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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324924/automatic-tissue-characterization-of-air-trapping-in-chest-radiographs-using-deep-neural-networks
#1
Awais Mansoor, Geovanny Perez, Gustavo Nino, Marius George Linguraru
Significant progress has been made in recent years for computer-aided diagnosis of abnormal pulmonary textures from computed tomography (CT) images. Similar initiatives in chest radiographs (CXR), the common modality for pulmonary diagnosis, are much less developed. CXR are fast, cost effective and low-radiation solution to diagnosis over CT. However, the subtlety of textures in CXR makes them hard to discern even by trained eye. We explore the performance of deep learning abnormal tissue characterization from CXR...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324183/multimodality-management-and-outcomes-of-brain-arterio-venous-malformations-avms-in-children-personal-experience-and-review-of-the-literature-with-specific-emphasis-on-age-at-first-avm-bleed
#2
REVIEW
Anan Shtaya, John Millar, Owen Sparrow
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to study the presentation and analyse the results of multimodality treatment of brain arterio-venous malformations (AVMs) in children at our centre and review age at first AVM rupture in the literature. METHODS: Of 52 patients aged <18 years, 47 with brain AVMs (27 males and 20 females) aged 4-17 years (mean 12.2) were retrospectively reviewed. PubMed search revealed five additional studies including 267 patients where the prevalence of age-related AVMs rupture was analysed...
March 21, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318189/evaluation-of-esophageal-injuries-secondary-to-ingestion-of-unlabeled-corrosive-substances-pediatric-case-series
#3
Gonul Kucuk, Gulnur Gollu, Ufuk Ates, Zeynep A Cakmak, Meltem Kologlu, Aydın Yagmurlu, Tanju Aktug, Huseyin Dindar, Ahmet M Cakmak
Esophageal or gastric injuries secondary to caustic substance ingestion is still an important issue in developing countries. Its clinical spectrum can vary from absence of mucosal injury to complications such as severe burns, strictures and perforation. Physical examination and first endoscopic evaluation are very important in the diagnosis. The objective of this study is to present 154 children who were undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of caustic substance ingestion including descaler, degreaser, unlabeled bleach, drain opener, surface cleaner, dishwasher rinse aid, hydrochloric acid...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314224/image-guided-system-endoscopic-drainage-of-orbital-abscess-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-an-infant
#4
Tan Chai-Lee, Sanjeevan Nadarajah, Baharudin Abdullah, Irfan Mohamad, Thevagi Maruthamuthu, Chandran Nadarajan, Talib Norain, Ismail Shatriah
INTRODUCTION: The management of orbital abscesses in neonates and infants is very challenging. Surgical drainage of the abscess is aimed at removing the pus and preventing blindness. We describe a case of orbital abscess in an infant that was caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and that was successfully drained with image-guided endoscopic surgery. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 39-day-old infant presented with progressive right maxillary swelling complicated by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus orbital abscess...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306191/biomechanical-markers-and-theoretical-concepts-related-to-haemophilic-ankle-and-subtalar-joint-arthropathy-introducing-the-term-haemophilic-tarsal-pan-arthropathy
#5
REVIEW
S Lobet, A McCarthy, C Hermans, K Peerlinck, G A Matricali, F Staes, K Deschamps
BACKGROUND: Although regular factor replacement can reduce the incidence of joint bleeds and slow down the development of haemophilic arthropathy, the ankle joint remains particularly vulnerable even in children with haemophilia on primary or secondary prophylaxis and is now the primary joint affected. The heterogeneity in the pathoaetiology of haemophilic ankle arthropathy means that the functional consequences of early stage of ankle arthropathy are difficult to define as early morphological and structural changes can be observed in clinically asymptomatic ankles...
March 17, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301337/improving-estimates-of-children-living-with-hiv-from-the-spectrum-aids-impact-model
#6
Mary Mahy, Martina Penazzato, Andrea Ciaranello, Lynne Mofenson, Constantin T Yianoutsos, Mary-Ann Davies, John Stover
OBJECTIVE: Estimated numbers of children living with HIV determine programmatic and treatment needs. We explain the changes made to the UNAIDS estimates between 2015 and 2016, and describe the challenges around these estimates. METHODS: Estimates of children newly infected, living with HIV, and dying of AIDS are developed by country teams using Spectrum software. Spectrum files are available for 160 countries, which represent 98% of the global population. In 2016, the methods were updated to reflect the latest evidence on mother-to-child HIV transmission and improved assumptions on the age children initiate antiretroviral therapy...
April 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299495/who-wants-to-play-sport-motivation-trajectories-sport-participation-and-the-development-of-depressive-symptoms
#7
Ming-Te Wang, Angela Chow, Jamie Amemiya
Although sport involvement has the potential to enhance psychological wellbeing, studies have suggested that motivation to participate in sports activities declines across childhood and adolescence. This study incorporated expectancy-value theory to model children's sport ability self-concept and subjective task values trajectories from first to twelfth grade. Additionally, it examined if sport motivation trajectories predicted individual and team-based sport participation and whether sport participation in turn reduced the development of depressive symptoms...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296803/age-patterns-and-sex-ratios-of-adult-mortality-in-countries-with-high-hiv-prevalence
#8
Bruno Masquelier, Jeffrey W Eaton, Patrick Gerland, François Pelletier, Kennedy K Mutai
OBJECTIVE: To compare the 2016 United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) modelled estimates of adult mortality in sub-Saharan Africa to empirical estimates. DESIGN: Age-specific mortality rates were obtained from nationally representative sibling survival data, recent household deaths and vital registration, and directly compared with UNAIDS estimates. Orphanhood prevalence derived from UNAIDS mortality estimates was compared with survey and census reports on the survival of children's parents...
April 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296799/empirical-validation-of-the-unaids-spectrum-model-for-subnational-hiv-estimates-case-study-of-children-and-adults-in-manicaland-zimbabwe
#9
Romain Silhol, Simon Gregson, Constance Nyamukapa, Mutsa Mhangara, Janet Dzangare, Elizabeth Gonese, Jeffrey W Eaton, Kelsey K Case, Mary Mahy, John Stover, Owen Mugurungi
BACKGROUND: More cost-effective HIV control may be achieved by targeting geographical areas with high infection rates. The AIDS Impact model of Spectrum - used routinely to produce national HIV estimates - could provide the required subnational estimates but is rarely validated with empirical data, even at a national level. DESIGN: The validity of the Spectrum model estimates were compared with empirical estimates. METHODS: Antenatal surveillance and population survey data from a population HIV cohort study in Manicaland, East Zimbabwe, were input into Spectrum 5...
April 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287682/return-to-school-and-learning-after-concussion-tips-for-pediatricians
#10
Matthew F Grady, Christina L Master
Concussion in children and adolescents is a common injury that is usually managed by the primary care provider. Students with a concussion may present with a variety of symptoms, and these symptoms interfere with regular school participation. Optimizing the timing and progression of return to school and learning is often challenging, but with a careful history and concussion-specific examination, the primary care provider can identify potential barriers to school reentry. This review focuses on developing a systematic approach to the initial concussion evaluation and developing customized school accommodations to aid in the school reentry process...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285783/histopathological-changes-in-morphea-and-their-clinical-correlates-results-from-the-morphea-in-adults-and-children-cohort-v
#11
Daniel Walker, Joseph S Susa, Sharif Currimbhoy, Heidi Jacobe
BACKGROUND: Histopathological features in morphea (localized scleroderma) and their clinical correlates are poorly described. OBJECTIVE: We sought to systematically describe histologic changes of morphea in a large, well-annotated cohort and determine the association between histopathology and clinical features. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 83 patients enrolled in the Morphea in Adults and Children cohort. The main outcome measure was the association of microanatomical location and degree of sclerosis and inflammation seen on histologic samples with patient-reported symptoms and physician-based measures of severity...
March 9, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285235/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-among-mothers-of-children-with-epilepsy-a-study-in-a-teaching-hospital
#12
Ali-Asghar Kolahi, Mohsen Abbasi-Kangevari, Pouya Bakhshaei, Farhad Mahvelati-Shamsabadi, Seyed-Hassan Tonekaboni, Ahmad-Reza Farsar
OBJECTIVE: Knowledge about epilepsy and attitudes towards patients with epilepsy can affect measures taken to manage epilepsy and seizures. Support and understanding of mothers is invaluable in enabling children with epilepsy to develop normal life skills in living with epilepsy. In order to identify the educational needs of mothers of children with epilepsy, their knowledge, attitudes, and practices should be assessed. Therefore, we interviewed a group of mothers of children with epilepsy who were referred to a pediatric neurology clinic in a teaching hospital...
March 9, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282397/evaluation-of-the-performance-of-national-health-systems-in-2004-2011-an-analysis-of-173-countries
#13
Daxin Sun, Haksoon Ahn, Tomas Lievens, Wu Zeng
In an effort to improve health service delivery and achieve better health outcomes, the World Health Organization (WHO) has called for improved efficiency of health care systems to better use the available funding. This study aims to examine the efficiency of national health systems using longitudinal country-level data. Data on health spending per capita, infant mortality rate (IMR), under 5 mortality rate (U5MR), and life expectancy (LE) were collected from or imputed for 173 countries from 2004 through 2011...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282245/live-with-the-disease-like-you-used-to-before-you-knew-you-were-infected-a-qualitative-study-among-10-year-survivors-living-with-hiv-in-haiti
#14
Samuel Pierre, Vanessa Riviera, Circee Phara Jean, Marie Jude Jean Louis, Lindsey K Reif, Patrice Severe, Vanessa Rouzier, Warren D Johnson, Jean W Pape, Daniel W Fitzgerald, Margaret L McNairy, Carla Boutin-Foster
In 2003, the Haitian Study Group on Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections (GHESKIO), a nonprofit organization, began administering antiretroviral therapy (ART) to its patients. This practice transformed HIV from a fatal disease to a more manageable chronic condition. However, relatively few studies focus on the experiences of survivors. This study provided a unique opportunity to interview patients who survived at least 10 years after being treated with ART at GHESKIO. The goal of the study was to elicit from patients their perspectives on what enabled them to survive with AIDS...
March 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281441/miliary-tuberculosis
#15
Surendra K Sharma, Alladi Mohan
Miliary tuberculosis (TB) results from a massive lymphohematogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli and is characterized by tiny tubercles evident on gross pathology resembling millet seeds in size and appearance. The global HIV/AIDS pandemic and widespread use of immunosuppressive drugs and biologicals have altered the epidemiology of miliary TB. Considered to be predominantly a disease of infants and children in the pre-antibiotic era, miliary TB is increasingly being encountered in adults as well...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279454/comparison-and-validation-of-two-mathematical-models-for-the-impact-of-mass-drug-administration-on-ascaris-lumbricoides-and-hookworm-infection
#16
Luc E Coffeng, James E Truscott, Sam H Farrell, Hugo C Turner, Rajiv Sarkar, Gagandeep Kang, Sake J de Vlas, Roy M Anderson
The predictions of two mathematical models of the transmission dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm infection and the impact of mass drug administration (MDA) are compared, using data from India. One model has an age structured partial differential equation (PDE) deterministic framework for the distribution of parasite numbers per host and sexual mating. The second model is an individual-based stochastic model. Baseline data acquired prior to treatment are used to estimate key transmission parameters, and forward projections are made, given the known MDA population coverage...
March 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277349/missed-opportunities-for-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#17
Gwendolyn B Scott, Susan B Brogly, Daniel Muenz, Alice M Stek, Jennifer S Read
OBJECTIVE: To identify missed opportunities for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: Data regarding HIV-infected children born between 2002 and 2009 to HIV-infected women enrolled in the U.S. International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials prospective cohort study (protocol P1025) were reviewed. The characteristics of the HIV-infected infants and their mothers and the mothers' clinical management are described...
March 6, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277214/pediatric-minimum-speech-test-battery
#18
Kristin Uhler, Andrea Warner-Czyz, Rene Gifford, Pmstb Working Group
BACKGROUND: Assessment of patient outcomes and documentation of treatment efficacy serves as an essential component of (re)habilitative audiology; however, no standardized protocol exists for the assessment of speech perception abilities for children with hearing loss. This presents a significant challenge in tracking performance of children who utilize various hearing technologies for within-subjects assessment, between-subjects assessment, and even across different facilities. PURPOSE: The adoption and adherence to a standardized assessment protocol could help facilitate continuity of care, assist in clinical decision making, allow clinicians and researchers to define benchmarks for an aggregate clinical population, and in time, aid with patient counseling regarding expectations and predictions regarding longitudinal outcomes...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276750/red-blood-cell-distribution-width-is-not-a-reliable-biomarker-for-low-iron-stores-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#19
M D Akkermans, L Uijterschout, M Nuijsink, D M Hendriks, J B van Goudoever, F Brus
Low iron stores in children, absolute iron deficiency (AID), can lead to impaired neurodevelopment and requires iron therapy. In the presence of infection/inflammation, like in cystic fibrosis (CF), serum ferritin (SF) is not a reliable biomarker for AID. Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a promising alternative reported not to be influenced by infection in healthy children. Currently, there are no data on the diagnostic capacity of RDW to detect AID in pediatric CF patients. This was a prospective observational study that investigated iron status biomarkers in 53 Dutch pediatric CF patients...
February 10, 2017: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275841/individual-level-factors-associated-with-mental-health-in-rwandan-youth-affected-by-hiv-aids
#20
Pamela Scorza, Cristiane S Duarte, Anne Stevenson, Christine Mushashi, Fredrick Kanyanganzi, Morris Munyana, Theresa S Betancourt
PURPOSE: Prevention of mental disorders worldwide requires a greater understanding of protective processes associated with lower levels of mental health problems in children who face pervasive life stressors. This study aimed to identify culturally appropriate indicators of individual-level protective factors in Rwandan adolescents where risk factors, namely poverty and a history of trauma, have dramatically shaped youth mental health. METHODS: The sample included 367 youth aged 10-17 in rural Rwanda...
March 8, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
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