available to cost effectively reduce dental caries. AIM: To evaluate the retention of pit and fissure sealant bonded using sixth (Adper promt), seventh (Optibond) and eighth (Futurabond Dual Cure) generations of adhesives. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A total of 37 healthy children who fulfilled the inclusion were randomly selected...
October 2017: Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906602/addressing-diagnosis-and-treatment-gaps-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
Rakesh Jain, Saundra Jain, C Brendan Montano
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was originally defined in children but is now recognized to persist into adulthood for some patients. Despite this recognition, adult ADHD remains underdiagnosed. This narrative review describes the negative impact of ADHD across multiple functional domains, diagnostic guidelines for adult ADHD and its clinical features, the importance of screening tools and clinical interviews to help evaluate adults for ADHD, and adult ADHD treatment options. Diagnostic guidelines for ADHD now incorporate adult-specific symptoms and behavioral manifestations, which may aid in diagnosing adult ADHD...
September 7, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906323/novel-method-enabling-the-use-of-cryopreserved-primary-acute-myeloid-leukemia-cells-in-functional-drug-screens
#11
Michelle Degnin, Anupriya Agarwal, Katherine Tarlock, Soheil Meshinchi, Brian J Druker, Cristina E Tognon
The ability to assess antileukemic drug activity on primary patient samples is a powerful tool in determining potential drug targets and selection of therapeutic agents with biological and functional rationale. We previously established small molecule inhibitor screens for use on freshly isolated leukemia cells for this purpose. Here we describe a method that produces functional small molecule inhibitor screening results using cryopreserved primary acute myeloid leukemia cells. This method was established to take advantage of biorepositories containing archival material, such as those established by the Children's Oncology Group, and to enable validation of potential pathway dependencies uncovered by genomic analysis...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906243/pediatric-hearing-aid-management-challenges-among-hispanic-families
#12
Ana Caballero, Karen Muñoz, Karl White, Lauri Nelson, Melanie Domenech-Rodriguez, Michael Twohig
BACKGROUND: Hearing aid fitting in infancy has become more common in the United States as a result of earlier identification of hearing loss. Consistency of hearing aid use is an area of concern for young children, as well as other hearing aid management challenges parents encounter that may contribute to less-than-optimal speech and language outcomes. Research that describes parent hearing aid management experiences of Spanish-speaking Hispanic families, or the extent of their needs, is not available...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905998/mast-cells-and-sphingosine-1-phosphate-underlie-prelesional-remodeling-in-a-mouse-model-of-eczema
#13
Piper A Wedman, Ahmed Aladhami, Alena P Chumanevich, John W Fuseler, Carole A Oskeritzian
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin inflammation that affects children and adults worldwide, but its pathogenesis remains ill-understood. We show that a single application of OVA to mouse skin initiates remodeling and cellular infiltration of the hypodermis measured by a newly developed computer-aided method. Importantly, we demonstrate that skin mast cell (MC) activation and local sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are significantly augmented after OVA treatment in mice. Deficiency in sphingosine kinase (SphK)1, the S1P-producing enzyme, or in MC, remarkably mitigates all signs of OVA-mediated remodeling and MC activation...
September 14, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904639/a-comparison-of-functional-outcome-between-amputation-and-extension-prosthesis-in-the-treatment-of-congenital-absence-of-the-fibula-with-severe-limb-deformity
#14
P Calder, S Shaw, A Roberts, S Tennant, I Sedki, R Hanspal, D Eastwood
PURPOSE: Complete fibula absence often presents with significant lower-limb deformity. Parental counselling regarding management is paramount in achieving the optimum functional outcome. Amputation offers a single surgical event with minimal complications. This study compares outcomes with an amputation protocol to those using an extension prosthesis. METHOD: Thirty-two patients were identified. Nine patients (2 males, 7 females; median age at assessment of 23...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904153/imaging-and-diagnosis-of-physical-child-abuse
#15
Marlene M Johnson
Child abuse involves grave and disturbing acts of violence that can have lasting physical and emotional consequences for children and their families. The diagnosis of child abuse is emotionally difficult for those involved, and an error in judgment either way can have a detrimental effect on the health and safety of the child. Physicians rely on the skills of the imaging team to produce high-quality images that assist in differentiating inflicted injuries from accidental trauma. This article explores the significance of imaging in child abuse by discussing the types of injuries that occur and the imaging studies that aid in diagnosing physical child abuse...
September 2017: Radiologic Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904145/older-fathers-children-have-lower-evolutionary-fitness-across-four-centuries-and-in-four-populations
#16
Ruben C Arslan, Kai P Willführ, Emma M Frans, Karin J H Verweij, Paul-Christian Bürkner, Mikko Myrskylä, Eckart Voland, Catarina Almqvist, Brendan P Zietsch, Lars Penke
Higher paternal age at offspring conception increases de novo genetic mutations. Based on evolutionary genetic theory we predicted older fathers' children, all else equal, would be less likely to survive and reproduce, i.e. have lower fitness. In sibling control studies, we find support for negative paternal age effects on offspring survival and reproductive success across four large populations with an aggregate N > 1.4 million. Three populations were pre-industrial (1670-1850) Western populations and showed negative paternal age effects on infant survival and offspring reproductive success...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901574/using-a-multi-feature-paradigm-to-measure-mismatch-responses-to-minimal-sound-contrasts-in-children-with-cochlear-implants-and-hearing-aids
#17
Inger Uhlén, Elisabet Engström, Petter Kallioinen, Cecilia Nakeva von Mentzer, Björn Lyxell, Birgitta Sahlén, Magnus Lindgren, Marianne Ors
Our aim was to explore whether a multi-feature paradigm (Optimum-1) for eliciting mismatch negativity (MMN) would objectively capture difficulties in perceiving small sound contrasts in children with hearing impairment (HI) listening through their hearing aids (HAs) and/or cochlear implants (CIs). Children aged 5-7 years with HAs, CIs and children with normal hearing (NH) were tested in a free-field setting using a multi-feature paradigm with deviations in pitch, intensity, gap, duration, and location. There were significant mismatch responses across all subjects that were positive (p-MMR) for the gap and pitch deviants (F(1,43) = 5...
October 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901005/delivery-arrangements-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#18
REVIEW
Agustín Ciapponi, Simon Lewin, Cristian A Herrera, Newton Opiyo, Tomas Pantoja, Elizabeth Paulsen, Gabriel Rada, Charles S Wiysonge, Gabriel Bastías, Lilian Dudley, Signe Flottorp, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Sebastian Garcia Marti, Claire Glenton, Charles I Okwundu, Blanca Peñaloza, Fatima Suleman, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: Delivery arrangements include changes in who receives care and when, who provides care, the working conditions of those who provide care, coordination of care amongst different providers, where care is provided, the use of information and communication technology to deliver care, and quality and safety systems. How services are delivered can have impacts on the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of health systems. This broad overview of the findings of systematic reviews can help policymakers and other stakeholders identify strategies for addressing problems and improve the delivery of services...
September 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899629/what-is-confidence-and-what-could-affect-it-a-qualitative-study-of-mothers-who-are-hesitant-about-vaccines
#19
Judith A Mendel-Van Alstyne, Glen J Nowak, Ann L Aikin
BACKGROUND: Public confidence in immunization is critical to maintaining high vaccine-coverage rates needed to protect individuals and communities from vaccine-preventable diseases. Recent attention has been placed on factors influencing confidence in vaccination in the US and globally, but comprehensive understanding of what drives or hinders confidence in childhood vaccination is yet to be reached. As such, assessing parents' confidence in childhood vaccination and the ways in which educational materials affect confidence is needed...
September 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899415/the-experiences-of-caregivers-of-children-living-with-hiv-and-aids-in-uganda-a-qualitative-study
#20
Joseph Osafo, Birthe Loa Knizek, James Mugisha, Eugene Kinyanda
BACKGROUND: Home-based care for HIV patients is popular in contexts severely affected by the epidemic and exacts a heavy toll on caregivers. This study aimed at understanding the experiences of caregivers and their survival strategies. METHODS: A total of 18 caregivers (3 males and 15 females) were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide, and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. RESULTS: Analysis suggests that the caregivers are burdened with insecure provisions for food and difficulties in accessing health care...
September 12, 2017: Globalization and Health
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