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Emergence complexity theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674017/the-complex-challenge-of-providing-patient-centred-perinatal-healthcare-in-rural-uganda-a-qualitative-enquiry
#1
Nandini D P Sarkar, Joske Bunders-Aelen, Bart Criel
RATIONALE: Increasing research and reflections on quality of healthcare across the perinatal period slowly propels the global community to lobby for improved standards of quality perinatal healthcare, especially in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this qualitative study was to obtain a deeper understanding of how interpersonal dimensions of the quality of care relate to real-life experiences of perinatal care, in a resource-constrained local health system...
March 21, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669558/responsibilities-with-conflicting-priorities-a-qualitative-study-of-act-providers-experiences-with-community-treatment-orders
#2
Hanne Kilen Stuen, Anne Landheim, Jorun Rugkåsa, Rolf Wynn
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe mental illness may be subjected to Community Treatment Orders (CTOs) in order to secure that the patients adhere to treatment. Few studies have investigated the use of CTOs within an Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) setting, and little is known about how the tension between the patients' autonomy and the clinicians' responsibility to act in the patients' best interest are resolved in practice. The aim of this study was to explore the service providers' experiences with CTOs within an ACT setting...
April 18, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665061/contracting-for-care-the-construction-of-the-farrier-role-in-supporting-horse-owners-to-prevent-laminitis
#3
J Lynden, J Ogden, T Hollands
BACKGROUND: Emerging research highlights how, due to demographic changes in horse owner populations in Western societies, complex owner-horse relationships are leading to inappropriate horse care, including over-nutrition, which in turn can lead to laminitis. Farriers, due to their regular visits, may be in a position to support owners in dealing with this problem. OBJECTIVES: This study explored whether UK farriers have a role in working with horse owners to support horse welfare and prevent laminitis...
April 17, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664724/factors-affecting-hearing-aid-adoption-and-use-a-qualitative-study
#4
Nicola E Gallagher, Jayne V Woodside
BACKGROUND: Despite a high prevalence of age-related hearing loss in older people, there is an unexplained low level of hearing aid adoption and use. Further research is required to determine the reason because hearing aids can vastly improve the quality of life for those with hearing loss. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with hearing aid adoption and use, and to determine whether these differed between groups with different hearing aid use behaviors...
April 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661182/women-s-perspectives-on-the-ethical-implications-of-non-invasive-prenatal-testing-a-qualitative-analysis-to-inform-health-policy-decisions
#5
Meredith Vanstone, Alexandra Cernat, Jeff Nisker, Lisa Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) is a technology which provides information about fetal genetic characteristics (including sex) very early in pregnancy by examining fetal DNA obtained from a sample of maternal blood. NIPT is a morally complex technology that has advanced quickly to market with a strong push from industry developers, leaving many areas of uncertainty still to be resolved, and creating a strong need for health policy that reflects women's social and ethical values...
April 16, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659992/neutral-theory-from-complex-population-history-to-natural-selection-and-socio-cultural-phenomena-in-human-populations
#6
Frédéric Austerlitz, Evelyne Heyer
Here we present a synthetic view on how Kimura's Neutral theory has helped us gaining insight on the different evolutionary forces that shape human evolution. We put this perspective in the frame of recent emerging challenges: the use of whole genome data for reconstructing population histories, natural selection for complex polygenic traits, and integrating cultural processes in human evolution.
April 11, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651754/learning-efficient-visual-search-for-stimuli-containing-diagnostic-spatial-configurations-and-color-shape-conjunctions
#7
Eric A Reavis, Sebastian M Frank, Peter U Tse
Visual search is often slow and difficult for complex stimuli such as feature conjunctions. Search efficiency, however, can improve with training. Search for stimuli that can be identified by the spatial configuration of two elements (e.g., the relative position of two colored shapes) improves dramatically within a few hundred trials of practice. Several recent imaging studies have identified neural correlates of this learning, but it remains unclear what stimulus properties participants learn to use to search efficiently...
April 12, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648920/functional-domain-analysis-of-sox18-transcription-factor-using-a-single-chain-variable-fragment-based-approach
#8
Frank R Fontaine, Stephen Goodall, Jeremy W Prokop, Christopher B Howard, Mehdi Moustaqil, Somuah Kumble, Daniel T Rasicci, Geoffrey W Osborne, Yann Gambin, Emma Sierecki, Martina L Jones, Johannes Zuegg, Stephen Mahler, Mathias Francois
Antibodies are routinely used to study the activity of transcription factors, using various in vitro and in vivo approaches such as electrophoretic mobility shift assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, genome-wide method analysis coupled with next generation sequencing, or mass spectrometry. More recently, a new application for antibodies has emerged as crystallisation scaffolds for difficult to crystallise proteins, such as transcription factors. Only in a few rare cases, antibodies have been used to modulate the activity of transcription factors, and there is a real gap in our knowledge on how to efficiently design antibodies to interfere with transcription...
April 12, 2018: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643372/good-and-bad-love-and-intimacy-from-plato-to-melanie-klein
#9
David Stromberg
Melanie Klein's theories on love outline a complex system of relations-an oscillating dynamic of psychical and emotional tendencies following from both actual experience and fantasies produced by the mind. Her insights are often discussed and applied in psychoanalytical contexts, but the philosophical implications of her theory-especially in relation to Platonic thought-have rarely been discussed. In this article, I will attempt to address this gap by setting out some preliminary yet core considerations shared by both Plato and Klein...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642712/methodological-advances-opportunities-and-challenges-in-aac-research
#10
Jennifer Kent-Walsh, Cathy Binger
Since its inception in 1985, the AAC journal has been publishing scientific articles related to the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) that (a) report research concerning assessment, treatment, rehabilitation, and education of people who use or have the potential to use AAC systems and (b) cover theory, technology, and systems development relevant to AAC. The journal has maintained a consistent focus on the science and practice of AAC while also advancing in varied and impressive ways...
April 12, 2018: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627990/the-daily-digital-practice-as-a-form-of-self-care-using-photography-for-everyday-well-being
#11
Liz Brewster, Andrew M Cox
Interest in the connection between involvement in digital communities and well-being has increased as these communities become more commonplace. Specific models of interaction that affect well-being have emerged; here, we examine one of those models, termed 'digital daily practice'. Digital daily practices involve a commitment to doing one thing - exercise, photography and writing - every day and sharing it online. Participants in these practices agree that they provide an unexpected benefit of improving well-being...
April 1, 2018: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627814/a-systematic-review-of-interventions-by-healthcare-professionals-to-improve-management-of-non-communicable-diseases-and-communicable-diseases-requiring-long-term-care-in-adults-who-are-homeless
#12
Peter Hanlon, Lynsey Yeoman, Lauren Gibson, Regina Esiovwa, Andrea E Williamson, Frances S Mair, Richard Lowrie
OBJECTIVE: Identify, describe and appraise trials of interventions delivered by healthcare professionals to manage non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and communicable diseases that require long-term care or treatment (LT-CDs), excluding mental health and substance use disorders, in homeless adults. DESIGN: Systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs and controlled before-after studies. Interventions characterised using Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) taxonomy...
April 7, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623956/cancer-dormancy-and-criticality-from-a-game-theory-perspective
#13
Amy Wu, David Liao, Vlamimir Kirilin, Ke-Chih Lin, Gonzalo Torga, Junle Qu, Liyu Liu, James C Sturm, Kenneth Pienta, Robert Austin
Background: The physics of cancer dormancy, the time between initial cancer treatment and re-emergence after a protracted period, is a puzzle. Cancer cells interact with host cells via complex, non-linear population dynamics, which can lead to very non-intuitive but perhaps deterministic and understandable progression dynamics of cancer and dormancy. Results: We explore here the dynamics of host-cancer cell populations in the presence of (1) payoffs gradients and (2) perturbations due to cell migration...
2018: Cancer convergence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609608/methamphetamine-type-stimulant-use-in-lao-pdr-qualitative-findings-from-users-aged-15-25-years-in-vientiane-capital-and-vientiane-province
#14
Vanphanom Sychareun, Bangone Santavasy, Niramonh Chanlivong, Andrea Fischer, Nicholas Thomson, Robert Power, Jo Durham
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine is one of the most widely used illicit drugs in several Southeast Asian countries, including the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). The purpose of this study was to examine the socio-cultural context of its use in Lao PDR. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative survey among young people, aged 15-24 years, who use methamphetamine (or Yaba as it is commonly known in the region) in Vientiane Capital and Vientiane Province, Lao PDR...
April 2, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575710/divergently-seeking-clarification-the-emergence-of-clarification-interaction
#15
Jonathan Ginzburg, Dimitra Kolliakou
Clarification requests, queries posed in response to a "problematic" (misheard, misunderstood, etc.) utterance, are a challenge to mainstream semantic theories because they call into question notions such as "shared content" or "the context." Given their strong parallelism requirements, elliptical clarification requests introduce in addition significant complexities concerning the need for long-term maintenance of non-semantic information in context. In this paper, we consider a puzzle concerning the emergence of elliptical clarification requests in child English: Data from the Belfast and Manchester corpora from CHILDES demonstrate that reprise fragments, the highest frequency clarification request construction among adults, emerges with significant delay in comparison with reprise sluices, bare wh-phrases used to request clarification...
March 25, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575407/the-evolution-of-individuality-revisited
#16
Arunas L Radzvilavicius, Neil W Blackstone
Evolutionary theory is formulated in terms of individuals that carry heritable information and are subject to selective pressures. However, individuality itself is a trait that had to evolve - an individual is not an indivisible entity, but a result of evolutionary processes that necessarily begin at the lower level of hierarchical organisation. Traditional approaches to biological individuality focus on cooperation and relatedness within a group, division of labour, policing mechanisms and strong selection at the higher level...
March 25, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574056/combining-a-toggle-switch-and-a-repressilator-within-the-ac-dc-circuit-generates-distinct-dynamical-behaviors
#17
Ruben Perez-Carrasco, Chris P Barnes, Yolanda Schaerli, Mark Isalan, James Briscoe, Karen M Page
Although the structure of a genetically encoded regulatory circuit is an important determinant of its function, the relationship between circuit topology and the dynamical behaviors it can exhibit is not well understood. Here, we explore the range of behaviors available to the AC-DC circuit. This circuit consists of three genes connected as a combination of a toggle switch and a repressilator. Using dynamical systems theory, we show that the AC-DC circuit exhibits both oscillations and bistability within the same region of parameter space; this generates emergent behaviors not available to either the toggle switch or the repressilator alone...
March 12, 2018: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564817/chromothripsis-and-the-macroevolution-theory
#18
Franck Pellestor
The recent discovery of a new class of massive chromosomal rearrangements, occurring during one unique cellular event and baptized "chromothripsis," deeply modifies our perception on the genesis of complex genomic rearrangements, but also it raises the question of the potential driving role of chromothripsis in species evolution. The occurrence of chromothripsis appears to be in good agreement with macroevolution models proposed as a complement to phyletic gradualism. The emergence of this unexpected phenomenon may help to demonstrate the contribution of chromosome rearrangements to speciation process...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555760/coevolution-of-landesque-capital-intensive-agriculture-and-sociopolitical-hierarchy
#19
Oliver Sheehan, Joseph Watts, Russell D Gray, Quentin D Atkinson
One of the defining trends of the Holocene has been the emergence of complex societies. Two essential features of complex societies are intensive resource use and sociopolitical hierarchy. Although it is widely agreed that these two phenomena are associated cross-culturally and have both contributed to the rise of complex societies, the causality underlying their relationship has been the subject of longstanding debate. Materialist theories of cultural evolution tend to view resource intensification as driving the development of hierarchy, but the reverse order of causation has also been advocated, along with a range of intermediate views...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547868/between-demarcation-and-discretion-the-medical-administrative-boundary-as-a-locus-of-safety-in-high-volume-organisational-routines
#20
Suzanne Grant, Bruce Guthrie
Patient safety is an increasing concern for health systems internationally. The majority of administrative work in UK general practice takes place in the context of organisational routines such as repeat prescribing and test results handling, where high workloads and increased clinician dependency on administrative staff have been identified as an emerging safety issue. Despite this trend, most research to date has focused on the redistribution of the clinical workload between doctors, nurses and allied health professionals within individual care settings...
March 2, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
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