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Emergence complexity theory

Richard A Gray, Pras Pathmanathan
Elucidating the underlying mechanisms of fatal cardiac arrhythmias requires a tight integration of electrophysiological experiments, models, and theory. Existing models of transmembrane action potential (AP) are complex (resulting in over parameterization) and varied (leading to dissimilar predictions). Thus, simpler models are needed to elucidate the "minimal physiological requirements" to reproduce significant observable phenomena using as few parameters as possible. Moreover, models have been derived from experimental studies from a variety of species under a range of environmental conditions (for example, all existing rabbit AP models incorporate a formulation of the rapid sodium current, INa, based on 30 year old data from chick embryo cell aggregates)...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Kevin Patrick, Eric B Hekler, Deborah Estrin, David C Mohr, Heleen Riper, David Crane, Job Godino, William T Riley
This paper addresses the rapid pace of change in the technologies that support digital interventions; the complexity of the health problems they aim to address; and the adaptation of scientific methods to accommodate the volume, velocity, and variety of data and interventions possible from these technologies. Information, communication, and computing technologies are now part of every societal domain and support essentially every facet of human activity. Ubiquitous computing, a vision articulated fewer than 30 years ago, has now arrived...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Jessica E Miller, Soo Hyun Ahn, Stephany P Monsanto, Kasra Khalaj, Madhuri Koti, Chandrakant Tayade
Endometriosis is a complex, inflammatory disease that affects 6-10% of reproductive-aged women. Almost half of the women with endometriosis experience infertility. Despite the excessive prevalence, the pathogenesis of endometriosis and its associated infertility is unknown and a cure is not available. While many theories have been suggested to link endometriosis and infertility, a consensus among investigators has not emerged. In this extensive review of the literature as well as research from our laboratory, we provide potential insights into the role of immune dysfunction in endometriosis associated infertility...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Mafalda Dias, Jonathan Frazer, M C David Marsh
We construct ensembles of random scalar potentials for N_{f}-interacting scalar fields using nonequilibrium random matrix theory, and use these to study the generation of observables during small-field inflation. For N_{f}=O(few), these heavily featured scalar potentials give rise to power spectra that are highly nonlinear, at odds with observations. For N_{f}≫1, the superhorizon evolution of the perturbations is generically substantial, yet the power spectra simplify considerably and become more predictive, with most realizations being well approximated by a linear power spectrum...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Davide Cellai, Sergey N Dorogovtsev, Ginestra Bianconi
Multiplex networks describe a large variety of complex systems, including infrastructures, transportation networks, and biological systems. Most of these networks feature a significant link overlap. It is therefore of particular importance to characterize the mutually connected giant component in these networks. Here we provide a message passing theory for characterizing the percolation transition in multiplex networks with link overlap and an arbitrary number of layers M. Specifically we propose and compare two message passing algorithms that generalize the algorithm widely used to study the percolation transition in multiplex networks without link overlap...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Sheila E Crowell, Erin A Kaufman
Self-inflicted injury (SII) is a continuum of intentionally self-destructive behaviors, including nonsuicidal self-injuries, suicide attempts, and death by suicide. These behaviors are among the most pressing yet perplexing clinical problems, affecting males and females of every race, ethnicity, culture, socioeconomic status, and nearly every age. The complexity of these behaviors has spurred an immense literature documenting risk and vulnerability factors ranging from individual to societal levels of analysis...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Stephan U Dombrowski, Pauline Campbell, Helen Frost, Alex Pollock, Julie McLellan, Steve MacGillivray, Anna Gavine, Margaret Maxwell, Ronan O'Carroll, Helen Cheyne, Justin Presseau, Brian Williams
BACKGROUND: Failure to successfully implement and sustain change over the long term continues to be a major problem in health and social care. Translating evidence into routine clinical practice is notoriously complex, and it is recognised that to implement new evidence-based interventions and sustain them over time, professional behaviour needs to change accordingly. A number of theories and frameworks have been developed to support behaviour change among health and social care professionals, and models of sustainability are emerging, but few have translated into valid and reliable interventions...
October 13, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Henry Patrick Knapp
Once an emergency occurs, companies find themselves competing for diminishing resources. Companies mired in confusion and debate often fail to obtain the resources necessary for a speedy recovery and fail to meet the expectations of their various interested parties. Unfortunately, it is during these emergencies that the firm is judged. Unfavourable evaluations of a company by customers, the government and/or the general public result in lost future revenue through contracts that are either not renewed or cancelled, as well as disqualification from tenders and lost bids...
2016: Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning
Kjersti S Gulliksen, Ragnfrid H S Nordbø, Ester M S Espeset, Finn Skårderud, Arne Holte
INTRODUCTION: Studies show that patients' perception of their illness has a direct influence both on their utilization of health services and their adherence to treatment plans. This may be particularly relevant to the treatment of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Previous studies on AN have typically explored single psycho-social factors that patients with AN relate to the emergence of their illness. There is a need for more coherent systematic descriptions of the complexity of the patients' narratives about how their illness emerged...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Neil K Ganju, Mark J Brush, Brenda Rashleigh, Alfredo L Aretxabaleta, Pilar Del Barrio, Jason S Grear, Lora A Harris, Samuel J Lake, Grant McCardell, James O'Donnell, David K Ralston, Richard P Signell, Jeremy M Testa, Jamie M P Vaudrey
Numerical modeling has emerged over the last several decades as a widely accepted tool for investigations in environmental sciences. In estuarine research, hydrodynamic and ecological models have moved along parallel tracks with regard to complexity, refinement, computational power, and incorporation of uncertainty. Coupled hydrodynamic-ecological models have been used to assess ecosystem processes and interactions, simulate future scenarios, and evaluate remedial actions in response to eutrophication, habitat loss, and freshwater diversion...
March 2016: Estuaries and Coasts: Journal of the Estuarine Research Federation
Scott D Easton, Jooyoung Kong
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a widely acknowledged trauma that affects a substantial number of boys/men and has the potential to undermine mental health across the lifespan. Despite the topic's importance, few studies have examined the long-term effects of CSA on mental health in middle and late life for men. Most empirical studies on the effects of CSA have been conducted with women, non-probability samples, and samples of young or emerging adults with inadequate control variables. Based on complex trauma theory, the current study investigated: a) the effect of CSA on mental health outcomes (depressive symptoms, somatic symptom severity, hostility) in late life for men, and b) the moderating effects of childhood adversities and masculine norms in the relationship between CSA and the three mental health outcomes...
October 5, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Jane de Verges, Volker Nehring
Social insects have received attention for their extreme lifespan variation and reversal of the fecundity/longevity trade-off. However, proximate causes of senescence in general are disputed, and social insects often fail to meet the predictions of prevailing models. We present evidence for and against the long-held free radical theory of aging in social insects, and consider the application of the competing hyperfunction theory. Current results present problems for both theories, and a more complex picture of the biological processes involved emerges...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Sarah Kearney, Loksee Leung, Andrew Joyce, Debbie Ollis, Celia Green
Issue addressed: Our Watch led a complex 12-month evaluation of a whole school approach to Respectful Relationships Education (RRE) implemented in 19 schools. RRE is an emerging field aimed at preventing gender-based violence. This paper will illustrate how from an implementation science perspective, the evaluation was a critical element in the change process at both a school and policy level.Methods: Using several conceptual approaches from systems science, the evaluation sought to examine how the multiple systems layers - student, teacher, school, community and government - interacted and influenced each other...
October 6, 2016: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Ankush Kawali, Ringhoo Theresa Jose, Aishwarya, Mathew Kurian, Kushal Kacha, Padmamalini Mahendradas, Rohit Shetty
BACKGROUND: Psycho-immunology is an emerging branch of science which studies the interaction between the brain and the immune system. The purpose of this study is to identify the types of personality factors in patients with non-infectious uveitis and to find its association with a particular uveitic entity if any. This is a prospective, observational, case-control study of 186 patients with non-infectious uveitis (group A) and controls from general ophthalmology outpatient department (group B)...
December 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
Carsten Murawski, Peter Bossaerts
Life presents us with problems of varying complexity. Yet, complexity is not accounted for in theories of human decision-making. Here we study instances of the knapsack problem, a discrete optimisation problem commonly encountered at all levels of cognition, from attention gating to intellectual discovery. Complexity of this problem is well understood from the perspective of a mechanical device like a computer. We show experimentally that human performance too decreased with complexity as defined in computer science...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Elizabeth Jestico, Teresa Finlay
BACKGROUND: In the UK children with cancer are cared for by children's nurses in a variety of settings, specialist and non-specialist. Whilst post-registration specialist education is available to some nurses, many nurses rely solely on pre-registration education to competently care for these children. This study explores whether nurses perceive that this adequately prepares them. OBJECTIVES: To explore the extent to which qualified nurses perceive that pre-registration nurse education prepares them to care for children with cancer; to consider the implications for children's nursing pre-registration curricula...
September 30, 2016: Nurse Education Today
Sheila E Crowell, Erin A Kaufman
Over the past 2 decades there has been a dramatic shift in understanding of personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). What was historically viewed as an entrenched pattern of antagonistic, interpersonally dependent, and uncorrectable conduct is now seen as the outcome of complex-yet modifiable-developmental processes. The borderline label, which once inspired such harsh opprobrium in clinical communities that early diagnosis was considered taboo, is now increasingly applied to adolescents who are receiving effective treatment and desisting from a borderline trajectory...
October 2016: Personality Disorders
Duarte Araújo, Keith Davids
Individual players act as a coherent unit during team sports performance, forming a team synergy. A synergy is a collective property of a task-specific organization of individuals, such that the degrees of freedom of each individual in the system are coupled, enabling the degrees of freedom of different individuals to co-regulate each other. Here, we present an explanation for the emergence of such collective behaviors, indicating how these can be assessed and understood through the measurement of key system properties that exist, considering the contribution of each individual and beyond These include: to (i) dimensional compression, a process resulting in independent degree of freedom being coupled so that the synergy has fewer degrees of freedom than the set of components from which it arises; (ii) reciprocal compensation, if one element do not produce its function, other elements should display changes in their contributions so that task goals are still attained; (iii) interpersonal linkages, the specific contribution of each element to a group task; and (iv), degeneracy, structurally different components performing a similar, but not necessarily identical, function with respect to context...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Marisa E Hilliard, Priscilla W Powell, Barbara J Anderson
As members of multidisciplinary diabetes care teams, psychologists are well-suited to support self-management among youth with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and their families. Psychological and behavioral interventions can promote adherence to the complex and demanding diabetes care regimen, with the goals of promoting high quality of life, achieving optimal glycemic control, and ultimately preventing disease-related complications. This article reviews well-researched contemporary behavioral interventions to promote optimal diabetes family- and self-management and health outcomes in youth with T1D, in the context of key behavioral theories...
October 2016: American Psychologist
Deborah J Wiebe, Vicki Helgeson, Cynthia A Berg
Diabetes self-management is crucial to maintaining quality of life and preventing long-term complications, and it occurs daily in the context of close interpersonal relationships. This article examines how social relationships are central to meeting the complex demands of managing Type I and Type 2 diabetes across the life span. The social context of diabetes management includes multiple resources, including family (parents, spouses), peers, romantic partners, and health care providers. We discuss how these social resources change across the life span, focusing on childhood and adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood and aging...
October 2016: American Psychologist
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