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Emergence complexity theory

Laura G Vivas, Rocio Yanes, Andreas Michels
Magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is a powerful technique for investigating magnetic nanoparticle assemblies in nonmagnetic matrices. For such microstructures, the standard theory of magnetic SANS assumes uniformly magnetized nanoparticles (macrospin model). However, there exist many experimental and theoretical studies which suggest that this assumption is violated: deviations from ellipsoidal particle shape, crystalline defects, or the interplay between various magnetic interactions (exchange, magnetic anisotropy, magnetostatics, external field) may lead to nonuniform spin structures...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ella Ottrey, Judi Porter, Catherine E Huggins, Claire Palermo
AIM: To explore and understand patterns of mealtime culture, environment and social practice from the perspective of staff, volunteers and visitors on the hospital ward. BACKGROUND: Inadequate food intake is a common and complex problem in hospital and can lead to malnutrition. Mealtime interventions have been implemented to address this problem with limited success. A better understanding of mealtime environment and practice is needed to ascertain which interventions are more likely to be effective in addressing inadequate food intake in hospital...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Ben Jackson, Michelle Marshall, Susie Schofield
BACKGROUND: Physician associates (PAs) are described as one solution to workforce capacity in primary care in the UK. Despite new investment in the role, how effective this will be in addressing unmet primary care needs is unclear. AIM: To investigate the barriers and facilitators to the integration of PAs into the general practice workforce. DESIGN AND SETTING: A modified grounded theory study in a region unfamiliar with the PA role. METHOD: No a priori themes were assumed...
October 9, 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
Rio Tsutsumi, Mai P Tran, Kimberly L Cooper
More than 150 years since Charles Darwin published "On the Origin of Species", gradual evolution by natural selection is still not fully reconciled with the apparent sudden appearance of complex structures, such as the bat wing, with highly derived functions. This is in part because developmental genetics has not yet identified the number and types of mutations that accumulated to drive complex morphological evolution. Here, we consider the experimental manipulations in laboratory model systems that suggest tissue interdependence and mechanical responsiveness during limb development conceptually reduce the genetic complexity required to reshape the structure as a whole...
September 13, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Sherri Adams, David Nicholas, Sanjay Mahant, Natalie Weiser, Ronik Kanani, Katherine Boydell, Eyal Cohen
AIM: Children with medical complexity require multiple providers and services to keep them well and at home. A care map is a patient/family-created diagram that pictorially maps out this complex web of services. This study explored what care maps mean for families and healthcare providers to inform potential for clinical use. METHOD: Parents (n=15) created care maps (hand drawn n=10 and computer-generated n=5) and participated in semi-structured interviews about the process of developing care maps and their perceived impact...
October 6, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Anna Matheson, Mat Walton, Rebecca Gray, Kirstin Lindberg, Mathu Shanthakumar, Caroline Fyfe, Nan Wehipeihana, Barry Borman
Background: This article outlines the methods being used to evaluate a community-based public health intervention. This evaluation approach recognizes that not only is the intervention, Healthy Families NZ, complex, but the social systems within which it is being implemented are complex. Methods: To address challenges related to complexity, we discuss three developing areas within evaluation theory and apply them to an evaluation case example. The example, Healthy Families NZ, aims to strengthen the prevention system in Aotearoa/New Zealand to prevent chronic disease in 10 different geographic areas...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Public Health
Michela Di Trani, Rachele Mariani, Alessia Renzi, Paul Samuel Greenman, Luigi Solano
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation between alexithymia and Referential Activity (RA), a linguistic measure of the process by which non-verbal emotional experience is connected to language. METHODS: The 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Toronto Structured Interview for Alexithymia (TSIA) were administered to 20 postgraduate students and 15 outpatients with hypertension. The Weighted Referential Activity Dictionary (WRAD) and other linguistic measures (Reflection, Disfluency, and Somatic Sense) were applied to texts derived from the TSIA using the Discourse Attributes Analysis Program (DAAP)...
October 3, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Linda Neuhauser
Health communication is an essential health promotion strategy to convert scientific findings into actionable, empowering information for the public. Health communication interventions have shown positive outcomes, but many efforts have been disappointing. A key weakness is that expert-designed health communication is often overly generic and not adequately aligned with the abilities, preferences and life situations of specific audiences. The emergence of the field of health literacy is providing powerful theoretical guidance and practice strategies...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Ann McKillop, Jay Shaw, Nicolette Sheridan, Carolyn Steele Gray, Peter Carswell, Walter P Wodchis, Martin Connolly, Jean-Louis Denis, G Ross Baker, Timothy Kenealy
INTRODUCTION: Many studies have investigated the process of healthcare implementation to understand better how to bridge gaps between recommended practice, the needs and demands of healthcare consumers, and what they actually receive. However, in the implementation of integrated community-based and integrated health care, it is still not well known which approaches work best. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and metanarrative synthesis of literature on implementation frameworks, theories and models in support of a research programme investigating CBPHC for older adults with chronic health problems...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Integrated Care
Andrew Sturrock, Philip M Preshaw, Catherine Hayes, Scott Wilkes
BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a rare, yet significant, adverse effect of bisphosphonate therapy. A multidisciplinary approach to the prevention of BRONJ is recommended due to the significant morbidity and difficulty treating the condition. Current evidence suggests that both general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists have limited knowledge relating to BRONJ and that preventative strategies are rarely implemented. OBJECTIVE: To explore the attitudes and perceptions of GPs and community pharmacists on the risks and preventative strategies for the development of BRONJ...
September 29, 2017: BMJ Open
Marcin Radom, Agnieszka Rybarczyk, Bartlomiej Szawulak, Hubert Andrzejewski, Piotr Chabelski, Adam Kozak, Piotr Formanowicz
Summary: Model development and its analysis is a fundamental step in systems biology. The theory of Petri nets offers a tool for such a task. Since the rapid development of computer science, a variety of tools for Petri nets emerged, offering various analytical algorithms. From this follows a problem of using different programs to analyze a single model. Many file formats and different representations of results make the analysis much harder. Especially for larger nets the ability to visualize the results in a proper form provides a huge help in the understanding of their significance...
August 7, 2017: Bioinformatics
Elizabeth A W Sigston, Bryan R G Williams
Experimental paradigms provide the framework for the understanding of cancer, and drive research and treatment, but are rarely considered by clinicians. The somatic mutation theory (SMT), in which cancer is considered a genetic disease, has been the predominant traditional model of cancer for over 50 years. More recently, alternative theories have been proposed, such as tissue organization field theory (TOFT), evolutionary models, and inflammatory models. Key concepts within the various models have led to them being difficult to reconcile...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Philip W Wirtz, Cynthia A Rohrbeck
In order to formulate effective communication and intervention strategies to respond to the widespread lack of preparedness for public health crises resulting from natural and human-made disasters, researchers have developed models describing the interrelationships between factors associated with emergency preparedness decisions. Empirical research has generally assumed that two key elements of most health behavior theories-self-efficacy and response efficacy-additively influence the decision to prepare, despite compelling theoretical rationale for an interactive relationship...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
Temidayo Ogunrinu, Thelma Gamboa-Maldonado, R Ndinda Ngewa, Jasmine Saunders, Jamie Crounse, James Misiri
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to understand the perceptions and experiences of health education and self-management practices on Malamulo Adventist Hospital type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: In this qualitative study, key informant interviews (KIIs; n=4) and focus group discussions (3 FGDs; n=16) were conducted amongst type 2 diabetes patients who had been treated at Malamulo Adventist Hospital in southern Malawi at least once. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and translated for analysis...
June 2017: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
Tirthankar Banerjee, Abhik Basu
The nature of emergent collective behaviors of moving interacting physical agents is a long-standing open issue in physical and biological systems alike. This calls for studies on the control of synchronization and the degree of order in a collection of diffusively moving noisy oscillators. We address this by constructing a generic hydrodynamic theory for active phase fluctuations in a collection of a large number of nearly-phase-coherent moving oscillators in two dimensions. Our theory describes the general situation where phase fluctuations and oscillator mobility mutually affect each other...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
Rodolfo Brandão, José A Miranda
We study a family of generalized elasticalike equilibrium shapes that arise at the interface separating two fluids in a curved rotating Hele-Shaw cell. This family of stationary interface solutions consists of shapes that balance the competing capillary and centrifugal forces in such a curved flow environment. We investigate how the emerging interfacial patterns are impacted by changes in the geometric properties of the curved Hele-Shaw cell. A vortex-sheet formalism is used to calculate the two-fluid interface curvature, and a gallery of possible shapes is provided to highlight a number of peculiar morphological features...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
N Tizón-Escamilla, C Pérez-Espigares, P L Garrido, P I Hurtado
Dynamical phase transitions (DPTs) in the space of trajectories are one of the most intriguing phenomena of nonequilibrium physics, but their nature in realistic high-dimensional systems remains puzzling. Here we observe for the first time a DPT in the current vector statistics of an archetypal two-dimensional (2D) driven diffusive system and characterize its properties using the macroscopic fluctuation theory. The complex interplay among the external field, anisotropy, and vector currents in 2D leads to a rich phase diagram, with different symmetry-broken fluctuation phases separated by lines of first- and second-order DPTs...
September 1, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Todd J Martínez
Few would dispute that theoretical chemistry tools can now provide keen insights into chemical phenomena. Yet the holy grail of efficient and reliable prediction of complex reactivity has remained elusive. Fortunately, recent advances in electronic structure theory based on the concepts of both element- and rank-sparsity, coupled with the emergence of new highly parallel computer architectures, have led to a significant increase in the time and length scales which can be simulated using first principles molecular dynamics...
March 21, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Curtis R Congreve, Amanda R Falk, James C Lamsdell
Hierarchy theory recognises that ecological and evolutionary units occur in a nested and interconnected hierarchical system, with cascading effects occurring between hierarchical levels. Different biological disciplines have routinely come into conflict over the primacy of different forcing mechanisms behind evolutionary and ecological change. These disconnects arise partly from differences in perspective (with some researchers favouring ecological forcing mechanisms while others favour developmental/historical mechanisms), as well as differences in the temporal framework in which workers operate...
September 24, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Fangyuan Wang, Dehua Zhao, Lei Stanley Qi
Synthetic biology aims to establish a complete set of engineering principles, theories, and methods, via the rational design and assembly of basic biological parts, for the goal of effective implementation of complex biological systems with programmable functions. In recent years, with emerging novel classes of programmable genetic parts, in particular, the establishment and optimization of CRISPR and CRISPRi technology platforms, synthetic biology is entering a new era. This review summarizes recent advances on CRISPR genome editing and gene regulation technologies, their applications in constructing programmable biological parts, and their roles in building sophisticated gene circuits...
March 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
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