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Sepali Guruge, Kenneth Po-Lun Fung, Souraya Sidani, David Este, Marina Morrow, Kwame McKenzie, Josephine Pui-Hing Wong
BACKGROUND: The available evidence on interventions addressing the stigma of mental illness is limited because of small samples, lack of diversity in study samples, and exclusion of people living with mental illness. To date, no published studies have evaluated anti-stigma interventions for Asian men in Canada. Aim This paper describes the protocol of a study to evaluate psychological and collective empowerment interventions (ACT, CEE, and ACT+CEE) in addressing self-stigma and social stigma in Asian communities in three urban settings in Canada: Toronto, Calgary and Vancouver...
June 18, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Michelle D Dannenberg, Marie-Anne Durand, Victor M Montori, Clifford Reilly, Glyn Elwyn
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate how organizations that develop patient decision aids conduct their evidence summarization process and assess whether their current processes provide sufficient information to instill confidence that patient decision aids are trustworthy and up-to-date STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: : We identified 23 organizations from a public inventory of patient decision aid developers and included only organizations that have produced five or more tools. These organizations were asked to complete a 17-item survey and to share relevant documents...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
S Jiang, J Zeng, X Zhou, Y Li
Growing evidence suggests the existence of new antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Recent studies have revealed that quorum-quenching enzymes, such as MacQ, are involved in both antibiotic resistance and cell-cell communication. Furthermore, some small bacterial regulatory RNAs, classified into RNA attenuators and small RNAs, modulate the expression of resistance genes. For example, small RNA sprX, can shape bacterial resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics via specific downregulation of protein SpoVG. Moreover, some bacterial lipocalins capture antibiotics in the extracellular space, contributing to severe multidrug resistance...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Maxwell Stanley Renna, Cristiano Van Zeller
This article highlights the importance of teaching up-to-date diagnostic criteria for lung function in medical school as it becomes relevant to clinical practice
March 2018: Breathe
Nobuyuki Maruyama, Kazuhide Nishihara, Toshiyuki Nakasone, Masanao Saio, Tessho Maruyama, Iori Tedokon, Tetsuya Ohira, Fumikazu Nimura, Akira Matayoshi, Ken-Nosuke Karube, Naoki Yoshimi, Akira Arasaki
Second primary malignancy (SPM) is a severe issue for cancer survivors, particularly for osteosarcoma (OS) survivors. To date, the associations between subsequent SPM and OS have been well reported. Hematogenic and solid malignancies tend to occur following OS treatment. Reportedly, 2-[18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is mainly used in OS patients for initial cancer staging, to evaluate the response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and when recurrence or metastasis is clinically suspected...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Nhuan Ngo, Michiro Susa, Takahiro Nakagawa, Yo Kawahara, Chiaki Sato, Keisuke Horiuchi, Fumihisa Kumazawa, Hideyuki Shimazaki, Ukei Anazawa, Kazuhiro Chiba
Nodular hidradenoma (NH) is a benign adnexal tumor that arises from either eccrine or apocrine sweat glands. NH can originate from any cutaneous site, but the most common sites are the head and anterior surface of the trunk, with very rare cases in the extremities. Long-standing NH has been reported to undergo malignant transformation to malignant NH (MNH); however, its occurrence in the lower leg is extremely rare with only one other case reported to date. In this report, we present a rare case of MNH occurring in the lower leg which was resected with the intent to make a diagnosis...
May 2018: Case Reports in Oncology
Aurélie Bertaut, Julien Coudert, Leila Bengrine, Vincent Dancourt, Christine Binquet, Serge Douvier
BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine participation rates and factors associated with participation in colorectal (fecal occul blood test) and cervical cancer (Pap-smear) screening among a population of women participating in breast cancer screening. METHODS: From August to October 2015, a self-administered questionnaire was sent by post to 2 900 women aged 50-65, living in Côte-d'Or, France, and who were up to date with mammogram screening. Polytomic logistic regression was used to identify correlates of participation in both cervical and colorectal cancer screenings...
2018: PloS One
Petr Winkler, Tomáš Formánek, Karolína Mladá, Pavla Cermakova
OBJECTIVES: The CZEch Mental health Study (CZEMS) was launched to inform the ongoing mental health care reform. This paper describes rationale, methods, and the plan for the future analyses of this project. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey on a representative sample of the general adult noninstitutionalized population of the Czech Republic was conducted. Two-stage sampling was utilized and respondents were interviewed by centrally trained staff using a paper and pencil interviewing...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Emily Shepherd, Rehana A Salam, Philippa Middleton, Shanshan Han, Maria Makrides, Sarah McIntyre, Nadia Badawi, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy is an umbrella term that encompasses disorders of movement and posture attributed to non-progressive disturbances occurring in the developing foetal or infant brain. As there are diverse risk factors and aetiologies, no one strategy will prevent cerebral palsy. Therefore, there is a need to systematically consider all potentially relevant interventions for prevention. OBJECTIVES: PrimaryTo summarise the evidence from Cochrane Systematic Reviews regarding effects of neonatal interventions for preventing cerebral palsy (reducing cerebral palsy risk)...
June 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Shivan J Mehta, Tanya Khan, Carmen Guerra, Catherine Reitz, Timothy McAuliffe, Kevin G Volpp, David A Asch, Chyke A Doubeni
OBJECTIVES: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening uptake is suboptimal, despite national efforts to increase screening rates. Behavioral economic approaches such as changing defaults may increase participation. We compare response rates to opt-in or opt-out messaging in mailed fecal immunochemical test (FIT) outreach. METHODS: This is a two-arm randomized controlled trial among 314 patients aged 50-74 years who had at least two primary care visits in the 2-year pre-enrollment period and were screening-eligible but not up-to-date...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Eugene Hong, Anteneh Mesfin Yeneneh, Tushar Kanti Sen, Ha Ming Ang, Ahmet Kayaalp
Large quantities of sludge is generated from different sections of a wastewater treatment plant operation. Sludge can be a solid, semisolid or liquid muddy residual material. Understanding the flow behaviour and rheological properties of sewage sludge at different sections of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is important for the design of pumping system, mixing, hydrodynamics and mass transfer rates of various sludge treatment units, optimization of conditioning dose and for sustainable sludge management...
June 15, 2018: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Ahmed A Badawy, Samaa A Kasem, Doaa Rashwan, Tarek Al Menesy, Ghada Adel, Ali M Mokhtar, Yasmin A Badawy
BACKGROUND: Short acting inhalational anesthetic (Desflurane) produces emergence agitation (EA) in pediatrics with an incidence up to 80%. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of Gabapentin oral solution in attenuating desflurane associated EA in children after strabismus surgery under general anesthesia. METHODS: Seventy patients, 2-6 years old, scheduled for strabismus surgery were randomly allocated into two groups (35 each); Control group (c): received 5 ml of oral strawberry juice (placebo) and Gabapentin group (G) received 5 mg/Kg gabapentin oral solution in 5 ml strawberry juice, 1 h before anesthesia...
June 20, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
William C Buhrman, William B Lyman, Russell C Kirks, Michael Passeri, Dionisios Vrochides
For over two decades, enhanced recovery pathways have been implemented in many surgical disciplines, most notably in colorectal surgery. Since 2001, the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS® ) Study Group has developed a main protocol comprising 24 evidence-based core items. While these core items unite similar preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative principles across surgical subspecialties, variations and modifications exist to these core items based on unique considerations for each surgical subspecialty...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Xin Li, Han Qi, Gou Qing, Ze Song, Lin Xie, Fei Cao, Xiaoming Chen, Weijun Fan
BACKGROUND: Although patients with EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) benefit from treatment with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), outcomes are limited by the eventual development of acquired resistance. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of EGFR-TKI therapy beyond focal progression, associated with microwave ablation. METHODS: Patients with metastatic EGFR-mutant NSCLC treated with EGFR-TKIs at our institutions from May 2012 to December 2017 were identified...
June 20, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
Bianca Costa Soares de Sá, Luciana Facure Moredo, Elimar Elias Gomes, Erica Sara Souza de Araújo, João Pedreira Duprat
BACKGROUND: Approximately five to 10% of all melanomas occur in families with hereditary predisposition and the main high-risk melanoma susceptibility gene is the CDKN2A. OBJECTIVES: To describe, after a five-years study, the clinical data of patients (probands) from familial melanoma kindreds, and the pathological characteristics of their melanoma. METHODS: The inclusion criteria were melanoma patients with a family history of melanoma or pancreatic cancer (first- or second-degree relatives) or patients with multiple primary melanomas (MPM)...
June 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Basant Chitara, Assaf Ya'akobovitz
Gallium sulphide (GaS), gallium selenide (GaSe), and gallium telluride (GaTe), belonging to the group-III monochalcogenide family, have shown promising optoelectronic performance over graphene and monolayer molybdenum disulphide (MoS2). However, to date, the mechanical properties of these materials have not been investigated, which hinders their utilisation in flexible electronics and optomechanics. Here, we characterize the elastic properties and breaking strengths of suspended two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets of GaS, GaSe, and GaTe, using atomic force microscopy...
June 20, 2018: Nanoscale
Liang Ma, Liwen Zhang, Yun Zhuang, Yanbo Ding, Jianping Chen
RATIONALE: Massive ascites as the first sign of ovarian juvenile granulosa cell tumor (JGCT) in an adolescent is an extremely rare, and its clinical features and treatment methods have not been well described. PATIENT CONCERNS: The clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment methods in a 19-year-old girl who presented with massive abdominal distention and ascites was retrospectively reviewed. Abdominopelvic ultrasonography showed a large amount of ascites...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Emiko Okada, Koshi Nakamura, Shigekazu Ukawa, Kenji Wakai, Chigusa Date, Hiroyasu Iso, Akiko Tamakoshi
Few studies have reported the association between the Japanese diet as food score and mortality. This study aimed to investigate adherence to the Japanese food score associated with all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. A total of 58 767 (23 162 men and 34 232 women) Japanese participants aged 40-79 years, who enrolled in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study between 1988 and 1990, were included. The Japanese food score was derived from the components of seven food groups (beans and bean products, fresh fishes, vegetables, Japanese pickles, fungi, seaweeds and fruits) based on the FFQ...
June 20, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Chew R Ming, Andrea Ban Yu-Lin, Mohammad F Abdul Hamid, Mohd T Latiff, Nurashikin Mohammad, Tidi Hassan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The Southeast Asia (SEA) haze is an annual problem and at its worst could produce respirable particles of concentrations up to 500 μg/m3 which is five times the level considered as 'unhealthy'. However, there are limited reports examining the direct clinical impact of the annual haze. This study examines the effects of the SEA haze on respiratory admissions. METHODS: Data from all respiratory admissions in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) from 1st January 2014 to 31st December 2015 were collected retrospectively from chart and electronic database...
June 19, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Carolyn J Crandall, Sowmya Vasan, Andrea LaCroix, Meryl S LeBoff, Jane A Cauley, John A Robbins, Rebecca D Jackson, Douglas C Bauer
Current guidelines recommend that serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and serum procollagen type 1 aminoterminal propeptide (PINP), measured by standardized assays, be used as reference markers in observational and interventional studies. However, there are limited data to determine whether serum CTX and PINP are associated with hip fracture risk among postmenopausal women. We determined the associations of serum CTX and serum PINP with hip fracture risk among postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years at baseline...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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