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Sandeep Gangadharan, Gunjan Tiyyagura, Marcie Gawel, Barbara M Walsh, Linda L Brown, Megan Lavoie, Khoon-Yen Tay, Marc A Auerbach
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore pediatric emergency department (PED) and general emergency department (GED) providers' perceptions on caring for critically ill infants and children. METHODS: This study utilized qualitative methods to examine the perceptions of emergency department providers caring for critically ill infants and children. Teams of providers participated in 4 in situ simulation cases followed by facilitated debriefings. Debriefings were recorded and professionally transcribed...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Shangpeng Shi, Huajun Yang, Ya Hui, Xiang Zhou, Tao Wang, Ya Luo, Huiyun Xiang, Xiuquan Shi
We investigated the knowledge level and risk factors for pediatric unintentional burns in rural Southwest China with an aim to provide basic evidence for the prevention strategies. A stratified sampling method was used to recruit 1842 rural children from 9 schools. Self-reported burns during the past 12 months and relevant risk factors were collected by questionnaires. The burn incidence of all surveyed children was 12.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 11.2-14.2%). We found that burn incidence had a trend to increase with the increasing school grade level and a trend to decrease with increasing knowledge scores on burns...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
K N Anderson, J J Connor, A F Koerner, M A Rueter
STUDY QUESTION: Compared to families with IVF singletons, what are parental depressive, parent-adolescent interaction and adolescent adjustment outcomes in families with 11-17-year-old IVF twins? SUMMARY ANSWER: No differences were detected for any measured outcome between families with 11-17-year-old IVF twins and those with IVF singletons, despite high statistical power. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: When IVF twins are younger than 5-years-old, parents tend to have more mental health difficulties and poorer parent-child interactions relative to IVF singletons...
October 15, 2016: Human Reproduction
Luciano E Busi, Sebastián Restuccia, Ricardo Tourres, Peter D Sly
BACKGROUND: Measuring lung function, including bronchodilator response (BDR), is an integral part of asthma management in older children. While spirometry is possible in preschool-aged children, the question remains whether measuring BDR aids in asthma diagnosis in this age group. METHODS: 431 healthy children and 289 children with asthma, aged 3-5 years, were recruited from kindergartens and the pulmonology clinic in Trelew, Argentina. Spirometry was performed at visit 1 and repeated after 15 min, with children randomised to placebo or salbutamol (400 µg)...
October 14, 2016: Thorax
Shashikant Srivastava, Devyani Deshpande, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Tania Thomas, Soumya Swaminathan, Eric Nuermberger, Tawanda Gumbo
Children with tuberculosis are treated with drug regimens copied from adults despite significant differences in antibiotic pharmacokinetics, pathology, and the microbial burden between childhood and adult tuberculosis. We sought to develop a new and effective oral treatment regimen specific to children of different ages. We investigated and validated the concept that target drug concentrations associated with therapy failure and death in children are different from those of adults. On that basis, we proposed a 4-step program to rapidly develop treatment regimens for children...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Orli Megged
AIM: Bacteremia is an uncommon complication of urinary tract infection (UTI). The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for bacteremic UTI in pediatric patients. METHODS: The medical records of all pediatric patients with UTI between 2013 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Pediatric patients with accompanying bacteremia were compared with pediatric patients with no bacteremia. RESULTS: Five hundred twenty-seven cases of UTI were identified...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Valerie Michaelson, William Pickett, Eleanor Vandemeer, Brian Taylor, Colleen Davison
Health perceptions adopted during childhood lay foundations for adult health trajectories and experiences. This study used a sequential mixed methods design to generate new evidence about child perceptions of health in two samples of Canadian children. A core qualitative study was followed by a complementary quantitative analysis to aid interpretation. Generational theory was used as a lens through which to interpret all data. Findings suggested that good health is perceived as customized and subjective. The strengths and liabilities of these perceptions are discussed, as well as implications for health promotion and prevention strategies...
2016: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
Vanessa M Oddo, Parul Christian, Joanne Katz, Li Liu, Naoko Kozuki, Robert E Black, Robert Ntozini, Jean Humphrey
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, one-third of all births are small for gestational age (SGA), and 4.4 million children are stunted; both conditions increase the risk of child mortality. SGA has also been shown to increase the risk of stunting. OBJECTIVE: We tested whether the association between SGA and postneonatal mortality is mediated by stunting. METHODS: We used longitudinal data from children aged 6 wk to 24 mo (n = 12,155) enrolled in the ZVITAMBO (Zimbabwe Vitamin A for Mothers and Babies) trial...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
You-Lin Tain, Wei-Chia Lee, Kay L H Wu, Steve Leu, Julie Y H Chan
Hypertension can be programmed in response to nutritional insults in early life. Maternal high-fructose (HF) intake induced programmed hypertension in adult male offspring, which is associated with renal programming and arachidonic acid metabolism pathway. We examined whether early treatment with a soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH) inhibitor, 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) or 15-Deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 (15dPGJ2) can prevent HF-induced programmed hypertension. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats received regular chow or chow supplemented with fructose (60% diet by weight) during the whole period of pregnancy and lactation...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
J S Park, D K Chan, S R Parikh, A K Meyer, K W Rosbe
OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of surgical management for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome in children with hypotonia, and to identify common anatomic sites of airway obstruction. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of polysomnographic parameters and quality of life instrument scores for seventy eight children with hypotonia who underwent surgical intervention for sleep-disordered breathing at two tertiary children's hospitals, and analysis of drug-induced sleep endoscopy data using a previously validated scoring system...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Patricia L Purcell, Rose Jones-Goodrich, Meghan Wisneski, Todd C Edwards, Kathleen C Y Sie
OBJECTIVE: Management of children with unilateral hearing loss is not standardized. The primary goal of this study was to elicit patient- and parent-reported perspectives regarding usage of hearing devices in pediatric UHL and to suggest a basic algorithmic approach to management. METHODS: Our tertiary care center recruited families of youth ages 5-19 years with unilateral hearing loss from January 2014 through October 2015. Parents of all youths completed a 36-item survey, and some youth ages 11-19 years participated in hour-long interviews...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Mo Chen, Zhaoyan Wang, Zhiwen Zhang, Xun Li, Weijing Wu, Dinghua Xie, Zi-An Xiao
OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to test whether deaf children with unilateral cochlear implantation (CI) have higher intelligence quotients (IQ). We also try to find out the predictive factors of intelligence development in deaf children with CI. METHODS: Totally, 186 children were enrolled into this study. They were divided into 3 groups: CI group (N = 66), hearing loss group (N = 54) and normal hearing group (N = 66). All children took the Hiskey-Nebraska Test of Learning Aptitude to assess the IQ...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Alasdair Bamford, Emma C Manno, Maria Jose Mellado, Vana Spoulou, Laura Marques, Henriette J Scherpbier, Tim Niehues, Agnieszka Oldakowska, Paolo Rossi, Paolo Palma
BACKGROUND: Current national immunisation schedules differ between countries in terms of vaccine formulation, timing of vaccinations and immunisation programme funding and co-ordination. As a result, some HIV infected paediatric population may be left susceptible to vaccine preventable infections. Vaccines used in healthy population should be subjected to high quality ethical research and be explicitly validated for use in children with special vaccination needs such as those infected with HIV...
October 7, 2016: Vaccine
J Ulrici, G Hempel, M Sasse, J Vollrath, C Höhne
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are increasing problems in pediatric anesthesia. This observational study was designed to examine how airway-related complications occur in overweight children and adolescents during general anesthesia and if this is a relevant problem in Germany. METHODS: From October 2008 until August 2009, at the university clinic in Leipzig, 504 in- and outpatients, aged 2-18 years, ASA I-III, undergoing elective procedures (ENT and pediatric surgery), were observed...
October 10, 2016: Der Anaesthesist
J Bremer, R Böthig, B Domurath, J Kutzenberger, A Kaufmann, J Pretzer, J P Klask, V Geng, W Vance, I Kurze
BACKGROUND: The provision of urological appliances for patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) is essential. Hitherto existing standard guidelines for the estimation of monthly material requirements are based solely on estimates. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this work was to define the objective and subsequently subjective requirements for urological appliances on a scientifically validated basis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data concerning bladder management and daily consumption of urological appliances for patients with NLUTD were collected through a standardized survey at six different centers in Germany during the period of October to December 2014 and statistically evaluated...
October 10, 2016: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Michal Elboim-Gabyzon, Osnat Atun-Einy, Insaf Khoury-Assaf
PURPOSE: To review the literature on the existent evidence considering the use of power wheel chair (PWC) for children with DMD who can still walk independently. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted through nine databases by the three authors independently. Both quantitative and qualitative research designs were considered for inclusion. Studies were included only if the study population consisted of ambulatory children diagnosed with DMD. Data extraction was on participant characteristics, level of walking and on outcomes in term of impairment, function and participation domains (ICF, World Health Organization, 2001) in accordance to a structured diagram by the three authors independently...
October 9, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Carole Ian McAteer, Nhan-Ai Thi Truong, Josephine Aluoch, Andrew Roland Deathe, Winstone M Nyandiko, Irene Marete, Rachel Christine Vreeman
INTRODUCTION: HIV-related stigma impacts the quality of life and care management of HIV-infected and HIV-affected individuals, but how we measure stigma and its impact on children and adolescents has less often been described. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies that measured HIV-related stigma with a quantitative tool in paediatric HIV-infected and HIV-affected populations. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Varying measures have been used to assess stigma in paediatric populations, with most studies utilizing the full or variant form of the HIV Stigma Scale that has been validated in adult populations and utilized with paediatric populations in Africa, Asia and the United States...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Emily C MacNeill, Whitney Cabey, Robert Kluge, James Norton, Alice M Mitchell
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Early childhood high frequency use (HFU) of the emergency department (ED) has been endorsed as a marker for increased risk of child maltreatment. In a prior analysis of pediatric ED (PED) visits by 16,664 children, 0-36 months old, we defined early childhood HFU (the 90th percentile) as ≥5 visits. The purpose of this study was to follow HFU patients to determine if they had a higher likelihood of reported maltreatment. METHODS: This is a single-center, cross-sectional, observational study of the association between PED use in early life and subsequent intervention by child protective services (CPS)...
September 22, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
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