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Emergence complexity theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227842/ideation-social-construction-and-drug-policy-a-scoping-review
#1
Vanessa Gstrein
Within drug policy scholarship there is a growing body of literature applying ideational and social constructionist approaches to address the complexity of drug policy making and the apparent failure of the evidence-based policy paradigm to free the process from controversy and contestation. Ideational approaches are concerned with the roles played by ideas and beliefs in policy making, while social construction explores the way policy problems are constructed, and agendas are set and delineated by dominant frames and narratives...
December 8, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225449/action-centered-contextual-bandits
#2
Kristjan Greenewald, Ambuj Tewari, Predrag Klasnja, Susan Murphy
Contextual bandits have become popular as they offer a middle ground between very simple approaches based on multi-armed bandits and very complex approaches using the full power of reinforcement learning. They have demonstrated success in web applications and have a rich body of associated theoretical guarantees. Linear models are well understood theoretically and preferred by practitioners because they are not only easily interpretable but also simple to implement and debug. Furthermore, if the linear model is true, we get very strong performance guarantees...
December 2017: Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223180/the-relationship-between-gait-dynamics-and-future-cognitive-decline-a-prospective-pilot-study-in-geriatric-patients
#3
Lisette H J Kikkert, Nicolas Vuillerme, Jos P van Campen, Bregje A Appels, Tibor Hortobágyi, Claudine J C Lamoth
BACKGROUND: Walking ability recently emerged as a sub-clinical marker of cognitive decline. Hence, the relationship between baseline gait and future cognitive decline was examined in geriatric patients. Because a "loss of complexity" (LOC) is a key phenomenon of the aging process that exhibits in multiple systems, we propose the idea that age- and cognition-related LOC may also become manifested in gait function. The LOC theory suggests that even healthy aging is associated with a (neuro)physiological breakdown of system elements that causes a decline in variability and an overall LOC...
December 10, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214982/perspectives-on-theory-at-the-interface-of-physics-and-biology
#4
William Bialek
Theoretical physics is the search for simple and universal mathematical descriptions of the natural world. In contrast, much of modern biology is an exploration of the complexity and diversity of life. For many, this contrast is prima facie evidence that theory, in the sense that physicists use the word, is impossible in a biological context. For others, this contrast serves to highlight a grand challenge. I am an optimist, and believe (along with many colleagues) that the time is ripe for the emergence of a more unified theoretical physics of biological systems, building on successes in thinking about particular phenomena...
December 7, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210171/a-realist-review-of-one-to-one-breastfeeding-peer-support-experiments-conducted-in-developed-country-settings
#5
REVIEW
Heather Trickey, Gill Thomson, Aimee Grant, Julia Sanders, Mala Mann, Simon Murphy, Shantini Paranjothy
The World Health Organisation guidance recommends breastfeeding peer support (BFPS) as part of a strategy to improve breastfeeding rates. In the UK, BFPS is supported by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance and a variety of models are in use. The experimental evidence for BFPS in developed countries is mixed and traditional methods of systematic review are ill-equipped to explore heterogeneity, complexity, and context influences on effectiveness. This review aimed to enhance learning from the experimental evidence base for one-to-one BFPS intervention...
December 6, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203722/what-do-polymorphisms-tell-us-about-the-mechanisms-of-copd
#6
REVIEW
Yan Li, Michael H Cho, Xiaobo Zhou
COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is characterized by irreversible lung airflow obstruction. Cigarette smoke is the major risk factor for COPD development. However, only a minority number of smokers develop COPD, and there are substantial variations in lung function among smokers, suggesting that genetic determinants in COPD susceptibility. During the past decade, genome-wide association studies and exome sequencing have been instrumental to identify the genetic determinants of complex traits, including COPD...
December 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189724/effects-of-trimetaphosphate-on-abiotic-formation-and-hydrolysis-of-peptides
#7
Izabela K Sibilska, Bingming Chen, Lingjun Li, John Yin
The primordial Earth probably had most of the factors needed for the emergence and development of life. It is believed that it had not only water, but also simple inorganic and organic materials. While studies since the 1950s on the origins of organic matter have established key roles for amino acids, conditions that would have promoted their condensation to make polymers, such as peptides or proteins, have yet to be fully defined. The condensation of amino acids in a water-rich environment is not thermodynamically favored...
November 30, 2017: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189494/rethinking-remediation-a-model-to-support-the-detailed-diagnosis-of-clinicians-performance-problems-and-the-development-of-effective-remediation-plans
#8
Linda Prescott-Clements, Vicky Voller, Mark Bell, Natasha Nestors, Cees P M van der Vleuten
The successful remediation of clinicians demonstrating poor performance in the workplace is essential to ensure the provision of safe patient care. Clinicians may develop performance problems for numerous reasons, including health, personal factors, the workplace environment, or outdated knowledge/skills. Performance problems are often complex involving multifactorial issues, encompassing knowledge, skills, and professional behaviors. It is important that (where possible and appropriate) clinicians are supported through effective remediation to return them to safe clinical practice...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187640/generative-models-for-network-neuroscience-prospects-and-promise
#9
REVIEW
Richard F Betzel, Danielle S Bassett
Network neuroscience is the emerging discipline concerned with investigating the complex patterns of interconnections found in neural systems, and identifying principles with which to understand them. Within this discipline, one particularly powerful approach is network generative modelling, in which wiring rules are algorithmically implemented to produce synthetic network architectures with the same properties as observed in empirical network data. Successful models can highlight the principles by which a network is organized and potentially uncover the mechanisms by which it grows and develops...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182202/-the-educational-context-to-train-health-care-professionals-a-qualitative-approach
#10
Olga Matus B, Javiera Ortega B, Paula Parra P, Liliana Ortiz M, Carolina Márquez U, Melita Stotz R, Eduardo Fasce H
BACKGROUND: There are differences in the educational context in Health Sciences, between clinical and non-clinical teachers. Therefore, the didactic and reflexive peculiarities of both educational scenarios should be analyzed. AIM: To describe the conditions of the educational context in Health Sciences for the practice of the teaching role in a Chilean university. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Qualitative study, performed according to Grounded Theory of Strauss and Corbin...
July 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172815/-modelling-a-secure-base-for-women-with-complex-needs-attachment-based-interventions-used-by-perinatal-and-infant-mental-health-clinicians
#11
Karen A Myors, Michelle Cleary, Maree Johnson, Virginia Schmied
Infant well-being is intrinsically linked to maternal physical and emotional well-being. Internationally health services have implemented policies to identify women at risk of mental health problems and developed effective care pathways. The aim of this paper is to describe how perinatal and infant mental health clinicians perceive their role and the attachment-based interventions they use in their work. The study comes from a larger mixed methods study, which examined two specialist perinatal and infant mental health services in New South Wales (Australia)...
November 27, 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168623/factors-shaping-life-history-traits-of-two-proovigenic-parasitoids
#12
Michal Segoli, Shucun Sun, Dori E Nava, Jay A Rosenheim
What shapes the relative investment in reproduction vs. survival of organisms is one of the key questions in life history. Proovigenic insects mature all their eggs prior to emergence and are short lived, providing a unique opportunity to quantify their lifetime investments in the different functions. We investigated the initial eggloads and longevity of two proovigenic parasitoid wasps (Anagrus erythroneurae and Anagrus daanei, (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) that develop within leafhopper eggs in both agricultural vineyards and natural riparian habitats in Northern California...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152819/the-application-of-systems-thinking-concepts-methods-and-tools-to-global-health-practices-an-analysis-of-case-studies
#13
Jessica Wilkinson, Morgan Goff, Evan Rusoja, Carl Hanson, Robert Chad Swanson
OBJECTIVES: This review of systems thinking (ST) case studies seeks to compile and analyse cases from ST literature and provide practitioners with a reference for ST in health practice. Particular attention was given to (1) reviewing the frequency and use of key ST terms, methods, and tools in the context of health, and (2) extracting and analysing longitudinal themes across cases. METHODS: A systematic search of databases was conducted, and a total of 36 case studies were identified...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151864/dissecting-functional-components-of-reproductive-isolation-among-closely-related-sympatric-species-of-the-anopheles-gambiae-complex
#14
Marco Pombi, Pierre Kengne, Geoffrey Gimonneau, Billy Tene-Fossog, Diego Ayala, Colince Kamdem, Federica Santolamazza, Wamdaogo Moussa Guelbeogo, N'Falé Sagnon, Vincenzo Petrarca, Didier Fontenille, Nora J Besansky, Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio, Roch Kounbobr Dabiré, Alessandra Della Torre, Frédéric Simard, Carlo Costantini
Explaining how and why reproductive isolation evolves and determining which forms of reproductive isolation have the largest impact on the process of population divergence are major goals in the study of speciation. By studying recent adaptive radiations in incompletely isolated taxa, it is possible to identify barriers involved at early divergence before other confounding barriers emerge after speciation is complete. Sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae complex offer opportunities to provide insights into speciation mechanisms...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145728/understanding-how-emergency-medicine-physicians-survive-and-thrive-in-rural-practice-a-theoretical-model
#15
Ashra Kolhatkar, Andrea Keesey, Bob Bluman, Brenna Lynn, Tandi Wilkinson
INTRODUCTION: The challenges facing emergency medicine (EM) services in Canada reflect the limitations of the entire healthcare system. The emergency department (ED) is uniquely situated in the healthcare system such that shortcomings in hospital- and community-based services are often first revealed there. This is especially true in rural settings, where there are additional site-specific barriers to the provision of EM care. Existing studies look at the factors that influence rural EM physicians in isolation...
November 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142759/forced-migrants-involved-in-setting-the-agenda-and-designing-research-to-reduce-impacts-of-complex-emergencies-combining-swarm-with-patient-and-public-involvement
#16
Julii Suzanne Brainard, Enana Al Assaf, Judith Omasete, Steve Leach, Charlotte C Hammer, Paul R Hunter
Plain English summary: The UK's National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Protection Research Unit in Emergency Preparedness and Response was asked to undertake research on how to reduce the impact of complex national/international emergencies on public health. How to focus the research and decide on priority topics was challenging, given the nature of complex events. Using a type of structured brain-storming, the researchers identified the ongoing UK, European and international migration crisis as both complex and worthy of deeper research...
2017: Research Involvement and Engagement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142262/observation-of-replica-symmetry-breaking-in-disordered-nonlinear-wave-propagation
#17
Davide Pierangeli, Andrea Tavani, Fabrizio Di Mei, Aharon J Agranat, Claudio Conti, Eugenio DelRe
A landmark of statistical mechanics, spin-glass theory describes critical phenomena in disordered systems that range from condensed matter to biophysics and social dynamics. The most fascinating concept is the breaking of replica symmetry: identical copies of the randomly interacting system that manifest completely different dynamics. Replica symmetry breaking has been predicted in nonlinear wave propagation, including Bose-Einstein condensates and optics, but it has never been observed. Here, we report the experimental evidence of replica symmetry breaking in optical wave propagation, a phenomenon that emerges from the interplay of disorder and nonlinearity...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133906/quantification-of-flexoelectricity-in-pbtio3-srtio3-superlattice-polar-vortices-using-machine-learning-and-phase-field-modeling
#18
Q Li, C T Nelson, S-L Hsu, A R Damodaran, L-L Li, A K Yadav, M McCarter, L W Martin, R Ramesh, S V Kalinin
Flexoelectricity refers to electric polarization generated by heterogeneous mechanical strains, namely strain gradients, in materials of arbitrary crystal symmetries. Despite more than 50 years of work on this effect, an accurate identification of its coupling strength remains an experimental challenge for most materials, which impedes its wide recognition. Here, we show the presence of flexoelectricity in the recently discovered polar vortices in PbTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices based on a combination of machine-learning analysis of the atomic-scale electron microscopy imaging data and phenomenological phase-field modeling...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133447/subsumed-complexity-abiogenesis-as-a-by-product-of-complex-energy-transduction
#19
Z R Adam, D Zubarev, M Aono, H James Cleaves
The origins of life bring into stark relief the inadequacy of our current synthesis of thermodynamic, chemical, physical and information theory to predict the conditions under which complex, living states of organic matter can arise. Origins research has traditionally proceeded under an array of implicit or explicit guiding principles in lieu of a universal formalism for abiogenesis. Within the framework of a new guiding principle for prebiotic chemistry called subsumed complexity, organic compounds are viewed as by-products of energy transduction phenomena at different scales (subatomic, atomic, molecular and polymeric) that retain energy in the form of bonds that inhibit energy from reaching the ground state...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132332/first-and-second-year-medical-students-identify-and-self-stereotype-more-as-doctors-than-as-students-a-questionnaire-study
#20
Bryan Burford, Harriet E S Rosenthal-Stott
BACKGROUND: The emergence of medical students' professional identity is important. This paper considers this in a snapshot of the early years of undergraduate medical education. From the perspective of social identity theory, it also considers self-stereotyping, the extent to which individuals associate with attributes identified as typical of groups. METHOD: Paper questionnaires were completed by first and second year medical students following teaching sessions at the beginning (October) and end (April) of the academic year...
November 13, 2017: BMC Medical Education
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