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Emergence complexity theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071806/gps-perspectives-on-prescribing-for-older-people-in-primary-care-a-qualitative-study
#1
David O Riordan, Stephen Byrne, Aoife Fleming, Patricia M Kearney, Rose Galvin, Carol Sinnott
AIMS: The aim of this study was firstly to reveal the determinants of GP prescribing behaviour for older adults in primary care and secondly to elicit GPs' views on the potential role for broad intervention strategies involving pharmacists and/or information technology systems in general practice. METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with a purposive sample of GPs. Three multidisciplinary researchers independently coded the interview data using a framework approach...
January 10, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061794/process-evaluation-of-the-data-driven-quality-improvement-in-primary-care-dqip-trial-active-and-less-active-ingredients-of-a-multi-component-complex-intervention-to-reduce-high-risk-primary-care-prescribing
#2
Aileen Grant, Tobias Dreischulte, Bruce Guthrie
BACKGROUND: Two to 4% of emergency hospital admissions are caused by preventable adverse drug events. The estimated costs of such avoidable admissions in England were £530 million in 2015. The data-driven quality improvement in primary care (DQIP) intervention was designed to prompt review of patients vulnerable from currently prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and anti-platelets and was found to be effective at reducing this prescribing. A process evaluation was conducted parallel to the trial, and this paper reports the analysis which aimed to explore response to the intervention delivered to clusters in relation to participants' perceptions about which intervention elements were active in changing their practice...
January 7, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061781/exploring-the-implementation-of-an-electronic-record-into-a-maternity-unit-a-qualitative-study-using-normalisation-process-theory
#3
Arabella Scantlebury, Laura Sheard, Ian Watt, Paul Cairns, John Wright, Joy Adamson
BACKGROUND: To explore the benefits, barriers and disadvantages of implementing an electronic record system (ERS). The extent that the system has become 'normalised' into routine practice was also explored. METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 members of NHS staff who represented a variety of staff groups (doctors, midwives of different grades, health care assistants) and wards within a maternity unit at a NHS teaching hospital...
January 7, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048969/on-the-developmental-self-regulatory-dynamics-and-evolution-of-individuated-multicellular-organisms
#4
Felipe A Veloso
Changes in gene expression are thought to regulate the cell differentiation process intrinsically through complex epigenetic mechanisms. In fundamental terms, however, this assumed regulation refers only to the intricate propagation of changes in gene expression or else leads to non-explanatory regresses. The developmental self-regulatory dynamics and evolution of individuated multicellular organisms also lack a unified and falsifiable description. To fill this gap, I computationally analyzed publicly available high-throughput data of histone H3 post-translational modifications and mRNA abundance for different Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, and Drosophila melanogaster cell-type/developmental-period samples...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044014/a-roadmap-for-the-study-of-conscious-audition-and-its-neural-basis
#5
REVIEW
Andrew R Dykstra, Peter A Cariani, Alexander Gutschalk
How and which aspects of neural activity give rise to subjective perceptual experience-i.e. conscious perception-is a fundamental question of neuroscience. To date, the vast majority of work concerning this question has come from vision, raising the issue of generalizability of prominent resulting theories. However, recent work has begun to shed light on the neural processes subserving conscious perception in other modalities, particularly audition. Here, we outline a roadmap for the future study of conscious auditory perception and its neural basis, paying particular attention to how conscious perception emerges (and of which elements or groups of elements) in complex auditory scenes...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040473/electrochemical-reverse-engineering-a-systems-level-tool-to-probe-the-redox-based-molecular-communication-of-biology
#6
Jinyang Li, Yi Liu, Eunkyoung Kim, John C March, William E Bentley, Gregory F Payne
The intestine is the site of digestion and forms a critical interface between the host and the outside world. This interface is composed of host epithelium and a complex microbiota which is "connected" through an extensive web of chemical and biological interactions that determine the balance between health and disease for the host. This biology and the associated chemical dialogues occur within a context of a steep oxygen gradient that provides the driving force for a variety of reduction and oxidation (redox) reactions...
December 29, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039588/using-video-reflexive-ethnography-to-capture-the-complexity-of-leadership-enactment-in-the-healthcare-workplace
#7
Lisi Gordon, Charlotte Rees, Jean Ker, Jennifer Cleland
Current theoretical thinking asserts that leadership should be distributed across many levels of healthcare organisations to improve the patient experience and staff morale. However, much healthcare leadership education focusses on the training and competence of individuals and little attention is paid to the interprofessional workplace and how its inherent complexities might contribute to the emergence of leadership. Underpinned by complexity theory, this research aimed to explore how interprofessional healthcare teams enact leadership at a micro-level through influential acts of organising...
December 30, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038993/inflammaging-and-omics-in-human-longevity
#8
REVIEW
Daniela Monti, Rita Ostan, Vincenzo Borelli, Gastone Castellani, Claudio Franceschi
Inflammaging is a recent theory of aging originally proposed in 2000 where data and conceptualizations regarding the aging of the immune system (immunosenescence) and the evolution of immune responses from invertebrates to mammals converged. This theory has received an increasing number of citations and experimental confirmations. Here we present an updated version of inflammaging focused on omic data - particularly on glycomics - collected on centenarians, supercentenarians and their offspring. Accordingly, we arrived to the following conclusions: i) inflammaging has a structure where specific combinations of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators are involved; ii) inflammaging is systemic and more complex than we previously thought, as many organs, tissues and cell types participate in producing pro- and anti-inflammatory stimuli conceptualized as "molecular garbage"; iii) inflammaging is dynamic, can be propagated locally to neighboring cells and systemically from organ to organ by circulating products and microvesicles, and amplified by chronic age-related diseases constituting a "local fire" which in turn produces additional inflammatory stimuli and molecular garbage; iv) an integrated Systems Medicine approach is urgently needed to let emerge a robust and highly informative set/combination of omic markers able to better grasp the complex molecular core of inflammaging in elderly and centenarians...
December 27, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036207/new-solutions-for-non-abelian-cosmic-strings
#9
Mark Hindmarsh, Kari Rummukainen, David J Weir
We study the properties of classical vortex solutions in a non-Abelian gauge theory. A system of two adjoint Higgs fields breaks the SU(2) gauge symmetry to Z_{2}, producing 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles trapped on cosmic strings, termed beads; there are two charges of monopole and two degenerate string solutions. The strings break an accidental discrete Z_{2} symmetry of the theory, explaining the degeneracy of the ground state. Further symmetries of the model, not previously appreciated, emerge when the masses of the two adjoint Higgs fields are degenerate...
December 16, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032412/grip-on-health-a-complex-systems-approach-to-transform-health-care
#10
Herman A van Wietmarschen, Heleen M Wortelboer, Jan van der Greef
This article addresses the urgent need for a transition in health care to deal with the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases and associated rapid rise of health care costs. Chronic diseases evolve and are predominantly related to lifestyle and environment. A shift is needed from a reductionist repair mode of thinking, toward a more integrated biopsychosocial way of thinking about health. The aim of this article is to discuss the opportunities that complexity science offer for transforming health care toward optimal treatment and prevention of chronic lifestyle diseases...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028890/evolution-and-significance-of-the-triple-risk-model-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#11
REVIEW
Jade Spinelli, Lyndsey Collins-Praino, Corinna Van Den Heuvel, Roger W Byard
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a leading cause of death in infants, although the mechanisms leading to death remain unclear. Multiple theories have emerged over time, with one of the most influential hypotheses being the triple risk model. This model, first devised in 1972 and later revised in 1994 by Filiano and Kinney, is still widely used in assisting with conceptualising and understanding sudden death in infancy. This model has evolved over time, with each version stressing that SIDS is likely to occur when certain risk factors coincide, suggesting that the lethal mechanisms in SIDS are likely to be multifactorial...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024239/hospitals-as-complex-adaptive-systems-a-case-study-of-factors-influencing-priority-setting-practices-at-the-hospital-level-in-kenya
#12
Edwine W Barasa, Sassy Molyneux, Mike English, Susan Cleary
There is a dearth of literature on priority setting and resource allocation (PSRA) practices in hospitals, particularly in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Using a case study approach, we examined PSRA practices in 2 public hospitals in coastal Kenya. We collected data through a combination of in-depth interviews of national level policy makers, hospital managers, and frontline practitioners in the case study hospitals (n = 72), review of documents such as hospital plans and budgets, minutes of meetings and accounting records, and non-participant observations of PSRA practices in case study hospitals over a period of 7 months...
December 20, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013176/the-prevalence-of-synaesthesia-depends-on-early-language-learning
#13
Marcus R Watson, Jan Chromý, Lyle Crawford, David M Eagleman, James T Enns, Kathleen A Akins
According to one theory, synaesthesia develops, or is preserved, because it helps children learn. If so, it should be more common among adults who faced greater childhood learning challenges. In the largest survey of synaesthesia to date, the incidence of synaesthesia was compared among native speakers of languages with transparent (easier) and opaque (more difficult) orthographies. Contrary to our prediction, native speakers of Czech (transparent) were more likely to be synaesthetes than native speakers of English (opaque)...
December 22, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011335/using-simulation-to-improve-the-capability-of-undergraduate-nursing-students-in-mental-health-care
#14
Elicia L Kunst, Marion Mitchell, Amy N B Johnston
INTRODUCTION: Mental health care is an increasing component of acute patient care and yet mental health care education can be limited in undergraduate nursing programs. The aim of this study was to establish if simulation learning can be an effective method of improving undergraduate nurses' capability in mental health care in an acute care environment. INTERVENTION: Undergraduate nursing students at an Australian university were exposed to several high-fidelity high-technology simulation activities that incorporated elements of acute emergency nursing practice and acute mental health intervention, scaffolded by theories of learning...
December 18, 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010094/direct-observation-of-ring-opening-dynamics-in-strong-field-ionized-selenophene-using-femtosecond-inner-shell-absorption-spectroscopy
#15
Florian Lackner, Adam S Chatterley, C D Pemmaraju, Kristina D Closser, David Prendergast, Daniel M Neumark, Stephen R Leone, Oliver Gessner
Femtosecond extreme ultraviolet transient absorption spectroscopy is used to explore strong-field ionization induced dynamics in selenophene (C4H4Se). The dynamics are monitored in real-time from the viewpoint of the Se atom by recording the temporal evolution of element-specific spectral features near the Se 3d inner-shell absorption edge (∼58 eV). The interpretation of the experimental results is supported by first-principles time-dependent density functional theory calculations. The experiments simultaneously capture the instantaneous population of stable molecular ions, the emergence and decay of excited cation states, and the appearance of atomic fragments...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005160/a-contemporary-framework-of-language-processing-in-the-human-brain-in-the-context-of-preoperative-and-intraoperative-language-mapping
#16
Erik H Middlebrooks, Kaan Yagmurlu, Jerzey P Szaflarski, Maryam Rahman, Baran Bozkurt
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of advanced in vivo neuroimaging methods has redefined the understanding of brain function with a shift from traditional localizationist models to more complex and widely distributed neural networks. In human language processing, the traditional localizationist models of Wernicke and Broca have fallen out of favor for a dual-stream processing system involving complex networks organized over vast areas of the dominant hemisphere. The current review explores the cortical function and white matter connections of human language processing, as well as their relevance to surgical planning...
December 22, 2016: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000373/the-care-network-of-the-families-involved-in-family-violence-against-children-and-adolescents-the-primary-health-care-perspective
#17
Diene Monique Carlos, Elisabete Matallo Marchesini de Pádua, Lygia Maria Pereira da Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi Silva, Walter Ernesto Ude Marques, Maria Neto da Cruz Leitão, Maria das Graças Carvalho Ferriani
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Contribute to the understanding of the network care provided to families involved in family violence against children and adolescents (FVACA), from the Primary Health Care (PHC) perspective. BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents figure among the main victims of violence around the world, which occurs predominantly in the family context. PHC-guided network care has emerged as a new process that contrasts with traditional approaches, which rely on fragmented, punctual, and compensatory actions and produce simplified and segmented interventions in response to complex phenomena like violence...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993352/constructing-a-molecular-theory-of-self-assembly-interplay-of-ideas-from-surfactants-and-block-copolymers
#18
Ramanathan Nagarajan
Low molecular weight surfactants and high molecular weight block copolymers display analogous self-assembly behavior in solutions and at interfaces, generating nanoscale structures of different shapes. Understanding the link between the molecular structure of these amphiphiles and their self-assembly behavior has been the goal of theoretical studies. Despite the analogies between surfactants and block copolymers, models predicting their self-assembly behavior have evolved independent of one another, each overlooking the molecular feature considered critical to the other...
December 9, 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993336/toward-a-unified-treatment-for-emotional-disorders-republished-article
#19
David H Barlow, Laura B Allen, Molly L Choate
Over 40 years of development of cognitive behavioral approaches to treating anxiety and related emotional disorders have left us with highly efficacious treatments that are increasingly widely accepted. Nevertheless, these manualized protocols have become numerous and somewhat complex, restricting effective training and dissemination. Deepening understanding of the nature of emotional disorders reveals that commonalities in etiology and latent structure among these disorders supercedes differences. This suggests the possibility of distilling a set of psychological procedures that would comprise a unified intervention for emotional disorders...
November 2016: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993008/spinning-around-in-transition-metal-chemistry
#20
Marcel Swart, Maja Gruden
The great diversity and richness of transition metal chemistry, such as the features of an open d-shell, opened a way to numerous areas of scientific research and technological applications. Depending on the nature of the metal and its environment, there are often several energetically accessible spin states, and the progress in accurate theoretical treatment of this complicated phenomenon is presented in this Account. The spin state energetics of a transition metal complex can be predicted theoretically on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) or wave function based methodology, where DFT has advantages since it can be applied routinely to medium-to-large-sized molecules and spin-state consistent density functionals are now available...
December 20, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
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