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Emergence complexity theory

Alexander Zech, Niccolo Ricardi, Stefan Prager, Andreas Dreuw, Tomasz A Wesolowski
We present a thorough investigation of the errors in results obtained with the combination of Frozen-Density Embedding Theory and the Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction Scheme for the polarization propagator of second order (FDE-ADC(2)). The study was carried out on a set of 52 intermolecular complexes with varying interaction strength, each consisting of a chromophore of fundamental interest and a few small molecules in its environment. The errors emerging in Frozen-Density Embedding Theory based methods originate from: (a) the solver of the quantum many body problem used to obtain the embedded wavefunction (Ψemb), (b) the approximation for the explicit density functional for the embedding potential, and (c) the choice of the density representing the environment (ρB(r))...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Akira Terui, Nobuo Ishiyama, Hirokazu Urabe, Satoru Ono, Jacques C Finlay, Futoshi Nakamura
Intraspecific population diversity (specifically, spatial asynchrony of population dynamics) is an essential component of metapopulation stability and persistence in nature. In 2D systems, theory predicts that metapopulation stability should increase with ecosystem size (or habitat network size): Larger ecosystems will harbor more diverse subpopulations with more stable aggregate dynamics. However, current theories developed in simplified landscapes may be inadequate to predict emergent properties of branching ecosystems, an overlooked but widespread habitat geometry...
June 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dipesh Pyakurel, Indira Bhattarai Sharma, Carsten Smith-Hall
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Combined quantitative and qualitative environmental product trade studies, undertaken in the same location over time, are instrumental in identifying plant species with commercial demand and explaining what drives temporal changes. Yet such dynamic studies are rare, including for Himalayan medicinal plants that have been large-scale traded for millennia. AIM OF THE STUDY: To (i) investigate changes in medicinal plant trade in the past 17 years, and (ii) identify the main factors driving changes, using a study of Darchula District in far-western Nepal...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Carl R May, Amanda Cummings, Melissa Girling, Mike Bracher, Frances S Mair, Christine M May, Elizabeth Murray, Michelle Myall, Tim Rapley, Tracy Finch
BACKGROUND: Normalization Process Theory (NPT) identifies, characterises and explains key mechanisms that promote and inhibit the implementation, embedding and integration of new health techniques, technologies and other complex interventions. A large body of literature that employs NPT to inform feasibility studies and process evaluations of complex healthcare interventions has now emerged. The aims of this review were to review this literature; to identify and characterise the uses and limits of NPT in research on the implementation and integration of healthcare interventions; and to explore NPT's contribution to understanding the dynamics of these processes...
June 7, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Susanne M M de Mooij, Richard N A Henson, Lourens J Waldorp, Rogier A Kievit
It is well-established that brain structures and cognitive functions change across the lifespan. A longstanding hypothesis called age differentiation additionally posits that the relations between cognitive functions also change with age. To date however, evidence for age-related differentiation is mixed, and no study has examined differentiation of the relationship between brain and cognition. Here we use multi-group Structural Equation Modeling and SEM Trees to study differences within and between brain and cognition across the adult lifespan (18-88 years) in a large ( N >646, closely matched across sexes), population-derived sample of healthy human adults from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (www...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jane Bickford, John Coveney, Janet Baker, Deborah Hersh
BACKGROUND: A total laryngectomy often prolongs life but results in long-term disablement, disfigurement, and complex care needs. Current clinical practice addresses the surgical options, procedures, and immediate recovery. Less support is available longer-term despite significant changes to aspects of personhood and ongoing medical needs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the experience of living with and/or supporting individuals with a laryngectomy at least 1 year after surgery...
May 25, 2018: Cancer Nursing
Lisa Sharma-Wallace, Sandra J Velarde, Anita Wreford
Adaptive governance has emerged in the last decade as an intriguing avenue of theory and practice for the holistic management of complex environmental problems. Research on adaptive governance has flourished since the field's inception, probing the process and mechanisms underpinning the new approach while offering various justifications and prescriptions for empirical use. Nevertheless, recent reviews of adaptive governance reveal some important conceptual and practical gaps in the field, particularly concerning challenges in its application to real-world cases...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Wim Hordijk, Shira Shichor, Gonen Ashkenasy
Chemical networks often exhibit emergent, systems-level properties that cannot be simply derived from the linear sum of the individual components. The design and analysis of increasingly complex chemical networks thus constitute a major area of research in Systems Chemistry. In particular, much research is focused on the emergence of functional properties in prebiotic chemical networks relevant to the origin and early evolution of life. Here, we apply a formal framework known as RAF theory to study the dynamics of a complex network of mutually catalytic peptides...
May 29, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Jan Broekaert
The semantically ambiguous nature of the sign and aspects of non-classicality of elementary matter as described by quantum theory show remarkable coherent analogy. We focus on how the ambiguous nature of the image, text and art work bears functional resemblance to the dynamics of contextuality , entanglement , superposition , collapse and decoherence as these phenomena are known in quantum theory. These quantumlike properties in linguistic signs have previously been identified in formal descritions of e.g. concept combinations and mental lexicon representations and have been reported on in the literature...
2018: Foundations of Science
Arpita Varadwaj, Pradeep R Varadwaj, Helder M Marques, Koichi Yamashita
A set of six binary complexes that feature iodine-centered halogen bonding, extracted from structures deposited in the Cambridge Structure Database, has been examined computationally using density functional theory calculations with the M06-2X global hybrid, and dispersion corrected B3LYP-D3 and B97-D3, to determine their equilibrium geometries, binding energies and electronic properties. The results show that gas phase calculations are very informative in evaluating what occurs in the solid state, even though these calculations ignore the importance of lattice packing and counter ion effects...
May 24, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Zhenpeng Yao, Soo Kim, Jiangang He, Vinay I Hegde, Chris Wolverton
Significant research effort has focused on improving the specific energy of lithium-ion batteries for emerging applications, such as electric vehicles. Recently, a rock salt-type Li4 Mn2 O5 cathode material with a large discharge capacity (~350 mA·hour g-1 ) was discovered. However, a full structural model of Li4 Mn2 O5 and its corresponding phase transformations, as well as the atomistic origins of the high capacity, warrants further investigation. We use first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate both the disordered rock salt-type Li4 Mn2 O5 structure and the ordered ground-state structure...
May 2018: Science Advances
Candace J Chow, Carrie L Byington, Lenora M Olson, Karl Paulo Garcia Ramirez, Shiya Zeng, Ana María López
PURPOSE: To explore how academic physicians perform social and professional identities and how their personal experiences inform professional identity formation. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted with 25 academic physicians of diverse gender and racial/ethnic backgrounds at the University of Utah School of Medicine from 2015-2016. Interviews explored the domains of social identity, professional identity, and relationships with patients and colleagues...
May 22, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Gareth Drake, Amanda C de C Williams
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pain management for hospital inpatients remains suboptimal. Previously identified barriers to optimal pain management include staff communication difficulties, confusion around pain management roles and a lack of suitable resources for clinical staff. The emotional, relational and contextual complexities of gastrointestinal (GI) pain create particular challenges for frontline clinical staff attempting to implement a biopsychosocial approach to its management. The current study took place over 2 years, comprised an ethnographic and a feedback phase, and aimed to examine pain management processes with clinical staff in order to generate hypotheses and initiatives for improvement...
May 9, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Yu-Te Huang, Lin Fang
Sexual minorities of color in North America are frequently defined as a "double minority" group. Intersectionality theory has inspired investigations into how different forms of marginalization intersect to shape the lives of people with multiple minority statuses. In this constructivist grounded theory study, 18 Chinese immigrant gay men between 18 and 28 years of age participated in a semistructured individual interview to narrate their lived experiences in relation to their intersectional identities...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Jia Zheng, Qianyun Feng, Sheng Zheng, Xinhua Xiao
Osteoporosis, the most frequent metabolic disorder of bone, is a complex disease with a multifactorial origin that is influenced by genes and environments. However, the pathogenesis of osteoporosis has not been fully elucidated. The theory of "Developmental Origins of Health and Disease" indicates that early life environment exposure determines the risks of cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood. However, investigations into the effects of maternal nutrition and nutrition exposure during early life on the development of osteoporosis are limited...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Laurice Tuller, Cornelia Hamann, Solveig Chilla, Sandrine Ferré, Eléonore Morin, Philippe Prevost, Christophe Dos Santos, Lina Abed Ibrahim, Racha Zebib
BACKGROUND: The detection of specific language impairment (SLI) in children growing up bilingually presents particular challenges for clinicians. Non-word repetition (NWR) and sentence repetition (SR) tasks have proven to be the most accurate diagnostic tools for monolingual populations, raising the question of the extent of their usefulness in different bilingual populations. AIMS: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of NWR and SR tasks that incorporate phonological/syntactic complexity as discussed in recent linguistic theory...
May 23, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
René Weber, Bradly Alicea, Richard Huskey, Klaus Mathiak
This study investigates the dynamics of attention during continuous, naturalistic interactions in a video game. Specifically, the effect of repeated distraction on a continuous primary task is related to a functional model of network connectivity. We introduce the Non-linear Attentional Saturation Hypothesis (NASH), which predicts that effective connectivity within attentional networks increases non-linearly with decreasing distraction over time, and exhibits dampening at critical parameter values. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data collected using a naturalistic behavioral paradigm coupled with an interactive video game is used to test the hypothesis...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Alexa Ellis, Xiaosu Hu, Craig E Smith, Pamela E Davis-Kean, Ioulia Kovelman
Emerging research suggests that children's ability to divide is the best predictor of later arithmetic development. Although division is typically taught around grade 3, children much younger than this practice division when sharing and allocating resources (e.g. sharing food). To test the hypothesis that social sharing abilities are linked to the emergence of complex numerical division abilities, we examined sharing and division abilities in adults and children. The first study used functional near infrared spectroscopy to examine the neurocognitive bases of division in adults (N=28; age range: 18-23 years) during a task that evaluated their judgment of proportions in the context of sharing, as well as traditional numerical division tasks...
May 16, 2018: Neuroreport
Caroline Brum Rosso, Tarcisio Abreu Saurin
Although lean production (LP) has been increasingly adopted in healthcare systems, its benefits often fall short of expectations. This might be partially due to the failure of lean to account for the complexity of healthcare. This paper discusses the joint use of principles of LP and resilience engineering (RE), which is an approach for system design inspired by complexity science. Thus, a framework for supporting the design of socio-technical systems, which combines insights from LP and RE, was developed and tested in a system involving a patient flow from an emergency department to an intensive care unit...
September 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Christine J Ye, Sarah Regan, Guo Liu, Sarah Alemara, Henry H Heng
Background: In the past 15 years, impressive progress has been made to understand the molecular mechanism behind aneuploidy, largely due to the effort of using various -omics approaches to study model systems (e.g. yeast and mouse models) and patient samples, as well as the new realization that chromosome alteration-mediated genome instability plays the key role in cancer. As the molecular characterization of the causes and effects of aneuploidy progresses, the search for the general mechanism of how aneuploidy contributes to cancer becomes increasingly challenging: since aneuploidy can be linked to diverse molecular pathways (in regards to both cause and effect), the chances of it being cancerous is highly context-dependent, making it more difficult to study than individual molecular mechanisms...
2018: Molecular Cytogenetics
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