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Emergence complexity theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923180/insight-into-the-structure-and-stability-of-tc-and-re-dmsa-complexes-a-computational-study
#1
Daniel Hernández-Valdés, Alejandro Blanco-González, Ariel García-Fleitas, Zalua Rodríguez-Riera, Giuseppe Meola, Roger Alberto, Ulises Jáuregui-Haza
Meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is used in nuclear medicine as ligand for preparation of diagnostic and therapy radiopharmaceuticals. DMSA has been the subject of numerous investigations during the past three decades and new and significant information of the chemistry and pharmacology of DMSA complexes have emerged. In comparison to other ligands, the structure of some DMSA complexes is unclear up today. The structures and applications of DMSA complexes are strictly dependent on the chemical conditions of their preparation, especially pH and components ratio...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923053/different-evolutionary-paths-to-complexity-for-small-and-large-populations-of-digital-organisms
#2
Thomas LaBar, Christoph Adami
A major aim of evolutionary biology is to explain the respective roles of adaptive versus non-adaptive changes in the evolution of complexity. While selection is certainly responsible for the spread and maintenance of complex phenotypes, this does not automatically imply that strong selection enhances the chance for the emergence of novel traits, that is, the origination of complexity. Population size is one parameter that alters the relative importance of adaptive and non-adaptive processes: as population size decreases, selection weakens and genetic drift grows in importance...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921329/preventive-dental-visiting-a-critical-interpretive-synthesis-of-theory-explaining-how-inequalities-arise
#3
Rebecca V Harris, Andrew Pennington, Margaret Whitehead
BACKGROUND: In many countries, those with lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by poor oral health. This can be attributed, at least in part, to differences in preventive dental visiting. While several theories have been applied to the area, they generally fail to capture the recursive nature of dental visiting behaviour, and fall short of informing the design of complex interventions to tackle inequalities. OBJECTIVE: To undertake a systematic review and synthesis of theory in order to provide an overview of the pathways which bring about socioeconomic inequalities in early dental visiting, and identify possible intervention points...
December 6, 2016: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921197/counselees-perspectives-of-genomic-counseling-following-online-receipt-of-multiple-actionable-complex-disease-and-pharmacogenomic-results-a-qualitative-research-study
#4
Kevin Sweet, Shelly Hovick, Amy C Sturm, Tara Schmidlen, Erynn Gordon, Barbara Bernhardt, Lisa Wawak, Karen Wernke, Joseph McElroy, Laura Scheinfeldt, Amanda E Toland, J S Roberts, Michael Christman
Genomic applications raise multiple challenges including the optimization of genomic counseling (GC) services as part of the results delivery process. More information on patients' motivations, preferences, and informational needs are essential to guide the development of new, more efficient practice delivery models that capitalize on the existing strengths of a limited genetic counseling workforce. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with a subset of counselees from the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative following online receipt of multiple personalized genomic test reports...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918171/the-complexities-of-power-in-feminist-multicultural-psychotherapy-supervision
#5
Alexis V Arczynski, Susan L Morrow
The goal of the present study was to understand how current feminist multicultural supervisors understand and implement their feminist multicultural principles into clinical supervision. We addressed this aim by answering the following research question: How do self-identified feminist multicultural psychotherapy supervisors conceptualize and practice feminist supervision that is explicitly multicultural? The perspectives of 14 participant supervisors were obtained by using semistructured initial interviews, follow-up interviews, and feedback interviews and were investigated via a feminist constructivist grounded theory design and analysis...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916383/disentangling-interactions-in-the-microbiome-a-network-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Mehdi Layeghifard, David M Hwang, David S Guttman
Microbiota are now widely recognized as being central players in the health of all organisms and ecosystems, and subsequently have been the subject of intense study. However, analyzing and converting microbiome data into meaningful biological insights remain very challenging. In this review, we highlight recent advances in network theory and their applicability to microbiome research. We discuss emerging graph theoretical concepts and approaches used in other research disciplines and demonstrate how they are well suited for enhancing our understanding of the higher-order interactions that occur within microbiomes...
December 1, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906523/developmental-evolution
#7
REVIEW
Robert Lickliter
Biologists and psychologists are re-thinking the long-standing premise of genes as the primary cause of development, a view widely embraced in 20th-century biology. This shift in thinking is based in large part on: (1) the growing appreciation of the complex, distributed regulatory dynamics of gene expression; and (2) the growing appreciation of the probabilistic, contingent, and situated nature of development. We now appreciate that what actually unfolds during individual development represents only one of many possibilities...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896358/emergence-of-ordered-network-mesophases-in-kinetic-pathways-of-order-order-transition-for-linear-abc-triblock-terpolymers
#8
Tongjie Sun, Ping Tang, Feng Qiu, An-Chang Shi
Applying the string method to the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) of ABC linear triblock copolymers, we developed a new strategy to design kinetic pathways for the formation of stable or metastable network mesophases in order-order transition (OOT) processes. The design principle regarding the kinetic pathways between distinct mesophases is based on the matching relationships of both domain spacing and dominant Fourier components of the density distributions. The results suggest that complex ordered network mesophases, such as alternating diamond (D(A)) and alternating plumber's nightmare (P(A)) could be obtained in kinetic pathways between simple phases covering lamellae, cylinders and spheres...
November 29, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886625/culturally-construed-beliefs-and-perceptions-of-nursing-students-and-the-stigma-impacting-on-people-living-with-aids-a-qualitative-study
#9
David Pickles, Lindy King, Sheryl de Lacey
BACKGROUND: Since HIV and AIDS were discovered, studies have demonstrated that negative perceptions and reluctance to provide care to affected people persist among nursing students throughout the world. This leads to poor quality care. OBJECTIVES: To report on a study that explored socio-cultural influences on the perceptions of international nursing students toward caring for people living with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive research design, guided by stigma theory, was utilised...
November 16, 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884424/vision-as-a-beachhead
#10
REVIEW
David J Heeger, Marlene Behrmann, Ilan Dinstein
When neural circuits develop abnormally due to different genetic deficits and/or environmental insults, neural computations and the behaviors that rely on them are altered. Computational theories that relate neural circuits with specific quantifiable behavioral and physiological phenomena, therefore, serve as extremely useful tools for elucidating the neuropathological mechanisms that underlie different disorders. The visual system is particularly well suited for characterizing differences in neural computations; computational theories of vision are well established, and empirical protocols for measuring the parameters of those theories are well developed...
September 29, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878879/classificatory-multiplicity-intimate-partner-violence-diagnosis-in-emergency-department-consultations
#11
Philippa Olive
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to explore the naming, or classification, of physical assaults by a partner as 'intimate partner violence' during emergency department consultations. BACKGROUND: Research continues to evidence instances when intimate partner physical violence is 'missed' or unacknowledged during emergency department consultations. METHODS: Theoretically this research was approached through complexity theory and the sociology of diagnosis...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872099/conflicting-signals-for-cancer-treatment
#12
Pierre Sujobert, Alain Trautmann
Next-generation sequencing technologies have provided us with a precise description of the mutational burden of cancers, making it possible to identify targetable oncogene addictions. However, the emergence of resistant clones is an inevitable limitation of therapies targeting these addictions. Alternative approaches to cancer treatment are therefore required. We propose here a novel approach, based on the notion of conflicting signals and on a phenotypic description of cancer cells. "Phenotype" is an inherently complex notion that we describe in the conceptual framework of the epigenetic landscape, with a view to bridging the gap between theory and practice at the patient's bedside...
December 1, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869702/eps-then-and-now
#13
REVIEW
Hans-Curt Flemming
"Slime" played a brief and spectacular role in the 19th century founded by the theory of primordial slime by Ernst Haeckel. However, that substance was never found and eventually abandoned. Further scientific attention slowly began in the 1930s referring to slime as a microbial product and then was inspired by "How bacteria stick" by Costerton et al. in 1978, and the matrix material was considered to be polysaccharides. Later, it turned out that proteins, nucleic acids and lipids were major other constituents of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), an acronym which was highly discussed...
November 18, 2016: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867830/niche-construction-social-cognition-and-language-hypothesizing-the-human-as-the-production-of-place
#14
Oliver Davies
New data is emerging from evolutionary anthropology and the neuroscience of social cognition on our species-specific hyper-cooperation (HC). This paper attempts an integration of third-person archaeological and second-person, neuroscientific perspectives on the structure of HC, through a post-Ricoeurian development in hermeneutical phenomenology. We argue for the relatively late evolution of advanced linguistic consciousness (ALC) (Hiscock in Biological Theory 9:27-41, 2014), as a reflexive system based on the 'in-between' or 'cognitive system' as reported by Vogeley et al...
2016: Culture and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862751/label-free-molecular-imaging-of-biological-cells-and-tissues-by-linear-and-non-linear-raman-spectroscopic-approaches
#15
Jürgen Popp, Christoph Krafft, Michael Schmitt, Iwan Schie, Dana Cialla-May, Christian Matthaeus, Thomas Bocklitz
Raman spectroscopy is an emerging technique in bioanalysis and imaging of biomaterials due to its unique spectroscopic fingerprint capabilities. Imaging of cells and tissues by Raman microspectroscopy represents a non-destructive and label-free approach. All components of cells or tissues contribute to the Raman signals giving complex spectral signatures. Long acquisitions times are often required due to the relatively small Raman scattering cross sections. To overcome these limitations, Raman signal enhancing methods like resonance Raman scattering and surface enhanced Raman scattering can be applied that also reduce the spectral complexity because the enhancement is often restricted to selected bands...
November 15, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860248/restructuring-of-basal-ganglia-circuitry-and-associated-behaviors-triggered-by-low-striatal-d2-receptor-expression-implications-for-substance-use-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Lauren Dobbs, Julia C Lemos, Veronica A Alvarez
Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) consistently emerge as a critical substrate for the etiology of some major psychiatric disorders. Indeed, a central theory of substance use disorders (SUDs) postulates that a reduction in D2R levels in the striatum is a determining factor that confers vulnerability to abuse substances. A large number of clinical and preclinical studies strongly support this link between SUDs and D2Rs; however, identifying the mechanism by which low D2Rs facilitate SUDs has been hindered by the complexity of circuit connectivity, the heterogeneity of D2R expression and the multifaceted constellation of phenotypes observed in SUD patient...
November 17, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858441/tuning-synthetic-semiflexible-networks-by-bending-stiffness
#17
Carsten Schuldt, Jörg Schnauß, Tina Händler, Martin Glaser, Jessica Lorenz, Tom Golde, Josef A Käs, David M Smith
The mechanics of complex soft matter often cannot be understood in the classical physical frame of flexible polymers or rigid rods. The underlying constituents are semiflexible polymers, whose finite bending stiffness (κ) leads to nontrivial mechanical responses. A natural model for such polymers is the protein actin. Experimental studies of actin networks, however, are limited since the persistence length (l_{p}∝κ) cannot be tuned. Here, we experimentally characterize this parameter for the first time in entangled networks formed by synthetically produced, structurally tunable DNA nanotubes...
November 4, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852320/a-complex-endeavour-an-ethnographic-study-of-the-implementation-of-the-sepsis-six-clinical-care-bundle
#18
Carolyn Tarrant, Barbara O'Donnell, Graham Martin, Julian Bion, Alison Hunter, Kevin D Rooney
BACKGROUND: Implementation of the 'Sepsis Six' clinical care bundle within an hour of recognition of sepsis is recommended as an approach to reduce mortality in patients with sepsis, but achieving reliable delivery of the bundle has proved challenging. There remains little understanding of the barriers to reliable implementation of bundle components. We examined frontline clinical practice in implementing the Sepsis Six. METHODS: We conducted an ethnographic study in six hospitals participating in the Scottish Patient Safety Programme Sepsis collaborative...
November 16, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844461/antecedents-of-suicide-among-youth-aged-11-15-a-multistate-mixed-methods-analysis
#19
Kristin M Holland, Alana M Vivolo-Kantor, Joseph E Logan, Ruth W Leemis
Suicide is the second leading cause of death for youth aged 11 to 15, taking over 5,500 lives from 2003 to 2014. Suicide among this age group is linked to risk factors such as mental health problems, family history of suicidal behavior, biological factors, family problems, and peer victimization and bullying. However, few studies have examined the frequency with which such problems occur among youth suicide decedents or the context in which decedents experience these risk factors and the complex interplay of risk that results in a decedent's decision to take his/her own life...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813256/a-qualitative-case-study-in-the-social-capital-of-co-professional-collaborative-co-practice-for-children-with-speech-language-and-communication-needs
#20
Cristina McKean, James Law, Karen Laing, Maria Cockerill, Jan Allon-Smith, Elspeth McCartney, Joan Forbes
BACKGROUND: Effective co-practice is essential to deliver services for children with speech, language and communication needs (SLCN). The necessary skills, knowledge and resources are distributed amongst professionals and agencies. Co-practice is complex and a number of barriers, such as 'border disputes' and poor awareness of respective priorities, have been identified. However social-relational aspects of co-practice have not been explored in sufficient depth to make recommendations for improvements in policy and practice...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
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